1. Innovation Systems: Towards Effective Strategies in support of Smallholder Farmers

    This publication provides a collection of papers, commentaries, expert opinions and reflections on state-of-the-art innovation systems thinking and approaches in agriculture. It is the direct output of a CTA and WUR/CoS-SIS collaboration which had its genesis in an expert consultation on ‘Innovation Systems: Towards Effective Strategies in support of Smallholder Farmers’. Practitioners and scholars involved in academic, research, training and development programmes came together to map the diversities and commonalities in applying the concept in agriculture and chart the way forward for informing policy and practice.

  2. Strengthening Community Resilience to Change: Combining Local Innovative Capacities with Scientific Research (CLIC–SR) - Final narrative report covering the period January–August 2016 with summary analysis of project achievements 2012–2016

    The CLIC–SR project started on 1 September 2012, ended on 31 August 2016, and was implemented in four countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. This report covers the work done in the final project period: January–August 2016. The report adds a chapter that reviews the achievements of the project over the full project cycle. The report from an independent external evaluation was a major source of information for this final chapter. 

  3. Making Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) Work for Development in Tropical Countries

    Agricultural innovation in low-income tropical countries contributes to a more effective and sustainable use of natural resources and reduces hunger and poverty through economic development in rural areas. Yet, despite numerous recent public and private initiatives to develop capacities for agricultural innovation, such initiatives are often not well aligned with national efforts to revive existing Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS). In an effort to improve coordination and responsiveness of Capacity Development (CD) initiatives, the G20 Agriculture Ministers requested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to lead the development of a Tropical Agricultural Platform (TAP), which is designed to improve coherence and coordination of CD for agricultural innovation in the tropics. This paper presents a summary of the results obtained from three regional needs assessments undertaken by TAP and its partners. The findings reveal a mismatch in all three regions between the external supply of primarily individual CD and the actual demand for institutional CD. The misalignment might be addressed by strengthening south-south and triangular collaboration and by improving the institutional capacities that would render national AIS more demand-oriented and responsive to the needs of smallholders in domestic agriculture.

  4. Deliverable 3.1 - Set of 30 Regional Reports with the Results of the Validated In-Depth Analysis of Regional Food Systems and the Contribution of Small Farms and Related Small Food Businesses to FNS

    This document presents the set of thirty Food System Regional Reports developed within WP3 of the SALSA project. This is the first out of the three deliverables planned for this WP.

    The Food System Regional reports provide an overview of the regional food systems and the role of small farms within them. They synthesise findings about the production, trade, and consumption of key products, and present a summary of surveys with small farm and small business owners. The data used in these reports was gathered in four major steps: Step 1 provided the first overview of the regional food system and involved the selection of key products for further analysis; it was based on available statistical information and key informat interviews (KIIs) in each region. Step 2 provided direct information on small farms and small food businesses from interviews to small farm and small food business owners. In step 3 the food system maps were further validated and refined using inputs from focus group discussions. Finally, in step 4 the draft regional reports were prepared, peer-reviewed, and revised.

    Each Food System Regional reports has eight sections: 1) a socio-economic and agricultural profile of the reference region; 2) a presentation of the key products and regional food balance sheet 3) food system maps for each key product, showing the main actors and flows within the system, and identifying the role of small farms and small food businesses; 4) a typology of small farms in the reference region 5) a discussion on governance reflecting on the wider mechanisms that shape the practices within the reference regions; 6) a description of small farms and their particular livelihoods; 7) presents a discussion on the role of Small Food Businesses within the food system; and 8) an analysis on the future of small farms and small food business.

    The results presented in this deliverable 3.1. will be used to complete deliverables 3.2. and 3.3 of WP3, but they will also feed the analysis made in WP4, 5 and 6.

  5. Deliverable 7.2 - Final Living Document

    The aim of the SALSA 'Living Document' is to document the main outcomes that have emerged throughout the four years of the SALSA research project and to associate them with key messages.

    Originally, the idea was to "open" the Living Document for a limited amount of time after one of the identified key deliverables had been finalised. This in order to allow SALSA partners and the Expert Stakeholder Panel (ESP) to provide insights and perspectives and thereby learn from each other.

    The elaboration of the Living Document follows the research progress assimilating the lessons learned from the various Work Packages. The document represents a mechanism for consolidation of key results, ultimately feeding into the final report.

  6. Deliverable 6.3 - Policy Brief with Policy Lessons and Recommendations that are Relevant for EU Policy Development as well as the EU Strategy for International Cooperation in Research & Innovation, Paying Particular Attention to the Europe-Africa Dialogue

    SALSA Deliverable 6.3 is described in the project Description of Action (DoA) as a single Policy Brief but has been delivered as a set of five documents. These consist of:

    • A general policy brief providing an overview of the SALSA project and its results. This document is intended to accompany the other four policy briefs;
    • Three macro-regional Policy Briefs with WP6 policy recommendations tailored to the specificities of small farms in Eastern, Southern and Northern Europe, and;
    • One macro-regional Policy Brief addressing the policy-related lessons learnt from implementing WP6 in the African context.
  7. Deliverable 6.2 - Strategic Framework for Guiding Decision-Makers in the Choice of Appropriate Support Instruments (Including the Relevant Evaluation and Learning Arrangements)

    The current deliverable (D6.2) is divided into two parts each corresponding to one of its two main audiences, namely:

    • Academics who might be interested in understanding methodological issues regarding the development process of SALSA's Strategic Framework (Part 1), and;
    • Policy makers and practitioners who seek to use SALSA's Strategic Framework for decision making (Part 2).

    Part 1  – Scientific Methodology

    The aim of D6.2 is to provide policy makers with a strategic framework for guiding their decisions regarding the choice of appropriate support instruments (see Section 1). The SALSA Strategic Framework is based on a synthesis of the following data: (1) SALSA project outputs (WP1-WP6); (2) SALSA participatory processes with policy stakeholders and SALSA experts (concluded in D6.1 on enabling conditions for small farms and other SALSA expert sessions); and (3) Secondary sources stemming from both academic and practitioners' literature, which were used to triangulate findings (see Section 2). The Discussion and Conclusions chapter (see Section 3) provides answers to the three research questions of the deliverable.

    Part 2  – SALSA Strategic Framework

    The resulting SALSA Strategic Framework is also composed of three parts:

    1. General recommendations for diverse entities/ organizations working at various scales (EU/AU, National, Regional, Local);
    2. Territorially Tailored Food System Policies, and;
    3. Two Policy Tools, corresponding to the European Union and African contexts. The Strategic Framework and its specific components are explained in detail in Section 4.1.
  8. Deliverable 6.1 - Preliminary Assessment of the Needs of Small Farms and the Enabling Conditions and Policy Instruments Required for Maintaining / Enhancing their Contribution to Sustainable FNS

    In the context of the SALSA project, the overall aim of WP6 is to identify, develop and disseminate policy tools and other support mechanisms that are most appropriate for maintaining and enhancing the contribution of small farms to sustainable FNS in the European and African context (SALSA Objective 4).

    The current deliverable (D6.1) is divided into two parts, each corresponding to one of its two main audiences, namely:

    • Policy makers and practioners who seek to understand the priority needs of small farms in each of SALSA's four macro-regions should consult Part 2
    • Academics who might be interested in understanding methodological issues regarding the development process of SALSA's Strategic Framework (Part 1).

    Part 1  – Scientific Methodology

    The current document D6.1 offers a synthesis and discussion of priority small farm needs for enabling conditions in each of SALSA's four macro-regions (Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, Nothern Europe and SALSA's African countries). The needs identified in D6.1 form the basis of policy recommendations in Deliverable 6.2 detailing the SALSA Strategic Framework.

    Part 2  – SALSA Strategic Framework

    Part 2 of the current deliverable serves as a macro-regionally based prioritization of small farmer needs and enabling conditions. Their purpose is to inform policy makers in prioritizing interventions according to the real needs of small farms in the selected territories.

  9. Deliverable 5.3 - Practice Brief: Forms of Small Farms and Small Food Businesses Contributing to Food Availability, Access, Utilisation, and Stability

    Deliverable 5.3 is based on an internal report produced under Task 5.3 'Enabling governance frameworks' (UPV team), and Task 5.4 'Governance Framework analysis'. Task 5.3 provided further analysis of 3 governance forms that were identified in Deliverable 5.1. (The Governance of Small Farms and Small Food Businesses to support food and nutritional security) as most enabling small farms and small food business to contribute to food and nutrition security. These were: 1. Cooperative arrangements and associations; 2. State subsidies and financial assistance; and, 3. Climate adaptation frameworks.

    As part of the analysis carried out in T5.3, researchers investigated evidence of these three governance forms in the Regional Reports on Foresight Analysis produced in Work Package 4., which had not been produced at the time of the D.5.1 delivery. They also revisited the Regional Workshop Reports produced in Work Package 3. to conduct further analysis of the three governance forms to identify a) additional information, and b) actions, practices, and models already evident in the three domains of governance.

    Given the research findings of D.5.1., and the focus of T5.3 on '(a) collective action and availability (technological change, sustainable intensification and natural resources sustainable management); (b) collective action and access (self-provisioning and mutual food support, particularly in remote rural' areas) it made sense that T5.4 and D5.3 would follow from these findings to produce a practice brief that gave an overview of: 1. The 3 most enabling governance forms identified in D.5.1 and further analysed in T5.3 and 5.4; 2. Specific practices that were identified as successful under the three domains of governance; and, 3. Specific actions identified as needed to support the 3 domains of governance. This minor deviation from the relevant Tasks and Deliverable, as outlined in the Grant Agreement, was agreed with the project leader ahead of time.

  10. Deliverable 5.2 - Report on Governance Frameworks and Gender

    This report represents findings on the role of women in small-scale farming (defined as farms up to 5 ha or 8 ESU), particularly in relation to governance frameworks associated with food and nutrition security. It follows SALSA Deliverable 5.1, which assesses the governance arrangements which impact upon small-scale farms and small food businesses. Both reports utilise the data collected in SALSA WP3 (In-depth assessment of food systems in 30 regions). A further deliverable is forthcoming on the particular types of small-scale farming which contribute to food and nutrition security (SALSA D5.3).

    The aim of WP5 is to answer the question: What governs Small Farm and Small Food Business activities? The specific aim of this report (and the related task 5.2) is to consider the way in which institutional arrangements condition the access of women to assets (e.g. land, capital), services and markets, as well as the role of women in small farmers' organisations. Women in small-food businesses are not addressed in this deliverable.

  11. Deliverable 5.1 - The Governance of Small Farms and Small Food Businesses to Support Food and Nutritional Security

    The aim of WP5 is to answer the question: What governs Small Farm and Small Food Business activities? The specific aim of this report (and the related task 5.1) is to identify and assess the forms of governance that influence, both positively and negatively, the contribution of small farms and small food businesses (SF/SFB) to Sustainable Food and Nutritional Security (FNS). In doing so, the work proceeds around the following objectives:

    • To analyse data from 20 European and African Reference Regions to identify the state, market, and social/civil arrangements that influence SF/SFBs
    • To classify these arrangements in terms of their form, function, the food system activity they govern and the key actors and distribution of power within these governance arrangements
    • To assess the current impact of the identified governance mechanisms on SF/SFBs and on their ability to contribute to FNS at both regional and household scales
  12. Deliverable 4.3 - Roadmap for Participatory Foresight Assessments at Regional Level in Contrasting Regional Contexts Across Europe and Africa

    This final Deliverable of SALSA's WP4 'Participatory foresight analysis' aims to make a reflection precisely about the participatory character of the activities undertaken and the outcomes obtained in this WP. Namely, the objective of this deliverable is twofold: (i) to assess the engagement of stakeholders in these participatory scenario planning activities, and (ii) to discuss the legitimacy of the scenario planning method adopted in this research. In total, the regional foresight workshops held as part of this WP involved 243 participants, with women representing 42%. These workshops were facilitated by 67 researchers linked to SALSA, of which 35 were women. Overall, more than 300 persons have been directly involved in these science-policy-society foresight activities.

    The analysis is based on the 13 regional reports elaborated by the research teams and the close follow-up carried out by the coordinating team in the process of refinement and adaptation of the common protocol to the regional circumstances. The analysis of stakeholder interaction draws upon the practical framework proposed by Schonoover et al. (2019) who identify three key elements of stakeholder interaction: creating space, aligning motivations and building trust. We also draw upon the approach of Duckett el al. (2017) to consider the legitimacy of our participatory scenario planning analysis.

  13. Deliverable 4.2 - Synthesis Report on the Future Potential Role of Small Farms in FNS in Europe and Africa in 2030 and 2050: Results of a Foresight Assessment

    The present document is the second deliverable from SALSA's Work Package 4. It contains the comparative analysis carried out from the 13 regional reports (collected in D4.1) that were gathered from the outcomes of the participatory foresight workshop conducted in 13 different regions in Europe and Africa.

    One of the main results is the identification of key outcomes to be achieved in order to enhance the potential contribution of small farms (SF) and small food businesses (SFB) to regional food and nutrition security (FNS). These outcomes can be grouped as follows: (1) SF and SFB have knowledge and access to inputs, technology and innovations; (2) SF and SFB have access to value-addition processes; (3) SF and SFB produce a significant share of the regional food supply and are well connected to diverse markets; (4) consumers are aware and value regional SF products; (5) SF and SFB are empowered (politically, economically and socially) and receive financial and technical support from the public sector, and (6) SF and SFB contribute to environmental protection and climate change adaptation through sustainable production, diversification and preservation of genetic heritage. A second finding stems from the assessment of the role of SF and SFB in regional food systems under alternative future scenarios, defined by a diversity of drivers that shape more enabling or constraining settings for these holdings.

    Finally, after the assessment of the action plans that were developed to achieve the previously identified objectives, this deliverable summarises a number of key messages: (i) Local and regional administrations have in their hands tools to facilitate the integration of local SF and SFB into regional and local markets by means of a diversity of public-private partnerships; (ii) De-bureaucratisation and the simplification and tailoring of administrative requirements are essential to eliminate barriers that are preventing SF and SFB to access markets, public support and business opportunities; (iii) Agricultural cooperatives should professionalise and reinforce their capacity to respond to changing market demands, as well as provide advice and training to SF, and (iv) SF and SFB should explore diverse forms of collective action and networking along the food value chain to strengthen their position, defend their interests and promote –in cooperation with public administrations- locally SF/SFB sourced food.

  14. Deliverable 4.1 - Regional Reports on the Future Potential Role of Small Farms and Small Food Businesses in Food and Nutrition Security

    The present document is the first deliverable from SALSA's Work Package 4 which includes, after an introductory section that explains the methodological approach and the workshops' preparatory process, a compilation of 11 reports from each region where the foresight analysis was undertaken. Each regional report contains the main outcomes from these foresight activities on the future potential role of small farms and small food businesses in food and nutrition security.

    The objectives of WP4 (Participatory foresight analysis) are: (i) to produce a foresight assessment (2030, 2050) in selected reference regions of what the significance and potential role of small farms might be in terms of future regional food production and supply, and the linkages to food consumption, (ii) to identify the preconditions for an increased role of small farms and small food businesses in regional FNS and (iii) to analyse the potential role of the resilience of small farms and small food businesses in different types of regions in Europe and Africa, and in the face of shocks and forseen climate changes.

    For this purpose, regional foresight workshops were organised in 11 countries, covering a wide diversity of geographical and structural settings. These workshops consisted on scenario-based participatory planning that combined: the development of regional adapted scenario narratives from a common scenario framework, the identification of concrete objectives from visioning exercises and the creation of action plans to achieve those objectives.

    In the next stages of the project, the regional reports included in this Deliverable 4.1 will be the object of a comparative analysis to produce a synthesis report (Deliverable 4.2). Moreover, the participatory foresight processes that have taken place regionally will be jointly assessed to evaluate the achievements and shortcomings of this stakeholder interaction. This assessment will be included in the Deliverable 4.3.

  15. Deliverable 2.4 - Report on the Assessment and Characterization of Small Farms Distribution and Spatial Characteristics obtained from SENTINEL-2 Data

    This deliverable is a report of the work done in the framework of the Small Farms, Small Food Business and Sustainable Food Security (SALSA) project in task 2.3 of Work Package (WP2) as defined in the description of work (DOW) of the SALSA project. The title of the task according to the DOW is Task 2.3 - Small farms characterization in the reference regions. The main outcomes of this task are: a) a characterization of the reference regions with respect to the distribution of small farms, crop types and production potential; and b) an assessment of the effectiveness of using Sentinel-2 data for assessing and monitoring small farms in Europe and Africa with validated methodological guidelines.

    According to what is forseen for the Deliverable D.2.4, only the results about crop types and production potential, as well as the assessment of the effectiveness of Sentinel-2 are presented in this report, being the main methodological guidelines for the use of Sentinel-2 data reported on the Deliverable D.2.3. It is important to note that results on the spatial distribution of small farms, which was produced under the task 2.3 (outcome a), was already presented in the Deliverable D.2.2 (Submitted in September, 2017).

  16. Small farms, small food businesses and sustainable food security (SALSA) Project Summary Booklet

    The EU-funded Horizon 2020 “Small Farms, Small Food Businesses and Sustainable Food Security” (SALSA) project has brought together 16 partners, from European and African countries and the UN system, who have a unique blend of multidisciplinary expertise and experience from a wide range of geographical and socio-political realities. 
    SALSA has aimed to provide a better understanding of the current and potential contribution of small farms and food businesses to sustainable Food and Nutrition Security (FNS).
    The project is supported by a high-profile international Expert Stakeholder Panel (ESP), whose members include experts and key stakeholders in the area of small farms and food and nutrition security.

    This document serves to summarise the main results of the SALSA project.

  17. Small farms, small food businesses and sustainable food security (SALSA) Policy Brief: Lessons from Africa

    The main challenge for African food systems in the future will be to provide food for a rapidly growing population with changing diets and food preferences. Whilst the population of Europe is decreasing, with consumers demanding food that is produced in an environmentally and socially responsible way, Africa’s population will more than double between 2020 and 2050, with food demand increasing even more as a result of dietary changes. 

  18. Small farms, small food businesses and sustainable food security (SALSA) Policy Brief - Overview

    The important role that small farms play in supporting rural livelihoods, conserving biodiversity and maintaining traditional landscapes, rural traditions and cultural heritage is widely accepted. Nevertheless, they are often under the radar of the agriculture policy mechanisms, which tend to focus on the very large farms and globally driven food chains.
    The EU-funded SALSA project set out to examine a potentially important role of small farms – their contribution to food security. SALSA recognises the tremendous diversity of small farms and food systems in Europe and Africa, and pays particular attention to their vulnerability and resilience. Aiming to provide effective tools to guide decision-makers, SALSA uses a food systems perspective to go beyond production capacity and look at food security in terms food availability, access and control, utilisation, and stability.
    Research was conducted in 30 regions (NUTS3 level) of 19 countries in Europe and Africa. The number of small farms varies from country to country, but in all the analysed regions, they were found to be strategic players in their regional food systems.

  19. Key achievements towards strengthening national agricultural innovation systems - Collection of posters from the TAP-AIS project

    This collection of posters from the TAP-AIS project illustrates key achievements of the project towards strengthening national agricultural innovation systems (AIS) in Africa (Burkina Faso, Eritrea, Malawi, Rwanda, Senegal), Latin America (Colombia), Asia and the Pacific (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Pakistan). For each of these nine countries, and for their respective regions, the posters provide: i) thematic focus and context; ii) constraints in the AIS; iii) capacity development interventions; iv) outcomes; v) the way forward. The posters have been developed in occasion of the 10th Partner Assembly of the Tropical Agriculture Platform, held in November 2023. 


    About the project: TAP-AIS (short name for "Developing capacities in agricultural innovation systems: scaling up the Tropical Agriculture Platform Framework") is a project funded by the European Union and implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The project supports the Tropical Agriculture Platform (TAP) to strengthen capacities to innovate in national agricultural innovation systems in the context of climate-relevant, productive, and sustainable transformation of agriculture and food systems in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Pacific. For more information, visit:

  20. Feasibility study for application of digital technologies for improved traceability and transparency along the agrifood value chains — Case studies in the Near East and North Africa Region

    Agrifood value chains of small and medium-sized producers in the Near East and North Africa region have the potential to generate more value through improved access to high-value markets. Limited logistics capacity in the region, coupled with lack of access to continuous cold chain, has resulted in weak supply chain management, high level of food loss, lack of compliance with food quality and safety standards; information asymmetries; and unfair value distribution, affecting income and livelihood of small and medium-sized producers. Improving traceability and transparency along the agrifood value chains can help building consumers' trust by better tracking the origin of food, identifying, detecting and mitigating the impact of food safety and quality issues in a timely manner and enhancing price visibility and information sharing on value distribution in each stage of the value chain.

    Digital technologies can play an important role in enhancing traceability and transparency by ensuring the collection of comprehensive, consistent and reliable data along the supply chain, real-time tracking, easy aggregation, integration, analysis and sharing of data. Despite the recognition of game changing potential, few studies have analysed the feasibility of application of these technologies to improve traceability and transparency of value chains, from farm-gate to market, in the region. To fill this gap in knowledge, this study was conducted to understand the digital landscape in the region, examine barriers and incentives for uptake of these technologies and to propose solutions that can improve the adoption rate and sustainability of digital technologies for small and medium-sized producers.

  21. An assessment of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) in low- and lower-middle income countries in Asia and Africa, and its potential contribution to sustainable development

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) is the production of plants, fish, insects, or animals inside structures such as greenhouses, vertical farms, and growth chambers, in which environmental parameters such as humidity, light, temperature and CO2 can be controlled to create optimal growing conditions.

    To date, the majority of high-tech CEA installations are concentrated in high-income, industrialized countries, and the term is often associated with fully automated vertical farms in purpose-built buildings or repurposed spaces, such as disused warehouses, underground bomb shelters, office walls and basements, and even barges. Some forms of CEA are, nonetheless, being successfully taken up by entrepreneurs and established farmers in low- and lower-middle income countries, including in Africa and Asia. While the CEA techniques used in these contexts may not be so technologically advances, they show promise for their contribution to sustainable agricultural intensification (SAI).

    Present trends of agriculture intensification run counter to the Sustainable Development Agenda (UN, 2015). They seek to meet the food and nutrition needs of a rapidly growing and urbanizing global population by expanding areas under cultivation, and through increased use of chemical fertilizers, weed killers and pesticides that natural resources under tremendous pressure, cause biodiversity loss, degrade water catchments and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, a major driver of climate change (IPCC, 2019).

    SAI, on the other hand, is based on methods that are productive, energy-efficient, less-resource intensive, and robust to the effects of natural hazards, pest and diseases. These methods, and the policies, institutions and financial instruments they require, must be geared towards addressing the poverty and inequality that are associated with intractable food insecurity and malnutrition, particularly in low- and lower-middle income countries.

    For CEA to make a meaningful contribution to SAI in low- and lower-middle income countries, there is a need for investment in research, capacity development, enterprise initiation, scaling, and creation of enabling environments (through policies at national and sub-national levels). To attract investment and justify policy change, more information is needed on the potential contribution of CEA to sustainable development, and where, how, by whom, and for whom various technologies might be best deployed.

    The purpose of this report is:

    • to identify which CEA technologies merit investment, and under which conditions, to advance SAI in Africa and Asia;

    • to make recommendations concerning investment in CEA technologies.

    To do this, we conducted a study on the current practice and future potential of CEA in low- and lower- middle income country contexts, consisting of a literature review, document analysis, and in-depth interviews with 12 CEA practitioners in four countries: Kenya, Nigeria, India, and Sri Lanka.

  22. SALSA Fact Sheet Collection: Findings from 30 reference regions in Europe and Africa

    This document collects a series of fact sheets realized under the EU-funded SALSA project, which is aimed to understand how small farms and food businesses contribute to sustainable food and nutrition security (FNS).

    The research findings in the fact sheets concern 30 reference regions from countries in Europe and Africa. For each region, we present:

    ● The regional indicators on the concentration and spatial distribution of small farms (SF), obtained also with support of the Sentinel-2 satellite data

    ● The results of the analysis of the SF contribution to the regional food availability, based on the preliminary identification of key products

    ● The five types of SF, highlighting the most present ones in the region

    ● The perspectives of the SF into the future, based on the interviews with small farmers conducted in the region

    ● The governance arrangements that enable and disable the ability of SF to contribute to the regional FNS.

    The fact sheets have been officially presented and discussed in 2019 during policy workshops at the macro-regional level. The four macro-regional areas into which the factsheets are grouped are:


    Central & Eastern Europe

    Northern Europe

    Southern Europe

  23. Africa–Europe Cooperation and Digital Transformation

    Africa–Europe Cooperation and Digital Transformation explores the opportunities and challenges for cooperation between Africa and Europe in the digital sphere.

    Digitalisation and digital technologies are not only essential for building competitive and dynamic economies; they transform societies, pose immense challenges for policymakers, and increasingly play a pivotal role in global power relations. Digital transformations have had catalytic effects on African and European governance, economies, and societies, and will continue to do so. The COVID-19 pandemic has already accelerated the penetration of digital tools all over the globe and is likely to be perceived as a critical juncture in how and to what purpose the world accepts and uses new and emerging technologies. This book offers a holistic analysis of how Africa and Europe can manage and harness digital transformation as partners in a globalised world. The authors shed light on issues ranging from economic growth, youth employment, and gender, to regulatory frameworks, business environments, entrepreneurship, and interest-driven power politics. They add much-needed perspectives to the debates that shape the two continents’ digital transformation and innovation environments.

    This book will interest practitioners working in the areas of innovation, digital technologies, and digital entrepreneurship, as well as students and scholars of international relations. It will also be relevant for policymakers, regulators, decision-makers, and leaders in Africa and Europe.

  24. Haller Farmers App

    Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition (GODAN) and The Haller Foundation joined forces in 2016 when the UK based charity released version one of the Haller Farmers App.

    Established in 2014, the Haller Farmers web app provides over 30,000 individuals with affordable and environmentally friendly farming techniques. GODAN created a short documentary, Open Fields, focusing on smallholder farmer Eunice who was able to improve her livelihood and lift her family out of poverty by using the information provided on the app. This short film, created as a part of GODAN’s open data Web documentary series, helped create awareness about the Haller Foundation and their new technological innovation, and was valuable in showcasing Haller’s work and encouraging new donors.

    The Haller Foundation, founded in 2004, strives to unleash the potential of local economies by promoting a model for development that is both sustainable and environmentally sound. They work with smallholder farmers living in the rural areas surrounding the Mombasa coastline, empowering them through sustainable agriculture and transforming both their land and communities.

    Smallholder farmers across rural Africa often have insufficient access to the knowledge, skills, infrastructure and tools they need in order to thrive. In line with the ongoing cross-continent technological revolution, Haller has collaborated creatively with the award-winning app development agency Red C, and long-term design partner Pearlfisher, to launch version 2 of the Haller Farmers app. Haller are aiming, with the help of GODAN, to  leverage the increase of mobile technology in Africa to make this new app even more accessible to the millions of Eastern African smallholder farmers, and promote sustainable growth.

    The innovative new application can be downloaded for free from the Google Play Store and it remains lightweight while fully accessible offline. In addition to Haller’s pioneering farming techniques, new agricultural content has been introduced to make the Haller Farmers App more appealing and diverse. This includes; Youth Farming, Square Plot, Human and Animal Conflict Management, and Conservation.

    The app is available in both English and Swahili languages and is supported by Swahili audio to help overcome both illiteracy challenges and language barriers. Haller Farmers has been developed with the needs of farmers in mind and the prototype has been extensively tested by smallholders and students across Kenya with the support of the Ministry of Agriculture.

    Haller is hoping, with the help of GODAN, to reach millions of smallholder farmers across Sub-Saharan Africa, helping them to become self-sufficient and to lift themselves out of poverty.

  25. A Multicultivar Approach for Grape Bunch Weight Estimation Using Image Analysis

    The determination of bunch features that are relevant for bunch weight estimation is an important step in automatic vineyard yield estimation using image analysis. The conversion of 2D image features into mass can be highly dependent on grapevine cultivar, as the bunch morphology varies greatly. This paper aims to explore the relationships between bunch weight and bunch features obtained from image analysis considering a multicultivar approach. A set of 192 bunches from four cultivars, collected at sites located in Portugal and South Africa, were imaged using a conventional digital RGB camera, followed by image analysis, where several bunch features were extracted, along with physical measurements performed in laboratory conditions. Image data features were explored as predictors of bunch weight, individually and in a multiple stepwise regression analysis, which were then tested on 37% of the data. The results show that the variables bunch area and visible berries are good predictors of bunch weight (R2 ranging from 0.72 to 0.90); however, the simple regression lines fitted between these predictors and the response variable presented significantly different slopes among cultivars, indicating cultivar dependency. The elected multiple regression model used a combination of four variables: bunch area, bunch perimeter, visible berry number, and average berry area. The regression analysis between the actual and estimated bunch weight yielded a R2 = 0.91 on the test set. Our results are an important step towards automatic yield estimation in the vineyard, as they increase the possibility of applying image-based approaches using a generalized model, independent of the cultivar.


  26. Geophysical and contamination assessment of soil spatial variability for sustainable precision agriculture in Omu-Aran farm, Northcentral Nigeria

    The spatial and temporal variability of soil properties (fluid composition, structure, and water content) and hydrogeological properties employed for sustainable precision agriculture can be obtained from geoelectrical resistivity methods. For sustainable precision agricultural practices, site-specific information is paramount, especially during the planting season. An integrated one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity survey have been adopted to characterize the subsoil parameters and delineate the aquifer unit of large farm areas, especially in precision agricultural practices. Also, contamination assessment reveals the soil quality status of farmlands. This study aims to determine the site-specific soil parameters of a commercial farm in Omu-Aran, Northcentral, Nigeria. The subsoil features from the geoelectrical resistivity surveys indicate 3 to 4 distinctive lithology to a depth of 43.4 m into the subsurface of the farm. The ID (Vertical Electrical Sounding) and 2D resistivity inversion models results have revealed the heterogeneity nature of the topsoil, also known as the stone zone comprising of reworked clayey soil and sandy gravelly soil, the weathered/saprolite zone (gravelly sandy/sandy soil), the fractured basement and the fresh basement rock. Contamination factor (Cf), pollution load index (PLI) and Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI) were used to assess the contamination index on the farmland. Toxic elements such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc have low to moderate contamination in the farm. The depth of investigation (≤3m) covers the upper root zone of significant crops grown in the area. The findings can assess soil contamination, delineate basement features, subsoil variability, soil profiling, and determine the subsoil hydrological properties.

  27. National gender profile of agriculture and rural livelihoods

    The objective of the assessment is to analyse the agricultural and rural sector of Zambia from a gender perspective at the macro (policy), meso (institutional) and micro (community and household) levels in order to identify gender inequalities in access to critical productive resources, assets, services and opportunities. In particular, the assessment identifies needs and constraints of both women and men in selected FAO areas of competence as well as priorities and gaps. Also, it provides recommendations and guidance to promote gender sensitivity of future programming and projects








  28. Women's participation and leadership in fisherfolk organizations and collective action in fisheries: a review of evidence on enablers, drivers and barriers

    The increased recognition of the multiplicity of roles played by women in, and their crucial contributions to, the fisheries sector exists in stark contrast with the low presence of women in fisherfolk organizations around the globe, and the lack of access to decision-making positions in many formal fisheries-related organizations. This paper summarizes analyses of a global literature review on women in fisherfolk organizations. The aim of the study was to identify positive examples and lessons learned by pointing to the drivers – as well as the enablers and entities identified in the literature – that have a key role in fostering increased women’s participation and leadership in collective action in fisheries. State institutions, social movements and civil society organizations, development and conservation projects, religious movements, academia, endogenous mobilization, charismatic individuals and coincidences have been identified as the key enablers of women’s participation in collective action. Dwindling resources and the need to secure management roles, modernization, the allocation of fishing rights, economic changes, family welfare and women’s rights, are the main drivers identified by the authors as catalysers of women’s engagement in collective action. Finally, the paper identifies some of the barriers faced by women to gain equal access to organizations and decision-making. Although more research on the topic is required, there seems to be consensus on the positive effects for women arising from their engagement in modes of collective action.

  29. Zimbabwe Country Gender Assessment Report

    The objective of the assessment is to analyse the agricultural and rural sector of Zimbabwe from a gender perspective at the macro (policy), meso (institutional) and micro (community and household) levels in order to identify gender inequalities in access to critical productive resources, assets, services and opportunities. In particular, the assessment identifies needs and constraints of both women and men in selected FAO areas of competence as well as priorities and gaps. Also, it provides rec ommendations and guidance to promote gender sensitivity of future programming and projects.









  30. Gender-responsive digitalization. A critical component of the COVID-19 response in Africa

    The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken by governments on social distancing and mobility restrictions have contributed to boosting the use of digital technology to bridge some of the physical access gaps. An increasing number of services and extension/information activities are delivered through digital tools and applications. E-commerce has also flourished. As a result, the potential of digital technologies has gained prominence in immediate response and recovery strategies and programmes.

  31. Arab Horizon 2030: Prospects for Enhancing Food Security in the Arab Region. Technical Summary

    This publication aims to inform the debate on the status of food security in Arab countries, and provide policy options for enhancing food security in the future, in line with the overarching directions of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the heterogeneity of the Arab region, both in terms of natural endowment, particularly in water resources, and economic capabilities, the report’s analysis divides the region into four subregions, each consisting of a more homogeneous group of countries. This report provides a broad overview of food security in the Arab region, including the availability, access and utilization of food. Elements of stability come into play in discussing all three of these dimensions. The report also includes in-depth analysis of selected thematic issues, namely agriculture, international food trade, and food loss and waste. Using the Aglink-Cosimo model, a section is devoted to discussing likely future projections, if the region continues on its present course, and the potential impacts of actions to increase crop yields, shift to healthier consumption patterns, or establish and maintain strategic food stocks. On the basis of the report’s analysis, a set of key findings, as well as general and specific policy recommendations, are highlighted in the final section.

  32. Fall Armyworm in Cabo Verde

    In Cabo Verde, the Fall Armyworm (FAW) was first observed in April 2017 and to date, all the farming islands are affected. In the absence of mitigating measures, losses could reach 50% of the annual production estimated at 5 200 tons at a cost of EUR 2.6 million. FAO is supporting the country in its control and mitigation actions against the FAW infestation, while mobilizing other partners in order to further assist Cabo Verde. This video production aims at showing the expansion of the FAW invasion through several islands and collecting some testimonials of small-scale farmers suffering from the consequences of the FAW infestation and its impact. It also showcases the joint efforts of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment of Cabo Verde and FAO to combat the infestation, which include facilitating the setting up of a monitoring system, and organizing trainings of field officers and farmers on integrated pest management.

  33. Impact assessment of agricultural technologies on household food consumption and dietary diversity in eastern Ethiopia

    Food insecurity remains a major challenge to rural households in Eastern Ethiopia. To improve food and nutrition security of vulnerable households in eastern Ethiopia, several agricultural technologies have been scaled-up by Haramaya University for more than six decades. However, the impact of these technologies on household nutritional outcomes was not systematically studied. This study examined the impact of selected agricultural technologies on household food and nutrition security. Cross-sectional data were generated from 248 randomly selected rural households. Of these, 52% were non-users of improved agricultural technologies disseminated by the university while the remaining 48% sample respondents were users. The data generated from the field were analyzed using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) procedure and descriptive statistics. Results from the econometric analysis result show that households that adopted agricultural technologies had, on average, 8.97 higher Food Consumption Score (FCS) and 1.22 higher Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) compared to those not using improved technologies. This shows that households adopting agricultural technologies are more likely to have higher food security compared to non-users. This suggests that promotion of improved agricultural technologies in the study area can enhance household food and nutrition security.

  34. Linking farmers’ risk attitudes, livelihood diversification and adoption of climate smart agriculture technologies in the Nyando basin, South-Western Kenya

    Climate smart agriculture (CSA) technologies are innovations meant to reduce the risks in agricultural production among smallholder farmers. Among the factors that influence farmer adoption of agricultural technologies are farmers' risk attitudes and household livelihood diversification. This study, focused on determining how farmers' risk attitudes and household livelihood diversification influenced the adoption of CSA technologies in the Nyando basin. The study utilized primary data from 122 households from two administrative regions of Kisumu and Kericho counties in Kenya. The study employed the multivariate probit (MVP) and ordered probit (OP) models and descriptive statistics in data analysis using Stata 14.0. Results from the study indicated that farmers’ risk attitudes had a significant negative influence in the adoption of terraces, ridges and bunds as well as the intensity of adoption of given CSA technologies. Household livelihood diversification had a significant negative influence in the adoption of stress tolerant livestock but did not have a significant effect on the intensity of adoption of given CSA technologies. The study recommends that relevant stakeholders should introduce an appropriate agricultural index insurance product to Nyando basin farmers to encourage the broader adoption of CSA technologies.

  35. Using real-time mobile phone data to characterize the relationships between small-scale farmers’ planting dates and socio-environmental factors

    Accurate and operational indicators of the start of growing season (SOS) are critical for crop modeling, famine early warning, and agricultural management in the developing world. Erroneous SOS estimates–late, or early, relative to actual planting dates–can lead to inaccurate crop production and food-availability forecasts. Adapting rainfed agriculture to climate change requires improved harmonization of planting with the onset of rains, and the rising ubiquity of mobile phones in east Africa enables real-time monitoring of this important agricultural decision. We investigate whether antecedent agro-meteorological variables and household-level attributes can be used to predict planting dates of small-scale maize producers in central Kenya. Using random forest models, we compare remote estimates of SOS with field-level survey data of actual planting dates. We compare three years of planting dates (2016–2018) for two rainy seasons (the October-to-December short rains, and the March-to-May long rains) gathered from weekly Short Message Service (SMS) mobile phone surveys. In situ data are compared to SOS from the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (SOSWRSI) and other agro-meteorological variables from Earth observation (EO) datasets (rainfall, NDVI, and evaporative demand). The majority of farmers planted within 20 days of the SOSWRSI from 2016 to 2018. In the 2016 long rains season, many farmers reported planting late, which corresponds to drought conditions. We find that models relying solely on EO variables perform as well as models using both socio-economic and EO variables. The predictive accuracy of EO variables appears to be insensitive to differences in reference periods that were tested for deriving EO anomalies (1, 3, 5, or 10 years). As such, it would appear that farmers are either responding to short-term weather conditions (e.g., intra-seasonal variability), or longer trends than were included in this study (e.g., 25–30 years), when planting. The methodologies used in this study, weekly SMS surveys, provide an operational means for estimating farmer behaviors–information which is traditionally difficult and costly to collect.

  36. The plight of female agricultural wageworkers in Morocco during the COVID-19 pandemic

    While vaccination campaigns against COVID-19 were launched worldwide, a drama has been unfolding in the Moroccan countryside. It has been marked, over the last couple of decades, by rapid agrarian transformation, manifestations of which have included expanding irrigation frontiers and the increasing growth of high-value crops. These dynamics rely strongly on female agricultural wageworkers. Although they earn low wages, their income is crucial and is used to care for loved ones by paying for school fees, rent, electricity, and medicines. These workers, therefore, cannot afford to quit their jobs. However, most female wageworkers in Morocco are employed without a contract or social security cover. While working in an informal environment and living already in a precarious situation, little is known about how the pandemic has affected them. In this article, we seek to supply some of this information by drawing on the authors’ commitment over almost a decade of covering female wage-workers’ experiences in different agricultural regions in Morocco. Additionally, since March 2020, we have conducted 30 phone interviews with female laborers and farmers in the Saiss and in the coastal area of the Gharb and Loukkos. Using the pandemic as a focus, our results illustrate the inherent contradictions upon which Morocco’s agricultural boom has been founded. Although many female laborers are de facto heads of household or contribute in fundamental ways to the household income, they continue to be considered as secondary earners or as housewives, leading to low structural wages. Moreover, these women assume the prime responsibility for all domestic tasks, which are not economically recognized or valued. Consequently, they face new challenges in addition to their already precarious situations. Reduced work opportunities and limited state support have led to financial and psychological hardship which jeopardize their own and their family’s survival.

  37. Using GIS as a potential methodology to assess the spillover (indirect) effects of IFAD’s interventions

    Geographic information system (GIS) data is often used to map socio-economic data with a spatial component. This data, which is obtained from multiple open-source databases, complements official statistics and generates additional spatial inputs to statistical and econometric analyses. IFAD uses impact assessments using data from face-to-face interviews in order to determine the impact of their projects on strategic goal and objectives. However, the COVID-19 pandemic meant these interviews could no longer take place. This report documents how GIS methods and secondary data can be used as a complementary set of tools to conduct impact assessments when in-person interviews are not possible.

  38. Investing in rural people in Kenya

    Since 1979, IFAD has invested US$455.09 million in 20 programmes and projects in Kenya (at a total cost of US$980.31 million), in support of the Government’s efforts to reduce rural poverty. In Kenya, IFAD loans provide support to smallholders and value chain actors (such as agrodealers, private extension services, small traders and processors) in the dairy sector, aquaculture, livestock and cereal value chains. In addition, they strengthen the resilience of the natural resource base and improve access to rural financial services.
    The country strategic opportunities programme (COSOP) for 2020-2025 has three strategic objectives:

    • Improve climate-resilient and sustainable community-based natural resource management.
    • Improve access to productivity-enhancing assets, technologies, rural finance and services.
    • Enhance sustainable access to improved post-production technologies and markets.


  39. Investing in rural people in Rwanda

    Since 1981, IFAD has financed 19 rural development programmes and projects in Rwanda, for a total amount of US$358.04 million, and directly benefiting about 1,540,157 rural households. The IFAD country programme has contributed significantly to improving incomes and food security in rural areas, particularly through watershed development, increased production in marshland and hillsides, development of livestock and export crops, and support for cooperatives and rural enterprises. IFAD also supports the government in mainstreaming climate resilience. This includes the development of drought- and flood-tolerant seeds, low-cost and energy-saving technologies (e.g. solar- and biogas-powered machinery), “climate-proof” building, elaboration and communication of climate information services, renewable energy and climate-smart practices. IFAD’s strategy in Rwanda is aligned with the government’s strategies and objectives and elaborated in the results-based country strategic opportunities programme (COSOP) for 2019-2024. IFAD’s investments aim to reduce poverty by empowering poor rural men and women to actively participate in the transformation of the agriculture sector and rural development, and by reducing their vulnerability to climate change. The strategic objectives of the country programme are:

    • Sustainably increase agricultural productivity in priority food and export value chains.
    • Improve post-harvest processes and strengthen market linkages.
  40. Tunisia: Detecting change with remote sensing

    This case study presents an analysis undertaken for the IFAD-funded Agropastoral Value Chains Project in the Governorate of Médenine, Tunisia. High-resolution imagery makes it possible to track the development of roads, buildings, irrigation schemes, and other types of investments. Over 140 km of road constructed or rehabilitated by the project are easily detectable on satellite imagery.

  41. Climate adaptation and mitigation measures for nutrition co-benefits in IFAD investments in Zimbabwe

    This report describes the findings of the country study carried out for the design of IFAD Smallholder Agriculture Cluster Project (SACP) in Zimbabwe. Following an IFAD designed project to develop an integrated approach for designing climate-smart and nutrition-sensitive investments, support was provided to undertake a thorough situation analysis for climate, nutrition and their interlinkages and to identify potential pathways and interventions to achieve both climate action and nutrition outcomes.

  42. Climate adaptation and mitigation measures for nutrition co-benefits in IFAD investments in Lesotho

    This report describes the findings of the country study carried out for the design of IFAD project on Restoration of Landscapes and Livelihoods (ROLL P) in Lesotho. Following an IFAD designed project to develop an integrated approach for designing climate-smart and nutrition-sensitive investments, support was provided to undertake a thorough situation analysis for climate, nutrition and their interlinkages and to identify potential pathways and interventions to achieve both climate action and nutrition outcomes.

  43. Evaluating the impacts of community conversation on farmers knowledge, attitudes, and practices for animal health management improvement

    Ethiopia is a home for diverse livestock including small ruminants and has the largest population of livestock in Africa. Livestock is kept for export earnings, food security, economic growth, poverty reduction and employment opportunities. Small ruminants are an important resource for livelihood and food security improvement serving as sources of food, income, risk mitigation, property security, monetary saving, investment, and providing other social and cultural benefits. In Ethiopia, lack of quality breeds, inadequate veterinary service, shortage of feed supply, and marketing are the main small-ruminant production challenges. Livestock production and product development are hampered by various constraints such as diseases, poor nutrition, traditional husbandry, and marketing problems. The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock (CRP Livestock) in Ethiopia works to address livestock production and marketing challenges and to improve the livelihoods of rural communities through the implementation of production improvement innovations and capacity development interventions. The CRP Livestock team has used the ‘community conversation’ approach to facilitate the implementation of integrated innovation practices at the community level. This community-based collaborative learning and action approach brings together community members and local partners to discuss a range of livestock management issues and act in an integrated way. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of community conversation on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of small-ruminant keepers on integrated animal health management

  44. Digital platform enhances genetic progress in community-based sheep and goat breeding programs in Ethiopia

    Digital platform enhances genetic progress in community-based sheep and goat breeding programs in Ethiopia:

    - Up-to-date information on estimated breeding values and animal rankings is directly channeled to breeder organizations and used for selection decisions.

    - The digital platform motivated use of more complicated evaluation models which improve accuracy of breeding values considerably.

    - When upscaled, this will help create a permanent multi-country source of information.

  45. A digital genetic platform provides accurate and timely data for improved community- based sheep and goat breeding

    - Lack of automated data capture systems affects timely feedback and accuracy of information for breeding decisions.
    - CGIAR researchers and national research partners have adopted a digital genetic database, Dtreo, that is enhancing genetic improvement by providing timely and accurate animal ranking information to communities.
    - Dtreo is a digital genetic database that is flexible and easy to use, that allows users to capture and save data offline. Data is uploaded to the database once an internet connection has been established.
    - Dtreo creates a permanent multi-breed source of information that can be used to inform the breeding of high genetic merit animals, provide information to policymakers and support long-term breeding strategies.
    - The digital database enables the use of more complicated evaluation models, which can improve the accuracy of breeding value estimations.

  46. An animal genetic database tool launched in small ruminant community-based breeding programs

    Breeding programs for local breeds kept by small farmers in developing countries are a major challenge. Animal recording of pedigree and performance under conditions of subsistence livestock farming is remain difficult or next to impossible. This means that standard genetic evaluations, as well as selection and planning of mating based on estimates of the animals' genotypes, cannot be done at any level in the population of the target breed or genetic group. However, the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) partnering with the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) has been implemented sheep and goat community-based breeding programs (CBBPs) in Ethiopia since 2010. A total of about 40 CBBPs each with average of 80 household and 1000 flock size in four sheep (Menz, Bonga, Doyogena and Horro) and three goat (Abergelle, konso and Borena) breeds are involved in Ethiopian CBBPs (Haile et al., 2019). Apart from the above mentioned, many CBBPs has been established throughout the countries by different institutions (Research centers, Universities, and Biodiversity Institute); and, many other African (e.g. Tanzania, Sudan, Uganda, Malawi) and Asian countries (e.g Brazil,Iran, Mongolia) are implementing sheep and goat CBBPs (Haile et al., 2019). It means pedigree and performance data recording is being accumulated and an integral component in all the breeding programs.

  47. A genetic database tool for data capture in small ruminant community-based breeding programs

    Genetic improvement on local breeds kept by small farmers in developing countries is challenging. Even though good pedigree and performance recording is crucial and an important component of breeding programs, it remain difficult or next to impossible under conditions of subsistence livestock farming. This means that standard genetic evaluations, as well as selection and planning of mating based on estimates of the animals' genotypes, cannot be done at any level in the population of the target breed or genetic group. However, the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) partnering with the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) has been implemented sheep and goat community-based breeding programs (CBBPs) in Ethiopia since 2010. Currently, a total of about 40 CBBPs each with average of 80 household and 1000 flock size in four sheep (Menz, Bonga, Doyogena and Horro) and three goat (Abergelle, konso and Borena) breeds are available. Many other CBBPs has also been established throughout the countries by different institutions (Research Centers, Universities, and Biodiversity Institute); and African (e.g. Tanzania, Sudan, Uganda, Malawi) and Asian (e.g Brazil,Iran, Mongolia) countries are implementing sheep and goat CBBPs. It means pedigree and performance data recording is being accumulated and getting larger and larger. Though selection of best sires has been a routine practice in the CBBPs, retaining best animal for breeding challenged by many factors. Sale of animals by owners before selection event for pressing cash need tied with delay in data capture, analysis and giving on time feedback to the community is appeared as main challenge. With the recent advances in computer science, ICT and mobile technology, ICARDA is therefore developed a digital database system called AniCloud which can accelerate the data capture, analysis and feedback system which is crucial to assist the small ruminant breeding program at lower cost, high storage capacity, high fidelity and fast computing speed. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explain the current

  48. A Digital Platform for Better Community-Based Sheep and Goat Breeding

    ICARDA scientists along with CGIAR LIVESTOCK developed a cloud-based genetic database platform to boost breed improvement programs in community-based livestock breeding programs in Ethiopia. 

  49. Food aid supports climate adaptive investments by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa

    This brief explores the evidence on the relationships between food aid transfers and investments in climate adaptive agriculture using data from Ethiopia, Malawi and United Republic of Tanzania. Four climate adaptive agricultural investments are considered, namely: adoption of cereal-legume intercropping, use of organic fertilizers such as manure and compost, construction of soil and water conservation structures in fields, and investments in livestock diversification. These practices differ in their levels of capital and labour intensity,and their appropriateness for farmers will vary depending on the context farmers operate in.

  50. Promoting rural youth employment in Uganda’s coffee sector

    Coffee is one of the key agricultural commodities in the Government of Uganda’s pursuance of economic growth and job creation, especially for the rapidly expanding youth population. A significant number of job opportunities exist for young people along the coffee value chain, not only in production but increasingly in processing, trade and marketing, as well as service provision. This policy brief provides recommendations for policymakers to support youth in realizing employment and entrepreneurship potential in the coffee sector, by facilitating their sustainable access to productive resources and markets, and equipping them with the necessary skills and capital.

  51. Improving the resilience of agricultural systems through innovation platforms: creating space for farmer participation in research

    Responding to global food crisis, such as imposed by climate change, requires resilient food systems that are able to respond to shocks. Resilience thinking, as an approach to agriculture development, focuses on enhancing the capacity of both the human and ecological systems inter alia. In this paper, the concept of resilience is approached from the perspective of socio-ecological systems dynamics. In particular, the study examined the contribution of farmers to research towards enhanced resilience of traditional African vegetable production systems in northern Ghana. An Innovation Platform was set up as a ‘knowledge space’ that provided an enabling environment for the interaction between farmers’ indigenous and researchers’ scientific knowledge in agricultural research. The study revealed that indigenous knowledge can be invaluable to building resilient food systems. However, ensuring that farmers participate effectively and contribute to research effort requires good community mobilization and facilitation skills by scientists as farmers need to be assured that their knowledge and other contributions are valued and their views respected by scientists. Good communication skill is necessary for effective knowledge brokering by researchers. Beyond the farmer, building a good relationship with the community is important in ensuring buy-in by farmers.

  52. Food Security Update

    Many countries are facing growing levels of food insecurity, reversing years of development gains, and threatening the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. Even before COVID-19 reduced incomes and disrupted supply chains, chronic and acute hunger were on the rise due to various factors, including conflict, socio-economic conditions, natural hazards, climate change and pests. The impact of the war in Ukraine adds risk to global food security, with food prices likely to remain high for the foreseeable future and expected to push millions of additional people into acute food insecurity. This brief looks at rising food insecurity and World Bank responses to date.  

  53. Let’s link producers to buyers - Value chains: An economic approach to improve the resilience of rural households

    The project’s overall objective is to improve the rural population’s resilience to food insecurity by increasing their income through Castor oil plant, Honey, Beans and Goat value chains. GIZ is contributing to the Androy, Anosy and Atsimo- Antsinanana regions’ economic development and aims to integrate mainly vulnerable households in these chains, especially households run by a woman. GIZ has selected high potential sectors and wants to make sure that they can adapt to climate change. The project is part of the Food Security Improvement and Increased Agricultural Income Program (ASARA) which has been implemented by the European Union in the South of Madagascar.

  54. Knowledge Centre for Organic Agriculture in Africa

    Humanity is faced with the challenge of ensuring food security for all, while respecting the earth’s ecological boundaries. Organic agriculture makes a valuable contribution here. In Africa, certified organic farming is limited to just 0.2 percent of agricultural land – compared to all other continents, the smallest share worldwide. The potential for expanding organic agriculture is great, because it is economically viable in the long term, preserves human, animal and environmental health and conserves soil resources. Putting organic agriculture into practice requires an in-depth understanding of the complex interrelationships of ecological issues and extensive knowledge of how organic products are produced, processed and marketed locally. This knowledge is, however, often very limited.

  55. Climate change and rural development

    Feeding the world’s steadily growing population while respecting the planetary boundaries will be a key challenge for humanity in the future. Prevailing production and consumption patterns are leading to a loss of natural resources and destroying ecosystems and their functions. More than 820 million people were affected by malnutrition in 2017. Climate change is exacerbating this development and pushing natural ecosystems to their limits, something that is having far-reaching consequences for the environment, the economy and humanity. Food and land use systems must become more sustainable and climate-resilient to ensure the survival of humankind.

  56. What is sustainable agriculture?

    The world’s population is likely to reach 9 billion by the middle of this century. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) believes that 60 per cent more food will be needed by 2050 to sustain all these people. Where possible, this food should be produced where it is needed – in developing countries. These countries will have to increase their production substantially to reach this goal, and this will have implications for the limited natural resources on which farming depends, particularly water for irrigation and livestock farming, land for growing crops and grazing, and limited nutrients, such as phosphate. In many places, soil has already suffered lasting damage while water resources are often overused or polluted by fertilisers and pesticides. Agricultural biodiversity has dwindled as farming has become industrialised. These negative effects have heightened global awareness of the fact that agriculture does more than simply produce food, animal feed and energy. It also has impacts on the climate, human health, and global ecosystems. Against this backdrop, how can we shape future agricultural production so that we guarantee food security for the world’s population without destroying the resource base? The answer is that we need productive yet sustainable agriculture that conserves resources. Growth cannot be at the cost of natural resources and must be made as independent as possible of consumption of resources.

  57. International Women Day 2022: Agri-food-systems facing climate change in the MENA region

    This event, co-organised by the UfM, FAO Regional Office for the Near East and North Africa (FAO RNE) and CIHEAM, aims to raise awareness on the gender-differentiated impacts of climate change on agri-food systems, and on the interventions that are needed to address them, build women and girls’ resilience, and unleash their potential to mitigate climate change and adapt to its impacts.

  58. Empowering Women Through a Climate Resilience Lens

    This event launches a new phase of the JP RWEE that will even further enhance its holistic approach to advancing rural women’s economic empowerment by integrating a climate resilience lens to tackle deep rooted social norms which limit women’s participation and leadership in rural communities including through applying gender transformative approaches.


  59. The essential role of women in fisheries | Women’s cooperative ‘Belyounesh Wave’

    This year’s International Women’s Day (IWD) falls at a time where women across the globe are being disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The fisheries and aquaculture sectors have been particularly affected by the crisis. Although the data are limited, a significant amount of the workforce in these sectors is comprised of women. Most women carry out non-vessel based activities, including gleaning, processing and marketing, but the number of women in leadership positions is low.
    Women are often underrepresented in official statistics, potentially undermining their access to social protection programmes or resulting in their marginalization in decision-making processes (SOMFI 2020). However, local initiatives, such as the women's cooperative in Morocco, are bringing to light the essential role of women and equipping them with the tools they need for success.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on the important contribution of women in fisheries and aquaculture”, says Abdellah Srour, GFCM Executive Secretary. “Let us use IWD as an opportunity to celebrate the role of women while identifying the much-needed work to be done to work towards gender equality.

  60. Gender equality and women empowerment in food and agriculture

    In Chadakori, Niger, the Dimitra clubs offered training sessions on composting techniques. Trained farmers were asked to share their knowledge to 5,000 attendees, 60% of which were women. Almost 800 compost pits were built, producing 20 tons of organic matter, introdcuing cost-savings and boosting the richness of farm fields. The FMM subprogramme inspired radio stations to broadcast the results, motivating other villages to also learn about composting. Thanks to the support of the FMM, FAO is promoting inclusive community engagement and women’s empowerment in Africa. 

  61. A gender perspective to business development through the Women’s Empowerment Farmer Business Schools (WE-FBS)

    Learn about the Women’s Empowerment Farmer Business Schools (WE-FBS) implemented in Kenya through FAO’s Flexible Multi-Partner Mechanism (FMM). The approach prompts men and women to reflect critically on their roles, resources, and activities in farming, and to develop strategies that are needed to maximize their commercial potential.
    In Kenya, the FMM project has worked with 257 mixed farmers’ groups. This video narrates the story of Agnes, the Chairperson of a Farmer Field School and a trained WE-FBS facilitator in Kilifi County, Kenya. Discover what she has achieved thanks to the WE-FBS approach.

  62. Empowering Rwandan Rural Women

    Now the journey takes Alphonsine 30 minutes. She and other rural women now have access to clean water to irrigate their crops and to use at home. With the cooperation of the UN's joint project 'Rural Women Economic Empowerment '(Rwee), implememted by four UN agencies, FAO built a spring catchment tap for the Nkabikorera Cooperative in the Ngoma district which significantly decreased the amount of time to collect water for nine surrounding villages.


  63. Bringing microfinance to rural areas in Mali to improve women's lives

    Local banks, NGOs and public institutions worked closely to ensure that women could access loans, join associations and have their voices be heard in collective decision-making processes. It also allowed these women and their communities to make collective investments that would increase their production, stabilize and diversify their nutrition, and ultimately achieve a better life.
    The IFAD-funded initiative is supported by the Governments of Mali, Canada and Denmark, and receives technical assistance from FAO’s Investment Centre. It benefitted more than half a million rural poor Malians, among them 105,000 women. Today, they are some of the microfinance institutions’ most solvent clients.

  64. “Dear brother farmer”: Gender, agriculture and digital extension in rural Tunisia during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Providing farmers with essential agricultural information and training in the era of COVID-19 has been a challenge that has prompted a renewed interest in digital extension services. There is a distinct gender gap, however, between men’s and women’s access to, use of, and ability to benefit from information and communication technologies (ICTs). The overall purpose of this research is to examine how digital extension can address gender inequality in rural areas in the context of the COVID-19 crisis by designing and evaluating the gendered impacts of a digital extension intervention delivered to 624 farmers (363 men and 261 women) (which included phone distribution, radio and SMS messages, and sharing of information prompts) in northern Tunisia. In order to assess the effectiveness of gender-responsive digital extension that targets husband and wife pairs, as opposed to only men, we employed logistic regression and descriptive statistics to analyze a sample of 242 farmers (141 women and 141 men). We find that phone ownership facilitated women’s access to their social network, as well as agricultural information and services, ultimately improving their participation in household decision making and agricultural production. We find that gender-responsive digital extension is effective for men and especially women in terms of usefulness, learning, and adoption. We identified education level and cooperative membership as important factors that determine the impact of digital extension services on farmers and demonstrate the positive impact of radio programming. We recommend strengthening phone access for women, targeting information (including through non-written ways) to both husbands and wives, using sharing prompts, and more rigorous extension for knowledge-intensive topics such as conservation agriculture and rural collectives.

  65. Precision Agriculture for Smallholders

    This webinar on Precision Agriculture for Smallholders was organized in 2020 by the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) in collaboration with the partners Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), Centre for Coordination of Agricultural Research and Development for Southern Africa (CCARDESA, West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development (CORAF) and financial support of the European Union and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

    Outlines of the presentation:

    - About Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa

    - Precision agriculture - Introduction

    - African agriculture and smallholder farmers

    - Opportunities for smallholder farmers

    - Challenges to Precision agriculture and smallholders

    - Conclusion


  66. Fall armyworm management: lessons learnt from Ghana

    The invasive pest, fall armyworm (FAW) was confirmed to be in Ghana in 2016. Stakeholders, including CABI, worked to support the development of a national FAW management plan. A review of the management plan implementation was undertaken using outcome harvesting, a Sprockler inquiry and key informant interviews. Results showed evidence of stakeholder collaboration, leading to increased public awareness of FAW and related management practices, and more coordinated research into low-risk management options. Key factors for the success of the FAW response were: establishment of the multidisciplinary taskforce, with common goals and ownership; mobilization of financial, human and material resources at national and district levels; effective coordination and communication, limiting duplication of efforts by different actors; farmer sensitization to identify and manage FAW and other pests. Steps to ensure future preparedness include: implementation of the National Invasive Species Strategy and Action Plan (NISSAP); establishment of a standing taskforce and emergency fund to address new pest outbreaks; improved monitoring and surveillance especially at borders and ports of entry; strengthened research capacity especially in pest risk analyses; and development of emergency response guidelines for future outbreaks.

  67. Gender integration in the Plantwise programme: an assessment

    Gender integration focuses on applying a gender lens to look at how social relations of gender and underlying power dynamics affect men’s and women’s participation in and benefit from development programmes. In Plantwise, gender mainstreaming aimed to (1) understand gender relations and how they affected access to agricultural advisory services and adoption of plant health management practices, and (2) remove gender related barriers to access and adoption and improve gender equity. This study used desk reviews and key informant interviews to understand how the different measures taken by Plantwise countries helped improve women’s participation, as well as, the overall constraints women faced in participating and benefitting from the programme interventions. Findings showed that while efforts were made to mainstream gender in Plantwise, the efforts were not consistent and systematically designed, and there were limits in ensuring that services were delivered equally to women and men farmers. However, innovations and adaptations within the studied countries (Ghana, Uganda, Bolivia, Afghanistan and India) did increase women’s participation and benefit from Plantwise, even if more can be done.

  68. Strengthening capacity for agricultural innovation in Rwanda

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This flyer is intended as one of a series that will report the many and varied activities of CDAIS in each country, including, for example, policy dialogues, ‘marketplaces’, and specific outcomes.

    This flyer specifically covers the CDAIS experience in Rwanda.

  69. Conversations of change: Rwanda

    Rwanda has benefited from ‘hard’ agricultural invest­ ment projects in the past two decades, promoted by a supportive and responsive government in collaboration with various donors and development actors. CDAIS looked to increase the impacts of such investments through strengthening ‘soft’ skills in three innovation niche partnerships surrounding significant public, private or donor­funded infrastructure developments, and linking this to organisational and national levels. Of these, this story focuses on experiences from the Rwangingo– Karangazi catchment partnership, where a dam and irrigation scheme had led to conflicts between different groups of water users and not the immediate benefits expected. CDAIS brought everyone together and, through structured and facilitated dialogue, rapid progress was made, consolidated through meetings and training, and brought local issues to the national level through policy dialogues. The concept of the need for strengthening functional capacities has gained ground and is now increasingly accepted as a crucial component in future agricultural projects.

  70. Conversations of Change: Ethiopia

    Results in Ethiopia show positive outcomes from CDAIS activities, proving the benefits of integrating functional capacity strengthening across individual, partnership, organisational and national levels. Common to all these levels are
    the CDAIS team, who tell their stories here alongside other partners. Examples are presented from one of the five innovation niche partnerships in Ethiopia, and how new ways of doing things introduced by CDAIS since late 2016 have led to positive changes through the strengthening of chickpea cluster farming around Gondar in the north of the country. Organisations involved in the support of chickpea cluster farming, such as the Ministry of Agriculture’s Extension Directorate and the NGO Self Help Africa, have also seen clear benefits from self-evaluation of their own internal processes, while CDAIS policy dialogues have led to two issues raised by farmers being transformed into concrete policy changes at the national level. And all those involved confirm that these changes are now irreversible

  71. Ethiopia: Stories of change. The need for seed - subtle changes

    To ensure food security, farmers must have access to quality seed, in adequate quantities. The government of Ethiopia acknowledges this, and has responded by investing in improving the seed sector. However, as this example shows, not all challenges can be overcome by technical training and new technologies alone. A large seed cooperative union was faced with a problem that affected its very existence. And the solution was not technical. CDAIS became engaged, and now they are making concrete steps towards resolving the issue – which will have much broader knock-on benefits for all farmers
    in the region.

  72. Ethiopia: A story of change. Feed safety - change through learning

    Ethiopia has more livestock than any other country in Africa. The sales of meat, milk and other animal products from
    57 million cattle, 29 million sheep, 29 million goats, 7 million donkeys, 2 million horses, a million camels and half a million mules make up one-quarter of national gross domestic product (GDP), 45% of agricultural GDP, and provide 16% of foreign earnings from the export of live animals, hides and skins. In addition, but more difficult to measure, is the work these animals provide, for ploughing, threshing, and transporting farmers, families and farm products to market and bringing back domestic needs.  

  73. Conversations of Change: Burkina Faso

    The Government of Burkina Faso embraced innovation in agriculture many years ago, thus CDAIS could build on solid foundations. Six innovation niche partnerships were selected, each working on very different types of innovations, technically, socially or organisationally, and facing contrasting challenges for capacity development. Agrinatura partner CIRAD, well established in Burkina Faso thanks to strong partnerships with key stakeholders within the national agricultural innovation system, implemented the project with FAO and the Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Innovation (MESRSI). This conver­ sation illustrates one of the key challenges to accelerate agricultural innovation in the country: the need to support innovation with organisations that do not usually intervene in agricultural development, such as developers of information and communications technology (ICT) based solutions – incubators, telecommunications companies, institutes for computer science research or intellectual property rights. It then presents how such new types of partnership can be promoted at the national level by innovation support service providers and by the government.

  74. Burkina Faso: Stories of change. Women lead the way in rural enterprises

    For many years, rural women have been creating their own food processing companies that promote local agriculture by bringing to the market original foods in products that are accessible to urban populations. The aim of CDAIS is to support these companies’ develop- ment by strengthening their capacities to experiment and learn together, as well as to negotiate and make contracts with suppliers and traders. And Dakoupa in Bobo-Dioulasso is one of many small family businesses supported by CDAIS through the women-led agri-food processing micro-enterprise innovation partnership.

  75. Burkina Faso: Stories of change. A marketplace of innovative ideas

    The CDAIS ‘marketplace’ to promote agricultural innovations in Burkina Faso took place on 6 July 2017 in ouagadougou. It was a rich event involving more than 80 people who are working directly with, or interested in working with, different partnerships. The marketplace allowed stakeholders in the six selected partnerships to get to know and develop relationships with suppliers of agricultural support services. It also provided an opportunity for service suppliers and other participants to show their interest in accompanying the partnerships on their respective journeys.

    This idea, the marketplace, developed and implemented by CDAIS, brought together 80 stakeholders, in addition to all those mobilised for the organisation of the day’s activities. They included representatives of civil society and non-governmental organisations, government services, education and research organisations, financial and micro-insurance institutions, support services, producer and processor organisations, bilateral organisations, international development agencies, and national projects, programmes and funding bodies. The media also covered the event.

  76. Introducing innovation niche partnerships. Strengthening capacity for agricultural innovation in Angola

    The goal is to improve capacity for joint innovation, and strengthen this capacity at partnership, organizational and institutional/policy level, through an iterative process with the different stakeholders involved i.e. action and reflection, consolidation of lessons learned and re-planning. Preparatory actions must be well coordinated to ensure success and continuity of the CDAIS project.”

    Flyer on CDAIS in Angola: seeds cooperative, rural entrepreneurship and rice development.

  77. Conversations of change: Angola

    There was a need for change in agricultural development in Angola, and CDAIS has been appreciated. Results show positive outcomes in a number of areas, including the acceptance of the benefits of strengthening functional capacities across different levels. And, although it is still too early to see the full benefits of the approach, many involved said they would continue to apply it in their other activities. This story begins with views and experiences from rice growers and their partners, as an example of one of the three innovation niche partnerships in Angola. Here, impacts from applying the CDAIS methodology are evident. We then hear from targeted organisations that provide innovation support services to family farmers, on how CDAIS has strengthened links between them and farmer cooperatives, and with national- level discussions, culminating in news of the first national seed policy dialogue in March 2019, and lessons learnt.

  78. Angola: A story of change. From farm to agri-business

    Angola has so much potential as an agricultural country, with up to 50 million hectares that could be cultivated. But why
    is it not being cultivated now? “It is simply a case of lack of will – political will in strengthening sectorial strategies and providing resources for those who live from this activity,” said Somacumbi. “government policy is to help farmers, but little is actually done.” He hopes that through the policy dialogue that CDAIS is facilitating in 2018, the views of farmers like himself and his fellow fazendeiros will be heard loud and clear at a higher political level.

    At the farmer level, access to finance and markets are recurrent problems. So CDAIS is supporting farmers to identify and hire trainers who can teach them agri-business skills, how to prepare individual farm business plans, and how to establish and manage associations such as a maize producers group, as well as advanced farming techniques.

  79. Agricultural Innovation Platforms: Framework for Improving Sustainable Livelihoods in Africa

    The IAR4D concept has generated a large volume of success stories on many Innovation Platforms where it was implemented for the proof of concept and on the platforms of Complementary projects. It is noteworthy that in course of developing the IAR4D concept FARA engaged is series of trial efforts to arrive at a valid framework for the implementation of the IAR4D concept, the Innovation platform was developed from these thoughts and harmonization of knowledge and experience. This book harmonized all the available knowledge from the different initiative on the IAR4D concept and the innovation platform. The key projects in FARA include the Sub Saharan Africa Challenge program (SSA CP), the Dissemination of new Agricultural technologies in Africa (DONATA), the UniBrain, and PAEPARD. This book will provide an harmonized knowledge to inform the FARA constituent and others with comprehensive background information on the Innovation platform.

  80. Women’s empowerment in agriculture study- Feed the future Senegal–Naatal Mbay

    In 2016 and 2017, the Feed the Future Senegal Naatal Mbay project, funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), conducted a study on women’s empowerment in agriculture to determine the level of empowerment among participating households and to identify the main constraints to empowerment. The two phase study reached 938 respondents – 495 women and 443 men – who are the primary decision makers within their households, over the three geographic areas that make up the Naatal Mbay Zone of Influence (ZOI): the Senegal River Valley (SRV), the Southern Groundnut Basin (SGB), and Casamance. The study supplemented the quantitative data collected through the Abbreviated Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (A-WEAI) survey with qualitative methods, including 12 focus groups, 96 individual household interviews, and 80 interviews with other value chain actors. The study found that, overall, women surveyed within the project’s ZOI were relatively empowered, with an overall score of 0.783 out of a possible 1.0, and where 0.80 is considered adequately empowered. Some of the main constraints to empowerment identified by respondents included a lack of participation in household decision making on production, lack of involvement in community groups, and inadequate access to and management of agricultural credit. The data suggests that workload is not a major constraint to empowerment, though it has a greater burden on women in the rainy season, when agricultural activities are more time consuming. While land ownership was not found to be a major contribution to women’s disempowerment based on the quantitative data, women reported in interviews and focus groups that access to land is a major constraint. As expected, across all regions, the empowerment score for men is, on average, higher than the score for women.

  81. Performance Evaluation Report Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Collaborative Research on Assets and Market Access (AMA IL)

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded the Assets and Market Access Innovation Lab (AMA IL) to advance knowledge and understanding of development approaches and technologies in order to increase rural households’ ability to acquire, protect, and effectively utilize productive assets. This evaluation assessed AMA IL’s overall program performance across five themes: research quality; outreach and dissemination; policy; capacity building; program management; and future directions. The evaluation focused on generating evidence to guide programmatic and policy decisions. The Evaluation Team (ET) used a mixed methods approach that included site visits to Ghana and Tanzania; 77 key informant interviews with key stakeholder groups, and nine focus group discussions— eight with community members and one with extension agents in Ghana. The results show that AMA IL supported high-quality and relevant research for strengthening the resilience of smallholder farming households across diverse topics, countries, and sectors. The ET found that the management entity is well positioned to support the research and to oversee a program as dynamic as AMA IL, and systematically build a valuable evidence base around new approaches and technologies to increase rural household resilience. However, the outreach and dissemination components, as well as the capacity building of local researchers and institutions, were lagging. The ET recommends that AMA IL further synthesize and consolidate lessons learned on the new technologies it supports across countries and develop a strategy for local research capacity building and awareness raising among stakeholders towards broad adoption and policy impact

  82. Climate Adaptation & Resilience For Food & Water Security

    Climate change is threatening development gains and intensifying global inequities—putting peace and important gains in human well-being at risk.
    The climate crisis affects every sector and geography, yet its impacts are not felt equally. People in developing countries are more vulnerable to climate change because they often lack the resources to effectively respond and adapt. Climate change is a crisis multiplier, exacerbating existing challenges in developing countries like food and water insecurity, natural resource degradation, income inequality, malnutrition, market volatility and compounding injustices.
    Rising temperatures

  83. Feed the Future Mozambique Agricultural Innovations Activity (FTF Inova)

    The Feed the Future Mozambique Agricultural Innovations Activity (FTF Inova) made good progress on its interventions during quarter (Q) 2 of fiscal year (FY) 2019, facilitating the introduction and adaptation of a number of innovations with an increasing portfolio of partners. Testing of established probes continued, accompanied by the first set of learning, while new probes also emerged. Consistent with the adaptive learning approach, the team captured the learning and quickly used it to inform management and decision-making processes, demonstrating the project’s capacity to quickly assess progress, learn, and iterate. Overall, activities this quarter demonstrate the increased breadth and depth of the portfolio, making an impact on the visibility and leverage FTF Inova has in the market. Having developed a good track record, the project now finds itself much better positioned to negotiate deals, and nudge partners with more ambitious innovations. In addition, as clear patterns and opportunities for innovation emerge in the market, FTF Inova’s capacity to add value to partners and make compelling offers improves. As a result of the work done so far, FTF Inova finds itself well-positioned to continue fostering changes that are supported by the real commitment of a number of key market players. As the project identifies clear synergies across its portfolio of partnerships, it also becomes more capable of coaxing partners to adopt new ways of working with each other, based on shared value, innovation and on expanding market services and outreach to be more inclusive of SHFs.

  84. Women, work, and wage equity in agricultural labour in Saiss, Morocco

    This paper documents wages and working conditions for landless female and male agricultural labourers in Morocco. We found that higher-paid equipment-intensive tasks were predominantly assigned to men whereas women often performed lower-paid, time-intensive tasks. Women were systematically paid less than men even when they performed the same tasks. Enforcing existing legislation in Morocco to ensure equal pay for women is an essential first step towards enabling women to benefit equitably with men from their agricultural labour contributions. A revalorisation of the importance of agriculture is also necessary so that agricultural labour is not perceived as an occupation of last resort.

  85. Towards an innovative olive oil value chain: Options for inclusive development in South-Eastern Tunisia

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the olive oil value chain (OVC) in the Governorate of Medenine (south-east of Tunisia) and the relationships between its main operators for an effective involvement and better performance and resilience of olive sector. Based on semi structured interviews and participatory multi-stakeholders’ workshops, OVC has been analysed and described. MACTOR approach has been applied to establish linkages among chain operators and activities in a partnership approach. Innovative interventions were proposed to strengthen farmers’ organizations to increase profitability of OVC. Empirical findings suggest that public-private-civil society partnerships are essential for the development of pro-poor approaches for uncovering technological and institutional innovations which may involve more inclusive olive oil value chains. The underpinnings of our argument will be of interest and value to both development practitioners and the research community engaged within Tunisia, and the wider region more generally, on initiatives aimed at fostering effective, inclusive and contextually relevant processes for agricultural innovation.

  86. Self-Sustained “Scaling Hubs” for Agricultural Technologies: Definition of Concepts, Protocols, and Implementation

    This manual provides a set of conceptual definitions and practical implementation protocols for knowledge and scaling hubs. Both concepts of knowledge and scaling hubs are developed to aggregate, leverage, and coordinate the efforts undertaken by pilot research project with larger development programs and local scaling dynamics. The manual also provides a highlight of what is called the “four-wheels approach” of partnership for scaling, which aims at connecting the created knowledge hubs, for specific agricultural technologies, to larger network of partners who can further promote the scaling of the technology. This helps reaching many project beneficiaries and partly ensures a self-sustained scaling dynamic. The manual is ending up with a practical implementation protocol, of knowledge and scaling hub, composed of sic practical steps and related tasks.

  87. Overcoming constraints of scaling: Critical and empirical perspectives on agricultural innovation scaling

    Scaling is a ubiquitous concept in agricultural research in the global south as donors require their research grantees to prove that their results can be scaled to impact upon the livelihoods of a large number of beneficiaries. Recent studies on scaling have brought critical perspectives to the rather technocratic tendencies in the agricultural innovations scaling literature. Drawing on theoretical debates on spatial strategies and practical experience of agricultural innovation scaling in Ethiopia, this paper adds to the current debate on what constitutes scaling and how to overcome critical scaling constraints. The data for the paper came from a qualitative assessment using focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and document analysis on scaling work done in Ethiopia by a USAID-funded research for development project. The paper concludes with four broad lessons for the current understating of agricultural innovation scaling. First, scaling of agricultural innovations requires a balanced focus on technical requirements and associated social dynamics surrounding scaling targets, actors involved and their social relations. Second, appreciating the social dynamics of scaling emphasizes the fact that scaling is more complex than a linear rolling out of innovations towards diffusion. Third, scaling may not be strictly planned; instead, it might be an extension of the innovation generation process that relies heavily on both new and long-term relationships with key partners, trust, and continuous reflection and learning. Fourth, the overall implication of the above three conclusions is that scaling strategies need to be flexible, stepwise, and reflective. Despite the promises of flourishing scaling frameworks, scaling strategies it would appear from the Africa RISING experience that, if real impact is to be achieved, approaches will be required to be flexible enough to manage the social, processual and emergent nature of the practice of scaling.

  88. Building resilient livelihoods in Tanganyika, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

    To respond to the vast needs in Tanganyika, DRC, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Food Programme (WFP) are implementing an integrated programme to build community resilience and strengthen agricultural value chains. Despite its vast natural resources, the DRC faces the largest hunger crisis in the world. The country continues to experience prolonged conflict – particularly in the east – contributing to large-scale population displacements, disrupting agricultural activities and impeding access to markets, schools and healthcare. In Tanganyika, clashes between armed groups and inter-ethnic conflicts, further aggravated by the impact of recurring agricultural and climate crises. In this context the main objective of the joint resilience FAO-WFP project is to strengthen resilience of 18 000 smallholder farmer households in Kabalo and Nyunzu and vulnerable populations through reinforced agricultural value chains and support to social cohesion and gender equity.

  89. Smallholder farmers: the backbone of food security

    While smallholder farmers are the primary food producers in Southern Africa, contributing to 90 percent of food production in some countries, often systems in the region do not support profitability for them. WFP is working across Southern Africa to address bottlenecks in food systems to enhance the resilience of smallholder farmers. This factsheet gives an overview of WFP’s approach to smallholder farmers.

  90. 2021 Tanzania's Food Systems: Investing in Distribution for Systemic Change

    In this report, food distribution is analysed within the context of food systems in Tanzania. This study looks at entry points for further studies of food system issues within the country that will affect progress towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used, first to map and conceptualize the complexity of the food system in Tanzania, and then to quantify the likely impacts of scenarios of action and inaction. System dynamics modelling, the approach chosen for this study, is a methodology that allows the capture the many socio-economic and environmental links between production, distribution and consumption, and highlights the long-term impact of policy and programming decisions on the food system.

  91. Integrating agriculture in national adaptation plans

    The agriculture sectors are the most vulnerable to climate change and climate variability. Through the Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation plans (NAP-Ag) programme, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are supporting eleven countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America to plan for adaptation in the agriculture sectors. This video shows what three of these countries, Uganda, Thailand and Colombia, are doing to tackle climate change and integrate agriculture in their planning and budgeting processes.

  92. JIRCAS Outline 2021-2022

    This brochure gives an overview of the work of of the Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS). It illustrates history, main objectives and medium to long-term plan of JIRCAS for the period 2021-2025. The three main programs of JIRCAS - focused, respectively on Food, Environment and Information - are also presented.

  93. Resilient Food and Agriculture

    As climate change continues to drive food insecurity, addressing the risks of climate change across the value chain – especially agricultural products that are important to food and nutrition security – will yield significant adaptation benefits to vulnerable small producers and rural communities at large. This will support global efforts to end hunger and poverty, build more effective farming practices that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and accelerate the ambition of Nationally Determined Contributions to the Paris Agreement.  

  94. Adaptive Farms, Resilient Tables: Building secure food systems and celebrating distinct culinary traditions in a world of climate uncertainty

    As the world gets hotter and rainfall more erratic, the type and availability of ingredients for daily meals are changing.  With support from the Government of Canada and the Global Environment Facility’s Least Developed Countries Fund, the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF) has been supporting six least developed countries and small island developing states (Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Haiti, Mali, Niger and Sudan) to strengthen climate resilience and enhance food security.  To better understand and share the experiences from these six countries, and to celebrate some of the successes of the projects in enhancing food security and water access, the CCAF team has worked together to create a cookbook. This 'Appe-teaser' version of the cookbook, a short teaser, offers a recipe from each country. The full cookbook was launched in New York in April 2017.  It showcases more delicious recipes and more information on how climate change is impacting specific ingredients and recipes, and how each country's adaptation efforts are making traditional ingredients and cooking methods more sustainable.

  95. COVID-19 Pandemic in Africa: Impacts on Agriculture and Emerging Policy Responses for Adaptation and Resilience Building

    The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have serious health and economic ramifications in Africa. This paper presents a technical position on demand and supply shocks associated with the COVID19 pandemic within the African context. We document the disruptions associated with containment measures implemented by various governments and their implications on labour mobility, import and export of food commodities, production and productivity of major staples and prices of food items. We also highlight policy needs focusing on containment of the pandemic while adapting African food production and distribution systems in response to the COVID-19 related shocks through concerted efforts to ensuring minimum disruptions on input supply, food production and marketing. Options for achieving this include agricultural sector stimulus programmes to support input access and value chain development, promotion and deployment of resilient technologies and digital agricultural solutions and providing social support to vulnerable communities.

  96. Promotion of Agricultural Technologies & Innovations for Agri-Business Resilience In Africa

    In this webinar, the discussion focuses on the need to promote appropriate agricultural technologies and innovations that will help agribusinesses in Africa to be resilient in the wake of the COVID 19 pandemic.

  97. Animal agriculture: A viable tool for rural women empowerment and redemption from poverty

    Women are the backbone of the development of rural and national economies. There is no tool of development that is more effective than the empowerment of the rural women. Nigerian rural women lack sufficient economic resources that will enable them to articulate their needs and interests and organize themselves with a view to developing the nation. The prospects of achieving food security in a rapidly growing population and relative self-sufficiency in animal protein supply calls for the production of all classes of meat animals by rural women to achieve sustainable economic development and empowerment. The animal farming opportunities through which women can be empowered included: snail, broiler, quail, duck, laying chicken, fish, bee, rabbit, pig, sheep and goat farming. The paper concluded that in order to get sustainable productivity in animal production, rural women needed be empowered to be actively involved in the various opportunities available in animal agriculture for advancing development and reducing poverty, since empowered women contribute to the health, productivity of whole families and communities and also improve the prospects of the next generation. It is recommended that Government should play key role in activities involving livestock through the formulation of policies, provision of agricultural credit for women participation in animal production, increased technical know- how in animal production through capacity building for women via livestock extension trainings, and provision of enabling environment for proper growth of the livestock industry. Also, rural development programme packages should involve women empowerment through animal production activities to achieve sustainable development.

  98. Reinforcing The Resilience Of Livestock Farmers In Timbuktu, Mali

    Due to political conflict, hundreds of thousands of people had to leave their homes in northern Mali in the last decade. Many have since returned to their home but struggle to regain their livelihoods. In the Timbuktu region, food insecurity is very high and 15 percent of children under 5 years old suffer from acute malnutrition. Goundam, one of the administrative districts of the Timbuktu region, is populated by livestock farmers. Among the previously displaced people, many have lost all their livestock, and with that their traditional means of livelihood. The ProSAR Project of the Global Programme Food and Nutrition Security; Enhanced Resilience is supporting returnees and those who have stayed in strengthening their resilience to food crises as well as providing emergency relief in case of acute crises. Amongst the project`s activities are the rehabilitation and construction of pastoral wells, support in animal vaccination, income-generating activities, training in fodder production and herd management, as well as nutrition and hygiene sensibilisation.

  99. Effect of processing technology on chemical, sensory, and consumers' hedonic rating of seven olive oil varieties

    This study established physicochemical and sensory characteristics of virgin olive oils (VOOs) and linked them to consumers’ liking using external preference mapping. We used five Tunisian and two foreign VOO varieties produced by two processing systems: discontinuous (sp) and continuous three-phase decanter (3p). The samples were analyzed and evaluated by a panel of 274 consumers. The external preference mapping revealed five VOO clusters with a consumer preference scores rating from 40% to 65%. Consumers highly appreciated the foreign Coratina cultivar's olive oil; the main drivers being richness in polyphenols (markers of bitterness and pungency), mainly the oleuropein aglycone, and volatile compounds (markers of green fruity, green leaves, green apple, cut grassy almond, and bitterness), particularly the trans-2-hexenol. The Tunisian Chemlali (3p) oil was second highly preferred (scoring 55%). The positive drivers for olive oil preference (a profile of almond fruity green and low bitterness and pungency) are the richness in hexanal compounds. Arbequina (sp and 3p) and Chemlali (sp) were the least appreciated due to the fact that Arbequina VOO is not in the tradition of Tunisian consumers, whereas Chemchali VOO is a minor variety representing only 2% of olive oil production in Tunisia and consumed mostly in blends. The differentiation between the two processing systems depends on the variety of cultivar; consumers are able to identify the two processing system in the case of Chetoui, Leguim, and Chemchali.

  100. Gender-based constraints affecting biofortified cassava production, processing and marketing among men and women adopters in Oyo and Benue States, Nigeria

    This study identified gender-based constraints affecting the production, processing and marketing of biofortified cassava in two states in Nigeria, using a mixed methods approach. The study identified major differences between the two study sites (Benue and Oyo). The scale of production of biofortified cassava is higher in Oyo state among adult men because of their active involvement and collaboration with research institutes within the state and the ease of transporting products to Lagos State for designated diverse markets. However, in Benue state more adult and young women are engaged in cultivation, processing and marketing business to meet up with the increased demand due to higher consumer acceptance in this region. Gender analysis revealed that lack of access to hired-labour restricted the scale of production among women in especially Oyo state. Low product price and high price of processing equipment, poor market infrastructure and middle men exploitation were constraints significantly more mentioned by women in general. Majorly, the men identified limited processing facilities/equipment as the most important constraint af- fecting the demand of biofortified cassava roots, while generally women were more constrained by the shortage of basic amenities and trainings that hindered their processing efficiency. The study proposes integration of gender- responsive strategies to further enhance the delivery of biofortified cassava products in Nigeria.

  101. Can Social Capital influence Smallholder Farmers’ Climate-Change Adaptation Decisions? Evidence from Three Semi-Arid Communities in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    This study examines the influence of farmers’ social capital on their decisions to deal with climate change and climate variability in Burkina Faso. The study is based on a household survey conducted among 450 households, randomly selected from three communities in Burkina Faso. Two indexes were constructed to capture farmers’ structural and cognitive social capital; and using generalized Poisson regression (GPR) and a multivariate probit model, the study probes the effect of farmers’ social capital on their choice of adaptation alternatives, the number of adaptation practices used, and the extent to which adaptation measures were applied. The results indicated that the effect of social capital depends on the type of indicator used and on the type of adaptation strategies necessary. Farmers’ cognitive social capital was significantly and positively related to their choice of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCT), and techniques such as agroforestry and irrigation. Structural social capital, on the other hand, was positively associated with the adoption of new varieties and conservation tillage strategies and negatively associated with the use of a crop-diversification strategy. The results also highlighted that socio-economic, institutional and agro-ecological variables determine farmers’ decisions to adapt to climate change.

  102. Technology Adoption in Small-Scale Agriculture: The Case of Cameroon and Ghana

    This study explores one of the most important questions for alleviating poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, why are advancements in agricultural technology not taking root in this region? Using data from deep interviews of 42 small-scale farmers in Ghana and Cameroon, a conceptual analysis of drivers and factors of agricultural technology adoption in this region is made and represented as causal loop diagrams. Interviews also provide a basis for weighting factors that farmers consider before adopting a new technology. These weights are then used to run a system dynamics model with a hypothetical population of 10.000 farmers to see the effects of different drivers of technology adoption on the adoption rate and number of adopters over a 25 year period. Results show that most farmers have a bet-hedging strategy as they try to minimize risks of production failures. While certain factors like scale of pro- duction, long-term considerations, the history of success of past technologies, and the endorsement of technologies by opinion leaders may be important, many other factors do influence decisions to adopt new technologies. This limits any silver bullet strategy towards solving the problem of limited diffusion of agricultural technologies in this region. Addressing such a problem therefore calls for a much more holistic approach.

  103. Will digital solution transform Sub-Sahara African agriculture?

    Given its superior importance of digital agricultural solutions to overcome challenges in agricultural activities, many of the solutions are in face of challenges to scale in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). On the other hand, the impact of digitalization on economic development in developing countries is documented in several literatures but digital technologies have lately touched the agricultural sector in SSA. The objective of this study was to briefly review the impact of digital solution on smallholder farmers agriculture transformation, and the key and challenges influencing of agricultural digitalization in SSA. We used all-inclusive approach comprising original research articles, peer-reviewed articles, working papers, conference papers, book chapters, database, guide book, and indexes from 60 recent empirical academic studies conducted on impacts on digital solution in the region to produce a broad review. Results show that digital solution, when effectively used in SSA, has enabled smallholder farmers to gain a wide range of benefits involving access to real timely price, market, and farming information and safe financial transactions, alternative value chain linkages, multifaceted knowledge, better earning and yield, reduce costs, social well-being and risk minimization, women empowerment benefits. In contrast, fail to use adaptable tools, unaffordability, digital illiterateness, low participation of women and old smallholder farmers due to their low income and education status, are main barriers to digitalization in agriculture. Accordingly, it essential to the SSA countries to invest on technologies that is adaptable their target population, ensure balancing regulatory and delivery approaches that permit equal involvement of women, old age category, and remote areas, realize affordable access to digital services through reducing data costs and tax cuts on digital agricultural tools, and offering digital skill training for farmers by segmenting them into their gender, age, and education to fully harness the opportunities of digitalization in agriculture.

  104. The Profits of Power: Land Rights andAgricultural Investment in Ghana

    We examine the impact of ambiguous and contested land rights oninvestment and productivity in agriculture in Akwapim, Ghana. Weshow that individuals who hold powerful positions in a local politicalhierarchy have more secure tenure rights and that as a consequencethey invest more in land fertility and have substantially higher output.The intensity of investments on different plots cultivated by a givenindividual corresponds to that individual’s security of tenure overthose specific plots and, in turn, to the individual’s position in thepolitical hierarchy relevant to those specific plot

  105. The Role of Extension and Sustainable Soil Management in Smallholder Agriculture-Evidence from Ethiopia

    Rising demand for agricultural commodities coupled with population growth, climate change, declining soil fertility, environmental degradation and rural poverty in the developing world call for strategies to sustainably intensify agricultural production. Sustainable intensification refers to increasing production from the same area of land while reducing its negative environmental consequences. Most of the adverse conditions are particularly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rates of undernutrition are the highest worldwide, while agricultural productivity is still far below global averages. An important factor in explaining productivity deficits among smallholders in SSA is the slow adoption of new agricultural technologies. Recently, governments and international donors especially concentrate on the promotion of ‘system technologies’, i.e. packages of technologies that should be applied jointly due to synergistic effects. Yet, evidence shows that farmers delay in particular the uptake of system technologies, and tend to scatter practices across plots instead of combining them on the same plot. Hence, analyzing how to effectively enhance the adoption of technology packages is crucial, but still understudied. In addition, comprehensive studies on the plot- and household level effects of system technologies that use micro data from farmer surveys are still scarce when it comes to impacts beyond traditional outcomes, such as crop yields and income, but important to understand the consequences of adoption for farmers.

    This dissertation addresses these gaps by studying the adoption and effects of ‘Integrated Soil Fertility Management’ (ISFM). ISFM is a system technology comprised of a set of sitespecific soil fertility practices which should be applied in combination. Its core is the integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers with improved seeds. Practices should be adapted to local conditions, accompanied by a general improvement of agronomic techniques and, depending on the context, by other technologies such as crop rotation, agroforestry or reduced tillage. The general aim of ISFM is an improvement of the soil’s fertility by replenishing its nutrient stocks and organic matter level. Enhanced soil fertility is likely to improve food security, incomes, and ultimately, livelihoods of the rural population depending on small-scale agriculture. In addition, healthier and more fertile soils can contribute to restoring and conserving natural resources by providing crucial ecosystem services, such as the storage of soil carbon, erosion control and the prevention of further deforestation. Thus, they can make an important contribution to the sustainable intensification of smallholder agricultural systems. However, ISFM commonly also goes along with increased demand for capital and labor, which often prevents smallholders from adopting it. In addition, ISFM is considered knowledge-intensive, as combining several practices and adapting them to local conditions requires at least a basic understanding of biological processes.

    Against this background, the dissertation addresses two broad research objectives: Firstly, to assess the role of ‘farmer-to-farmer’ and non-traditional forms of agricultural extension to enhance knowledge and adoption of ISFM as a pathway to sustainable intensification. And secondly, to assess the productivity and welfare implications of adopting ISFM practices at the plot and household level. The thesis comprises three essays. The first essay concentrates on knowledge and adoption of ISFM as a complex agricultural technology, while the second and third essay analyze the effects of ISFM at the plot, respectively household level. All three essays build on primary data collected among 2,382 farm households in the three Ethiopian regions Amhara, Oromia and Tigray. The research was carried out in cooperation with the ‘Integrated Soil Fertility Management Project’ (ISFM+ project) of the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ), launched in 2015 in 18 districts in the three highland regions.

  106. Gender and adaptation planning in the agricultural sectors: the case of Uganda

    This case study chronicles Uganda’s experiences developing a gender-responsive National Adaptation Plan for the Agricultural Sector (NAP-Ag) and related capacity development for gender-responsive planning, budgeting and policy formulation. 

  107. Public expenditure analysis for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the agriculture sector: a case study of Kenya

    This document presents a proposed methodology for public expenditure review and analysis for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the agriculture sector (PERCC) and its application to a case study of Kenya. It starts by explaining the basic methodological concepts, classification and labelling of public expenditures that allow for calculating spending in agriculture related to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Next, the document applies the methodology to public expenditures in Kenya to analyse how agricultural spending policies help, or hinder, Kenya’s climate change adaptation and mitigation.

  108. The Effects of Decentralized and Video-based Extension on the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management – Experimental Evidence from Ethiopia

    The slow adoption of new agricultural technologies is an important factor in explaining persistent productivity deficits among smallholders in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Farmers delay in particular the uptake of technology packages. Since knowledge constraints are an important barrier to adoption, effective extension approaches are key. In recent decades, extension systems in many SSA countries have moved towards decentralized “bottom-up” models involving farmers as active stakeholders. In this study we assess the effects of a decentralized extension program and an additional video intervention on the adoption of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) among 2,382 farmers in Ethiopia using a randomized controlled trial. ISFM should enhance soil fertility and productivity by combining organic and inorganic soil amendments. We find that both extension-only and extension combined with video increase ISFM adoption and knowledge. We further find evidence for increased adoption of ISFM practices among farmers in treatment communities that do not actively participate in the extension activities. The additional video intervention shows a significant complementary effect for these non-actively involved farmers, in particular regarding the combined use of the practices on the same plot. A causal mediation analysis reveals that increases in knowledge explain part of the treatment effects on adoption.

  109. The BioCassava Plus Program: Biofortification of Cassava for Sub-Saharan Africa

    More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10%–20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassava Plus (BC+) program has employed modern biotechnologies intended to improve the health of Africans through the development and delivery of genetically engineered cassava with increased nutrient (zinc, iron, protein, and vitamin A) levels. Additional traits addressed by BioCassava Plus include increased shelf life, reductions in toxic cyanogenic glycosides to safe levels, and resistance to viral disease. The program also provides incentives for the adoption of biofortified cassava. Proof of concept was achieved for each of the target traits. Results from field trials in Puerto Rico, the first confined field trials in Nigeria to use genetically engineered organisms, and ex ante impact analyses support the efficacy of using transgenic strategies for the biofortification of cassava.

  110. Mobile phone use is associated with higher smallholder agricultural productivity in Tanzania, East Africa

    Mobile phone use is increasing in Sub-Saharan Africa, spurring a growing focus on mobile phones as tools to increase agricultural yields and incomes on smallholder farms. However, the research to date on this topic is mixed, with studies finding both positive and neutral associations between phones and yields. In this paper we examine perceptions about the impacts of mobile phones on agricultural productivity, and the relationships between mobile phone use and agricultural yield. We do so by fitting multilevel statistical models to data from farmer-phone owners (n = 179) in 4 rural communities in Tanzania, controlling for site and demographic factors. Results show a positive association between mobile phone use for agricultural activities and reported maize yields. Further, many farmers report that mobile phone use increases agricultural profits (67% of respondents) and decreases the costs (50%) and time investments (47%) of farming. Our findings suggest that there are opportuni- ties to target policy interventions at increasing phone use for agricultural activities in ways that facilitate access to timely, actionable information to support farmer decision making.

  111. Linkages between dietary diversity and indicators of agricultural biodiversity in Burkina Faso

    This paper assesses the relationships between women’s dietary diversity and various indicators of agricultural biodiversity in farms of the Hauts-Bassins, a cotton-growing region in rural western Burkina Faso. A sample of 579 farms representative of the region was surveyed at three different periods of the year. Using a qualitative 24-h dietary recall, we computed a women’s dietary diversity score (WDDS-10) based on ten food groups. We used four crop diversity indicators: crop count (CC), Simpson’s index (SI), nutritional functional diversity (NFD) and production diversity score (PDS) based on the same food groups as in the WDDS-10. We also counted the number of agroforestry tree species that provide food and the number of animal species raised. Mean WDDS-10 was low (3.4 ± 1.5 food groups) and did not vary between seasons, whereas the food groups consumed changed according to harvests. Farm production is based on cereals and cotton with low diversity (on average 2.2 ± 1.0 food groups were cultivated on each farm). Results of mixed models showed that WDDS-10 is positively associated with PDS and the number of agroforestry trees species. In this area, dietary diversity of women in farming households depends on the on-farm production of nutritionally diverse crops, partly because when a crop is produced some of it is usually consumed by the members of the farm household. In addition, WDDS-10 was found to be negatively associated with cotton production when managed by male farm heads, but positively when managed by women. Our results show that assessing the relationships between WDDS-10 and agricultural biodiversity depends on how the latter is assessed. In Burkina Faso, enhancing agricultural biodiversity, especially nutrient-dense crops and agroforestry trees, could be an appropriate way to improve dietary diversity.

  112. The effect of improved storage innovations on food security and welfare in Ethiopia

    Postharvest loss exacerbates the food insecurity and welfare loss of farming households in developing countries. This paper analyses the effect of improved storage, a climate-smart crop management technology, on household food and nutrition security, market participation and welfare using nationally representative data from Ethiopia. Endogenous switching regression models are employed to control for selection bias and unobserved heterogeneity. The results show that improved storage use is mainly associated with climatic factors, access to extension service, liquidity constraints, infrastructure and market access. Improved storage significantly increases the dietary diversity, reduces child malnutrition and negative changes in diet. In addition, use of improved storage technologies increases farmers' participation in output markets as sellers, the proportion of harvest sold and their marketing flexibility by altering the choice of market outlets. Further, the paper provides evidence that households that did not use improved storage would have benefited significantly had they decided to adopt. Overall, the study suggests that improved storage technologies are effective tools for risk coping and enhancing food security and would play a key role in the current debate of feeding a growing population in the face of climate change.

  113. Africa's Unfinished Business: Building Sustainable Agricultural Research Systems

    This paper addresses four questions: · What lessons can be drawn from the "rise and decline" of NARS in Africa? · What can African research managers learn from some of the successful reforms of NARS in Asia and Latin America over the past 10 to 15 years? · What are the major challenges facing the NARS in the ASARECA region in the coming 10-20 years? · What are the critical reforms and the incentives needed to develop pluralistic, accountable, productive and financially self-sustaining NARS in AFRICA?

  114. Africa’s youth in agrifood systems: Innovation in the context of COVID-19

    Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, young entrepreneurs in agrifood systems in sub-Saharan Africa were already facing a number of challenges. The main challenges include limited access to natural resources, finance, technology, knowledge and information, and insufficient participation in policy dialogues and other decision-making processes. The COVID-19 pandemic and its disruptions to agricultural value chains are presenting additional hurdles for these agripreneurs. Without focused and appropriately designed response interventions addressing their specific constraints and contexts, it is increasingly observed that some of the policy responses and measures put in place by governments to halt the spread of the virus are exacerbating the existing challenges that the youth are facing in engaging in agrifood systems. For example, several formal and informal micro, small and medium-sized agribusinesses that employ many young people, have been forced to close or downscale significantly as a result of lockdowns and movement restrictions at national and local levels. FAO, together with other members of the United Nations Inter-Agency Network on Youth Development (IANYD), has called for effective and safe partnerships with young people during and after the COVID-19 crisis to ensure that government and development partners’ response measures are inclusive of youth’s needs.

  115. Ghana Cocoa & Forests Initiative National Implementation Plan

    Ghana’s cocoa production belt also serves as the main forests repository of the country. Cocoa farm- ing is both a direct and indirect driver of deforesta- tion in Ghana (UNEP, 2008). This implies that critical interventions are needed to deal with deforestation emanating from cocoa production.

    The World Cocoa Foundation and the Sustainable Trade Initiative in collaboration with the Internation- al Sustainability Unit of the Office of the Prince of Wales have partnered with governments of Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire and private cocoa companies to initiate the Cocoa and Forests Initiative (CFI). The CFI aims at providing the enabling environment for the cocoa sector players to positively contribute to the preservation of forests in Ghana and the coun- try’s economy.

    The initiative takes a holistic approach to tackle the complex problem of deforestation in cocoa produc- tion with a prime focus on three thematic areas: 1) sustainable production and farmers’ livelihoods, 2) forest protection and restoration, and 3) community engagement and social inclusion. These are codified in an overarching Framework for Action for Ghana and its National Implementation Plan (NIP).

    The main objective of the CFI as outlined in the Joint Framework for Action is for private sector to closely partner the government of Ghana and align with national objectives and strategies for reducing deforestation in the cocoa sector. Thus, national efforts will be complemented by the implementation of individual private companies’ action plans focus- ing on some or all the elements of the NIP. Public and private partners in the cocoa sustainability and forest management sectors will demonstrate that agricultural production and forest management can go hand in hand in a sustainable manner to attain sustainable development.

    The NIP is strongly hinged on enhancing and align- ing with existing initiatives and ongoing projects and programs by government of Ghana and private com- panies including the Ghana Cocoa Board and For- estry Commission’s REDD+ program on sustainable cocoa production, farmers’ livelihood, Community Engagement and Social Inclusion as well as initia- tives on reducing deforestation and forest degrada- tion. The Initiative will also contribute to long-term goals set by government and industry through a phased approach.

  116. Factors That Determine the Adoption of Improved Irish Potato Technologies by Farmers in the Western Region of Cameroon

    This work examined the determinants of the adoption of improved Irish potato technologies by farmers in three divisions of the Western Region of Cameroon. Data were collected from 170 farmers from 14 villages in our study area using a mixed-method approach—structured questionnaires, focus group discussion, key informant interviews, and participatory observations with individual farmers and farmers belonging to cooperative and common initiative groups. The study employed descriptive statistics and regression analysis to assess the adoption status of farmers and its determinants. The logistic regression analysis showed that farmers’ experience in the cultivation of potatoes, the number of follow-ups, and access to extension facilities after training had a significant positive effect on the adoption of these new technologies while membership to an association had a significant negative effect. Additionally, farmers who received improved seeds from NGOs were more likely to adopt a technology than those who did not. Our results suggested that constant follow-up and training of experienced farmers and the provision of improved potato seeds have the potential of maintaining high rates of Irish potato adoption west in Cameroon irrespective of whether they belong to cooperative or not. We recommend that the number of follow-ups, extension training, and market linkages for farmers should be increased. Additionally, more farmers should join farmer groups such as cooperatives or common initiative groups to increase their awareness rate and adopt improved potato innovation through farm extension.

  117. Does Intensive Tillage Enhance Productivity and Reduce Risk Exposure? Panel Data Evidence from Smallholders’ Agriculture in Ethiopia

    We analyse the impact of intensity of tillage on wheat productivity and risk exposure using panel household-plot level data from Ethiopia. In order to control for selection bias, we estimate a flexible moment-based production function using an endogenous switching regression treatment effects model. We find that tillage has a complementary impact on productivity and risk exposure. As the intensity of tillage increases, productivity increases and farmers’ exposure to risk declines. Our results suggest that smallholder farmers use tillage as an ex-ante risk management strategy. The main policy implication of this study is that the opportunity cost of switching to reduced tillage in wheat production seem rather high unless farmers are supported by appropriate incentive schemes.

  118. Determinants of Food Security and Technical Efficiency among Agricultural Households in Nigeria

    The challenge of food security in Nigeria hinges on several factors of which poor technical efficiency is key. Using a stochastic frontier framework, we estimated the technical efficiency of agricultural households in Nigeria and tested for the significance of mean technical efficiency of food-secure and food-insecure agricultural households. We further assessed the determinants of agricultural households’ inefficiencies within the stochastic frontier model and adopted a standard probit model to assess the determinants of households’ food security status. The results of our analyses revealed that; on the overall, the agricultural households had a mean technical efficiency of 52%, suggesting that agricultural households have the tendency of improving their technical efficiency by 48% using the available resource more efficiently. We found that households that are food-secure are more technically efficient than food in-secure households and this was significant at one-percent. Our results provide useful insights into the role of land size and number of assets as determinants of agricultural households’ food security and technical efficiency status.

  119. Effect of Group and Leader Attributes on Men and Women Farmers’ Participation in Group Activities in Zambia

    Since development agencies often implement interventions through collective-action groups such as farmer cooperatives and self-help groups, there is a need to understand how participation is affected by group-level and leader attributes. This study collected gender-disaggregated, quantitative and qualitative data on sixty-eight self-help groups in Zambia to understand the participation of men and women farmers in different crop-production activities. Results show that participation rates of men and women are the same across all maize production activities except harvesting. The gender composition of members influenced men’s and women’s participation in group activities: when men were fewer in a group, they (men) participated more, while when more women were in a group (above 53 percent), the women participated less. Leader’s education level, knowledge of group agenda, and frequency of meetings also affected participation rates. To design collective action groups that promote gender equity outcomes, gender composition of groups should be considered.

  120. Impact of a participatory agroecological development project on household wealth and food security in Malawi

    This paper presents the impacts of a participatory agroecological development project on food security and wealth levels. The Malawi Farmer to Farmer Agroecology project (MAFFA) encourages farmer experimentation, community involvement and farmer-to-farmer teaching on agroecology, nutrition and gender equity. Recent international assessments of agriculture have highlighted the urgent need for changes in farming practices in Sub-Saharan Africa, due to land degradation, high levels of food insecurity and anticipated climate change impacts. Agroecological approaches have shown great potential to address these multiple needs. Using a longitudinal panel survey data and propensity score matching to account for selection bias in project participation, we analyzed the impact of the project on household income and food security in Malawi in 2012 (Wave 1 = 1200 households) and in 2014 (Wave 2 = 1000 households). We used the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for impact evaluation. Estimates of average treatment-effects using difference in difference methods showed that participating in MAFFA has led to a significant increase in household wealth (β = 3.54, p = 0.01) and a large reduction in food insecurity (β = −3.21, p = 0.01) compared to non-participants, after 2 years, even after accounting for covariates and selection bias. These results indicate that agroecological methods combined with farmer led knowledge exchanges can be welfare enhancing, both in terms of food security and in terms of income for family farm households. Agroecological approaches should be promoted through upscaling of farmer-to-farmer knowledge exchanges, community involvement and attention to nutrition and social equity to enhance farmer learning and household welfare benefits.

  121. Fostering Crop Productivity in Rural Rwanda: Policy Implications

    Agriculture continues to be the backbone of the economy of Rwanda contributing more than a third of the country’s GDP. The government of Rwanda with collaboration of researchers and its population has to stress on policies and projects to stimulate productivity as they are many corners in agriculture sector to be improved. Bolstering the livelihoods in developing countries is feasible through maintenance of food sovereignty and safety by increasing productivity. The research spotlights the policies to improve the livelihood of rural population of Rwanda through crop productivity improvement. The current review concluded that the government should take the first ride to innovate farming systems. The future researches will examine precisely each policy spotlighted in the current research and provide practical process to achieve the government goal of being the middle income country.

  122. Rwanda’s Commercialization of Smallholder Agriculture: Implications for Rural Food Production and Household Food Choices

    Rwanda has experienced exceptional economic growth since 2000 despite more than 60% of the predominately-agrarian population living on less than $1.25 a day. Approximately 76% of the country’s working population are engaged in agricultural production, which makes up about one-third of the national economy. Agriculture is also an important source of foreign exchange, making up about 63% of the value of Rwanda’s exports. An important component of household diets – food produced on subsistence agriculture parcels averaging 0.6 ha – faces the challenge by government and private sector development to replace subsistence farming with a value-creating market-oriented food sector. A complex set of relationships across public incentives and programs encourages participation in markets. Designed to promote wealth, the Crop Intensification Program (CIP) has increased access to land, inputs, extension services, markets, supply chains, etc. Wealth and access to land are the dominant predictors of the ability to participate in markets and the extent of participation. For example, smallholders producing a diversity of crops are more likely to sell in markets. Within the confluence of competing policy objectives and market forces, further research is necessary to understand the household-level tradeoffs of both producers and consumers along the food value chain.

  123. Revisiting Rwanda’s agricultural intensification policy: benefits of embracing farmer heterogeneity and crop-livestock integration strategies

    The government of Rwanda is promoting agricultural intensification focused on the production of a small number of targeted commodities as a central strategy to pursue the joint policy goals of economic growth, food security and livelihood development. The dominant approach to increase the productive capacity of the land, crops and animal resources has been through large-scale land consolidation, soil fertility management, and the intensive use of biotechnology and external inputs. However, evidence has shown that many Rwandan farmers, who employ various strategies and mixed farming practices based on their specific economic, social, and environmental circumstances, face difficulties adopting the singular prescribed approach to become more productive, modern commodity producers. To empirically explore diversity in smallholders’ strategies and their contributions to livelihoods and compatibility with the recent intensification policies, we conducted household surveys and in-depth qualitative interviews in rural and peri-urban zones in Rwamagana district in Eastern Rwanda. Our analysis demonstrates how the dominant approach to intensification and specialisation overlooks the heterogeneity and dynamic nature of smallholder strategies. Moreover, our findings illustrate that a comprehensive understanding of farmer heterogeneity is necessary to explain the critical disjuncture between the government’s vision of modern agriculture and the ability of many smallholders to engage with this agenda and may inform opportunities to adapt policies to better align productivity goals and livelihoods. In doing so, we contribute to debates about the current framing of intensification policy that promotes Green Revolution technologies and emphasise alternative pathways for more inclusive and resilient agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa.

  124. The Influence of Multi-Stakeholder Platforms on Farmer Innovation and Rural Development in Emerging Economies: Examples from Uganda

    An extensive discussion in academic literature and policy currently celebrates Multi-Stakeholder Platforms (MSPs) as novel organizational forms that promote knowledge co-creation and innovation uptake among farmers and other stakeholders to address great challenges surrounding agri-food systems. While MSPs represent relatively novel organizations to address critical challenges such as rural poverty, food insecurity, and the negative effects of climate change, little is known on how they influence farmer innovation. This thesis investigates how agricultural MSPs influence farmer innovation and rural development in emerging economies. By empirically investigating one MSP in the Manafwa district located in the Eastern region of Uganda, this thesis combines qualitative and quantitative research methods. First, it provides an overview on what MSPs are and how they influence farmer innovation in emerging economies. Second, it assesses how farmers’ heterogeneity, in terms of entrepreneurial orientation and value network embeddedness, influences agricultural innovation in the context of one MSP. In the first part of this thesis, a systematic literature review (SRL) provides an overview on what MSPs are and how they influence farmers’ innovation in emerging economies. The second part of the study, based on secondary data from 44 papers published from 2005 through 2018 and primary data of 152 survey questionnaires filled in by and 27 in-depth interviews with Ugandan coffee farmers, shows a model fit of a Confirmatory Factor Analysis, a Partial Least Square multi-variate statistics, and a Value Network Analysis, to understand why farmers participating in the same MSPs may innovate to different extents, thus potentially generating dynamics of socio-economic exclusion. Results of this study identify that MSPs tend to achieve different intermediary outcomes (impact pathways) and levels of innovation depending on their organizational goals and activities. These findings also reveal four key limitations of the extant MSP literature – namely, disciplinary silos-thinking, linear-thinking, limited focus on the role of informal institutions, and little emphasis on power dynamics – which, if addressed, as in the current study, would more comprehensively inform managers and policy-makers on how MSPs may influence farmer innovation. The empirical findings of this thesis reveal how two of the three key dimensions of farmers’ entrepreneurial orientation - namely, proactiveness and innovativeness - drives product, process, and market innovation in the context of one coffee MSP in Uganda. Furthermore, this study suggests that farmers within MSPs show remarkable differences in their socio-economic status, value network embeddedness, and levels of product, process, and market innovation. This may suggest that power unbalances may underlie how MSPs influence agricultural innovation. In particular, farmers’ value network embeddedness both drives and is driven by agricultural innovation.

  125. Xanthomonas Wilt of Banana (BXW) in Central Africa: Opportunities, challenges, and pathways for citizen science and ICT-based control and prevention strategies

    Xanthomonas Wilt of Banana (BXW) is a complex problem in the African Great Lakes Region that is affecting the livelihoods of millions of smallholder farmers. Since the first disease reports from Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2001, BXW has been studied widely. The majority of these studies focus on the technological or biophysical dimensions, while aspects and influence of socio-cultural, economic and institutional dimensions only recently started to gain attention. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the broader BXW problem using a systems perspective, with the aim to add to the understanding about reasons for poor uptake of appropriate disease management practices, and limited ability to prevent rather than control BXW in the region. We comprehensively describe and analyse the various problem dimensions, and determine relations with data, information, knowledge, and connectivity. Building on this, the paper explores and discusses entry-points for the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and citizen science tools to better address BXW in banana production systems.

  126. Mitigating climate change through reduced food loss and waste


    Introduction to CCAFS and CGIAR: Why food loss and waste? - Lini Wollenberg

    The Food Loss and Waste Calculator and how it can be used to mitigate climate change - Jan Broeze

    Understanding Smallholder Farmers’ Post-Harvest Behaviors: Evidence from Malawi - Tabitha Nindi

    Effects of Amending Soil with Organic Matter on Population Change of Aspergillus flavus and Antagonistic Microbiome: and on Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut in Malawi - Norah Machinjiri

    Quantifying GHG emissions of agrifood chain and associated food loss and food waste in China - Li Xue

    A Stepping-Stone to the evidence base for the mitigation of N2O emission from reduced food loss and waste in China and Myanmar - Xia Liang

    Food waste reduction entrepreneurship initiative and associated impacts: a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment - Daniele Matzembacher

  127. FAO’s work on agricultural innovation

    This brochure presents FAO ’s work on agricultural innovation. FAO advocates a shift from interventions focusing on single components of agricultural innovation towards a system-approach aimed at strengthening institutions and stakeholders’ networks that better respond to the needs of smallholder farmers. Agricultural innovation is the process whereby individuals or organizations bring new or existing products, processes or ways of organization into use for the first time in a specific context in order to increase effectiveness, competitiveness, resilience to shocks or environmental sustainability and thereby contribute to food security and nutrition, economic development or sustainable natural resource management. Innovation is central to lifting family farmers out of poverty, tackling unemployment for youth and rural women, and helping the world to achieve food security and the Sustainable Development Goals.

  128. Enhancing knowledge exchange and performance recording through use of short messaging service in smallholder dairy farming systems in Malawi

    Monitoring animal performance is a challenge due to lack of systematic recording in the smallholder dairy sector in Malawi. A mobile recording system using short messaging service (SMS) was therefore trialled for data capturing and subsequent feedback provision to farmers following analyses and interpretation. This study aimed at drawing lessons regarding use of SMS recording system among dairy farmers. Of the 210 participants, 85% were farmers and 25% were other dairy value chain players. Farmers were from eight intervened (monitored for 18 months) and eight control Milk Bulking Groups (MBG). There are three regions in Malawi and Central region had the highest participants [59% (124)] than Northern [23% (49)] and Southern [1% (2)] regions submitting data using SMS. Milk production was the most recorded data and analyses showed that mean yield in litres per cow (10.7 ± 0.14) was similar to average estimate in literature for Malawi (10.4 ± 1.57). Household daily milk consumption (1.2 ± 0.04), milk sold through formal market (610.0 ± 55) and amount of milk rejected per day per MBG (5.9 ± 0.86) in litres were captured. Farmers asked questions and received timely feedback via SMS. Therefore, it is possible to capture quality data using SMS technology that is adequate for conducting analyses to inform decision-making.

  129. Exploring factors that shape small-scale farmers’ opinions on the adoption of eco-friendly nets for vegetable production

    If agro-ecological systems are to realize their potential as sustainable alter- natives to conventional agricultural systems, innovation diffusion needs to be enhanced. We conducted surveys among 214 small-scale vegetable farmers in Benin, a food-deficit country in West Africa, on how they perceived the different attributes of eco-friendly nets (EFNs). The nets act as physical barriers against insects in vegetable production and so reduce pesticide use. Understanding farmer perceptions about new technologies helps reveal farmers’ propensity to adopt them. Intensity of attitude was measured on a Likert scale, and an ordered probit model was used to determine which characteristics of nets were most influential. Eighteen percent of farmers thought that EFNs would benefit them, but almost half preferred not to adopt this technology at all. The main reason for rejecting the nets was the perceived high labor requirement, particularly on larger plots of land. This largely negative perception was strongest among farmers with large areas cultivated with vegetables, farmers who had little or no experience in a trial, and those living far from extension services. We recommend expanded trials that engage a higher proportion of farmers, strengthening of external support for those wanting to use the nets and further technological development to reduce labor costs, improved access to finance and increased education about the negative impacts of insecticides abuse.

  130. National Agricultural Innovation System Assessment in Malawi. Consolidated report

    The national assessment of the agricultural innovation system (AIS) in Malawi was conducted using a framework of four types of analyses: functional, structural, capacity and enabling environment analysis. The approach included five case studies that addressed three methods including the use of indigenous methods for fall armyworm (FAW) control in Farmer Field Schools (FFS), livestock transfer programs, and a horticulture marketing innovation platform in Mzimba, Ntchisi, Balaka, and Thyolo districts. 

    Based on the findings of the assessment, the report recommends refocusing research to develop a systems thinking approach and move from supply-driven to demand-driven research. The study also suggests providing AIS stakeholders with knowledge and skills in marketing and advocacy. Higher education institutions and research institutes need to be proactive and engage in networking activities with other AIS stakeholders in Malawi.

  131. Adoption and Dissemination Pathways for Climate-Smart Agriculture Technologies and Practices for Climate-Resilient Livelihoods in Lushoto, Northeast Tanzania

    Smallholder farmers in East Africa need information and knowledge on appropriate climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices, technologies, and institutional innovations in order to effectively adapt to changing climatic conditions and cope with climate variability. This paper assesses farmer adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices and innovation after being exposed to Farms of the Future Approach (FotF). First; we explore and assess the various CSA technologies and practices; including institutional innovations farmers are adopting. Second; we identify and document farmer learning and dissemination pathways that can enhance adoption of CSA technologies and practices. Third; we identify existing institutions that enhance adoption of CSA practices. We use household survey data, complemented by qualitative information from focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The results show farmers are adopting a variety of CSA technologies, practices, and institutional innovations to after participating in the FotF approach with use of improved crop varieties, agroforestry, and scientific weather forecast information cited as the main practices. To minimize their risks and reduce vulnerabilities, farmers are diversifying and integrating five to 10 CSA practices in one season. Matengo pits, SACCOs, and efficient energy stoves were adopted by very few farmers due to their high initial investment costs and unsuitability to the area. Ninety-eight percent of farmers reported that they receive agricultural information orally from a variety of sources including government extension workers, seed companies, researchers, traditional experts, neighbors, radio agricultural shows, religious groups, farmer groups, and family members. Lastly, farmers reported that the FotF approach is a useful tool that enabled them to interact with other farmers and learn new CSA practices and innovations. Suggested improvements to make on the FotF included include longer trip duration, increased number of farmer participants, and gender balance and age considerations to include youth.

  132. Assessment of Strategic Management Practices in Small Agribusiness Firms in Tanzania

    Strategic management (STM) is recognized as an important element for firms’ success; however, small firms, especially in agribusiness, have widely been overlooked because it is often thought that a systematic STM is exclusively for large corporate firms. Firms engage in STM practices such as environmental analysis, formulation of mission and vision statements, strategic planning, implementation, evaluation, etc., regardless of their size. The firms need to work out strategic plans to exploit the existing market, but past research shows that they differ in their capacity to implement and manage strategies. Whether or not they implement, the ability depends on the features of the firm itself, its resources and the conditions in the external environment.  However, the need of STM practices for small firms is not well understood and the determinants for its successful application in small firms are not evidently known. With regard to African agribusiness firms, there is scant research on how the environmental factors determine the application of STM practices. Hence, using empirical data from 229 firms in Tanzania, the study conducts partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) analyses to estimate a model of the determinants of STM application that leads to firm performance, a mediating effect of STM application and a multigroup analysis by application of finite mixture PLS technique (FIMIX-PLS). Lastly, a case study is given to demonstrate challenges facing agribusiness firms in Tanzania.   In the first part of the analysis (Chapter two), the study explores to what extent the application of STM practices is affected by internal and external factors of the firms. Ideas from resource-based theory (RBT) and industrial organization (I/O) are used to build a conceptual model and formulation of hypotheses. Results show significantly that better strategic actions reside in the capabilities of firm managers, whereas many external factors, such as access to public infrastructure, did not turn out to have a significant influence. Application of STM was more prevalent in firms with extra access to funds. Hence the study calls on policymakers to accelerate, promote and advocate for more supportive services such as accessible financial services as well as managerial training programmes. Impacts of other factors are explained in detail. The findings have interesting implications for the management of agribusiness firms in African countries and other developing and emerging economies.    In the second part of the analysis (Chapter three), a mediation analysis is performed to demonstrate the role of strategic management in facilitating effective use of resources to achieve performance. Using ‘level of managerial expertise’ and ‘access to market information’ as primary resources, this research presents various arguments about their contribution to firm performance. Results indicate that the investigated resources alone do not directly contribute to firm performance unless there is an application of strategic management. Further investigation based on multigroup analysis shows three groups of firms which differ in their resources-performance relationship. The results imply that the small firms’ paths to achieve performance are different hence managers ought to identify a fit between their resources and strategic actions in order to improve the firm performance. The study provides manifold managerial implications for small firms that seek to improve firm performance. It is useful for small firm managers to apply modern management techniques of firm operations in order to make timely strategic decisions depending on the available resources. Lastly, the case study explains challenges that can affect achievement of firms’ strategies for agribusiness firms in Tanzania (Chapter four). Some of these challenges include: stringent business regulations, poor availability of storage facilities, poor infrastructure, inability to penetrate international markets, poor progress in the implementation of policy recommendations and poor collaboration between scientist, researchers and actors in food supply chains. Considering the challenges, the firms should focus on improving their business skills, engage in public-private partnership programs and communicate policy shortfalls to the government.  Overall, this study provides an early inquiry into small firms’ STM application. More progress surrounding the application can be further explained with the help of in-depth case studies and analyses of longitudinal data.

  133. How Do Farmers Learn from Extension Services? Evidence from Malawi

    Though extension services have long since proved their value to agricultural production and farmer prosperity, their record in sub-Saharan Africa has been mixed. To study the impact of such programs on farmers' learning about agricultural technologies, we implemented a quasi-randomized controlled trial and collected detailed panel data among Malawian farmers. Based on those findings, we develop a two-stage learning framework, in which farmers formulate yield expectations before deciding on how much effort to invest in learning about these processes. Using data centered on farmer beliefs, knowledge, and constraints, we find evidence that beliefs about potential yields hinge on first-hand and local experience, and that these beliefs significantly impact learning efforts. Consistent with this, we find that farmers who participated in season-long, farmer-led demonstration plot cultivation plan to adopt more components of new multi-component technology, compared to farmers who were invited to attend only field-day events.

  134. Does the accessibility of a farmer predict the delivery of extension services? Evidence from Rwanda

    To determine whether a farmer’s accessibility predicts the delivery of extension services, this study used banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease-management advisory as a typical case with which to collect extension-delivery information from 690 farmers, distinguished by their respective accessibility. Cost–distance analysis was applied to define each farmer’s accessibility. The results revealed that a farmer’s accessibility does not predict extension delivery to that farmer in all forms of the examined extension parameters. Significant factors contributing to the delivery of extension services included BXW incidence and membership in Twigire Muhinzi groups. Given the results of this paper, I argue that the nature of the advisory and the type of farmers’ networks are more predictive factors than physical proximity. The findings of this study support the argument that the group-based extension approach is more effective; therefore, the Twigire Muhinzi initiative is recommended as a suitable model for delivering agricultural advisory services. The absence of a significant association between extension delivery and distance (accessibility) suggests that extension agents do not follow the first-reached, first-served rule but instead follow the problem-solving-based approach.



  135. Development communication campaign promotes sustainable management of fall armyworm in Kenya

    CABI and the Cereal Growers Association (CGA) have been sharing information with farmers in Kenya on how to effectively and safely manage the continuing threat of the invasive fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). This was achieved thanks to a  development communication campaign that combined video sharing through a network of lead farmers and social media.

  136. E-KOKARI - Providing information to farmers in Niger through an Interactive Voice Response Platform

    E‐KOKARI is an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) platform, developed in Niger, which enables farmers, breeders and buyers to access information, advice, warnings and market prices in the  field of agriculture and livestock. When a user dials a short  number from his phone he can access a voice menu in the main  local languages (French, Hausa and Zarma) of the country, which  guides him/her according to his/her needs.  A prototype was developed and tested during a period of 10  months in the course of 2017, but the practice still needs to be  implemented and evaluated in the field.

    In Niger, more than 80% of the population lives in  rural areas and has poor access to accurate and  timely information to improve their agricultural  practices. In addition, according to UNICEF, about  70% of the adult population is illiterate, which  means that they cannot read and often do not even  speak French, which is the official language of the  country. However, currently the information  available for farmers is mostly written and in  French, which results in limited use by farmers and  breeders. Up till now, most of Niger’s farmers and  breeders remain without access to the necessary  information to improve their production. 
    On the other hand, the use of mobile phones and the  number of mobile phones in Niger has been  increasing every year. More and more farmers now  own or have access to a mobile phone. In 2015, on a  total population of about 20 million inhabitants, 7 184 270 mobile phones were in use. In 2016, this  number increased to 7 719 981 mobile phones.  In this context, and to bring answers to the cited  problems, E-­KOKARI was developed to help  farmers, breeders and buyers to get access to  information, advices, alerts and market prices in  their own local language by using a mobile phone  (smartphone and normal mobile phone). All the  data available on the platform are also voice  recorded in the local languages and the users can  get access to the information by dialing a short code  on their phone and navigate through a simple menu  to obtain the information they need.

  137. Developing pathways to improve smallholder agricultural productivity through ecological intensification technologies in semi-arid Limpopo, South Africa

    Agriculture faces an enormous global challenge of feeding nine billion people by 2050. This means a comprehensive intensification of agriculture is required. Ecological intensification is gaining momentum as a clearly defined vision for increasing agriculture productivity and sustainability. How ecological intensification could be tailored to benefit smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the major question. In this study, we develop pathways relying on ecological intensification technologies and suiting different farm types of smallholder agriculture. This study relies on multiyear engagements with agricultural experts and smallholder farmers in Ha Lambani, South Africa and leads to the identification of farmer groupings. We analyse 40 in-depth semi-structured interviews with farmers which leads to the identification of farming patterns and constraints. We present how farming systems analysis of challenges and constraints helps to identify and link specific ecosystem services with suitable ecological intensification options. We conclude that the expert-based classification of farmers offered a more contextualized representation of farming system heterogeneity, where tailored ecological intensification technologies could play a major role in improving agricultural productivity. Beyond this community, it emphasizes the need to consider farmers type heterogeneity as a strong decision parameter for targeting ecological intensification.

  138. Contribution of an innovation platform to change the management of collective irrigation: a case study from the Office du Niger (Mali)

    In the Office du Niger large rice farming irrigation scheme in Mali, water management has been a permanent source of tension between the smallholder tenants and the administration. The transfer of tertiary canal maintenance to the tenant farmers was expected to improve water management but, in practice, that rather led to deterioration. An innovation platform, erected by the CoS-SIS (Convergence of Sciences – Strengthening Innovation Systems) Program, reached a consensual agreement to transfer the maintenance of tertiary canals to the tenant producers, and updated the Contrat Plan expropriation rules for failure to pay water fees as well as many other key dispositions ruling duties and responsibilities for all parties: farmers, Office du Niger agents and the State.

  139. Culturing Development: Bananas, Petri Dishes and ‘Mad Science’

    This paper analyses a biotechnology-focused project which aims to promote the development and adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale farmers in Kenya. The paper highlights the generation of several important narratives that are used to justify the development and dissemination of this technology. First, a disaster narrative, a series of claims regarding rural livelihoods and banana production in Kenya, is generated. This creates a political and technical space for the creation of a new science that can solve these problems. Finally a series of claims regarding the efficacy of the technology in alleviating poverty are made. The project wields these various constructs to create a particular projection of rural Kenya and banana production, deploying data, statistics, economics and ‘facts’ in order to continually redefine the project as a success. The project can, through a process of defining its own boundaries and limits, justify a technology-led solution to a complex and nuanced set of problems – the biological subsuming the political. The project thus succeeds as a generator of discourses as much as a generator of technologies.

  140. Evaluation of agricultural expansion areas in the Egyptian deserts: A review using remote sensing and GIS

    Agricultural expansion areas in the Egyptian deserts are one of the main governmental inputs that increased during the last decade. Evaluation of such agricultural lands helps decision makers in strategic planning of future projects. The present review paper highlights recent research studies conducted to evaluate some of the newly agricultural expansion areas in the Egyptian deserts using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) integrated with Remote Sensing technologies considering the main evaluation criteria and constraints. Moreover, various examples of agricultural expansion areas in the Western Desert are highlighted. Field observations, sampling, laboratory analyses, remote sensing and GIS are the most common tools used in the presented case studies. This review article supports the future governmental plans for protecting the wealth of cultivated lands and limits the illegal infringements on these lands that will accordingly protect other lands, planned to be used for urban expansion.

  141. Mobile Phones and Farmers’ Marketing Decisions in Ethiopia

    This paper examines the impact of mobile phones on farmers’ marketing decisions and prices they receive based on household- and village-level information collected from rural Ethiopia. It explains the reason for the weak impact of mobile phones observed in this study as well as in previous studies in Africa. We argue that even though many farmers participate in information searching, the number of farmers who use mobile phones for information searching is very small. The reason for such low use of mobile phones for information searching seems to be lack of relevant information that can be accessed through mobile phones.

  142. Integrated soil fertility management in eastern and western Africa: The role of knowledge and innovation systems, its adoption and impact

    Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) has been promoted by research and philanthropic organizations as well as governments in an attempt to increase crop yields and improve livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Africa. As this has largely been a continent-wide initiative, it is surprising that there is still scant information on its impact on crop yields and household income. This paper uses a counterfactual model to assess ISFM impact on yields and total household incomes using farm household data from Tamale (northern Ghana) and Kakamega (western Kenya). Descriptive results show that maize yields on plots where ISFM was implemented are higher but there are no differences in profitability. In addition, total household income is higher for adopters than non-adopters in Tamale. The analyses reveal that ISFM adoption leads to an increase in maize yields by up to 16% both in Tamale and Kakamega. Adoption of the innovation increases total household income by 20% in Tamale. Some implications for future research are discussed.

  143. Effects of marketing contracts and resource-providing contracts in the African small farm sector: Insights from oil palm production in Ghana

    Smallholder farmers in developing countries often suffer from high risk and limited market access. Contract farming may improve the situation under certain conditions. Several studies analyzed effects of contracts on smallholder productivity and income with mixed results. Most existing studies focused on one particular contract scheme. Contract characteristics rarely differ within one scheme, so little is known about how different contract characteristics may influence the benefits for smallholders. Here, we address this research gap using data from oil palm farmers in Ghana who participate in different contract schemes. Some of the farmers have simple marketing contracts, while others have resource-providing contracts where the buyer also offers inputs and technical services on credit. A comparison group cultivates oil palm without any contract. Regression models that control for selection bias show that resource-providing contracts increase farmers‟ input use and yield. Resourceproviding contracts also incentivize higher levels of specialization and an increase in the scale of production. These effects are especially pronounced for small and medium-sized farms. In contrast, the marketing contracts have no significant effects on input use, productivity, and scale of production. The results suggest that resource-providing contracts alleviate market access constraints, while the marketing contracts do not.

  144. Nutrition effects of the supermarket revolution on urban consumers and smallholder farmers in Kenya

    Food systems in developing countries are transforming, involving a rapid expansion of supermarkets. This supermarket revolution may affect dietary patterns and nutrition, but empirical evidence is scarce. The few existing studies have analyzed implications for food consumers and producers separately. We discuss a more integrated framework that helps to gain a broader understanding. Reviewing recent evidence from Kenya, we show that buying food in supermarkets instead of traditional outlets contributes to overnutrition among adults, while reducing undernutrition among children. For farm households, supplying supermarkets causes improvements in dietary quality. The results underline that supermarkets influence nutrition in multiple ways and directions.

  145. Promoting written employment contracts: evidence from a randomised awareness campaign

    Written employment contracts may improve the conditions of agricultural workers in developing countries, but farmers as employers often prefer less formal oral arrangements. We evaluate whether farmers’ preferences, which are deeply rooted in traditional norms, can be influenced through a group awareness campaign. In a randomised experiment in Côte d’Ivoire, we show that such a campaign increases farmers’ preferences for written contracts and for contract features involving social benefits for workers. The campaign also increases farmers’ likelihood to initiate concrete steps towards signing a contract with their workers. We conclude that group-based interventions can change farmers’ traditional views about employment relations.

  146. Assessment of Farmers’ Utilization of Global System for Mobile (GSM) For Communication in the Fadama III Program in Taraba State, Nigeria

    The study assesses the farmers’ use of Global System for Mobile (GSM) for communication among farmers in agricultural extension programs in Taraba State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives include: identify key areas in which GSM are used for communication in agricultural extension programs activities, determine the frequency of usage of GSM for information exchange between farmers and extension personnel; and ascertain farmers’ satisfaction in the use of GSM in obtaining information in the various agricultural extension programs. The population for this study included all beneficiaries/farmers under the agricultural extension programs in Taraba state, Nigeria. Purposive sampling was adopted because of the accessibility of the selected three Local Government Areas (LGAs), (Ardo-Kola, Jalingo & Lau) throughout the year. Five Fadama User Groups (FUGs) were randomly selected from each LGA to constitute fifteen FUGs for the study. From each FUG, ten respondents were drawn randomly to give a sample size for the study. In the Fadama III project, respondents’ key areas of communications with personnel of the project included: group formation (88%), mobilization of members for participation in Fadama III programs and activities (87.3%), awareness creation of Fadama III intervention (82.7%), capacity building activities (81.3%), convening of Fadama User Group (FUG)/FCA meetings (81.3%), sub-project preparation and management (80.7%), advisory services and input support services (80%), environmental/social screening friendly practices (72.7%), asset acquisition activities (68%), record-keeping activities (66%), small-scale community infrastructure activities (63.3%) and financial management (61.3%). Farmers indicated their satisfaction in obtaining information o;n capacity building activities by the use of GSM with the (M = 1.21), advisory services and input support activities (M = 1.28), asset acquisition activities, (M= 1.16), mobilization of members for participation in Fadama III activities (M = 1.40), convening FUG/FCA meetings ( M = 1.43), financial management (M=1.09), record-keeping activities (M = 1.17), awareness creation of Fadama III intervention (M = 1.27), group formation (M = 1.37) and environmental/social screening and environmentally friendly practices ( M = 1.17). The main challenges included no GSM phones provided by Fadama III to farmers (M = 1.37), low level of education of farmers (M = 1.55), erratic power supply (M = 1.41), high call tariff (M = 1.11), poor network coverage (M = 1.24), lack of maintenance e.g recharging (M = 1.11), and fluctuating services by the service providers (M = 1.16). The study suggested that the Information and communication unit of the Fadama III project should collaborate with other media outfits and extension units to disseminate agro-information to the benefits of the Fadama III beneficiaries.

  147. Base-Station Transmission Microwave Radiation Effect on Agriculture: Case Study of Moor Plantation Teaching & Research Farm, Nigeria

    Microwave radio frequency radiation has been proved by many researchers and the World Health Organization (WHO) that it is dangerous to human being as it leads to various health related diseases. There is need for Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineers to investigate the effect of electromagnetic force (EMF) radiation on plants around the telecommunication masts, which usually consists of outdoor microwave radio equipments. This examination focuses majorly on two telecommunication sites radiation on plants located inside the premises of Federal College of Agriculture, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria Teaching and Research Farm. Electromagnetic Force Analyser (Digital 3-axis EMF ELF RF Electromagnetic Wave Field Strenght Radiation Microwave Taiwan Meter) were used on the two telecom mast, where the measurement was taken for each of the mast between 0 and 550 meters in every 5 minutes for an hour. Measuring tape, EMF meter, computer system, GDHS Data-Science Software and stop watch were also used as materials for this study with two telecommunication base station. The base station antenna was mounted around the College Demonstration Farm (Site 1) and Cocoa Research Farm (Site 2). The cell tower transmits in the frequency range of 869 – 894 MHz (CDMA), 935 - 960 MHz (GSM900) and 1805 - 1880 MHz (GSM1800). The study was conducted within the period of 7am to 8am (morning), 1pm-2pm (afternoon), and 7pm to 8pm (night). Regression predictions through GMDH Data-Science was employed to determine the variation around the mean of the dependent variable while the regression line was centered on the data point. These data will be quantified to know how close the predictions are to the observed values. Measured power densities were reported with a median distance of 325 meters, which is the range of teaching and demonstration farm of the college. The lowest value for power density was at a distance of 550 meters in the morning, afternoon and evening from both sites with 90, 245, 101, 98, 261 and 93 (μW/m2) respectively. The effect of the radiation to the plant is negligible or minimal based on the International Standard recommendation. Farmers are advised to leave at least 500 meters away from the telecommunication masts before they will embark on the crop or animal production to avoid significant effects of microwave radiation on the plant and animal. 

  148. Awareness and Use of Information and Communication Technologies among Extension Agents in Kaduna State of Nigeria

    This study assessed awareness and use of information and communication technologies among extension agents in Maigana Zone of Kaduna State A.D.P. All extension personnel in the zone (70) were interviewed through the use of structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the study. It was found that 60.15% of the respondents were aware of at least one ICT in the study area. The multiple regression analysis of the relationship between ICT usage and level of training, membership of professional association, marital status and educational level were positively significant ( p<0.05). It was concluded that socioeconomic characteristics of the extension agents in the study area influence their level of use of ICT. It was recommended that provision of ICT facilities and stable power, as well as capacity building on ICT usage should be promoted among extension personnel. This would enhance effective communication with farm families for improved productivity.

  149. Attitude, knowledge and constraints associated with the use of mobile phone applications by farmers in North West Nigeria

    The evolution of mobile phone applications has opened up a platform for easy and real time dissemination and exchange of agricultural information among agricultural extension officers, farmers, agricultural institutions and non-governmental institutions. This study examined attitude, knowledge and constraint associated with the use of mobile phone apps by farmers in North West region of Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was adopted; data collection tool was pre-tested and administered as interview schedule to randomly sampled farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation. The findings showed that farmers have positive attitude towards mobile phone applications, and knowledgeable of simple phone operation techniques. The constraints to the use of mobile phone applications are high cost of phones, poor network, poor power supply, high cost of airtime and complexity in operating phones. This study recommends training and re-retraining of farmers and extension agents on the use of mobile phone apps for effective information sharing among farmers in the region.

  150. Global report on food crisis

    The 2021 Global Report on Food Crises (GRFC 2021) highlights the remarkably high severity and numbers of people in Crisis or worse (IPC/CH Phase 3 or above) or equivalent in 55 countries/territories, driven by persistent conflict, pre-existing and COVID-19-related economic shocks, and weather extremes. The number identified in the 2021 edition is the highest in the report’s five-year existence. The report is produced by the Global Network against Food Crises (which includes WFP), an international alliance working to address the root causes of extreme hunger.

  151. Innovative and inclusive finance for youth in agriculture

    This policy paper provides a macro-level picture of youth’s inability to access agriculture finance, and provides six major recommendations to policy makers: 1) promote financial literacy for youth 2) enhance the capability of financial institutions to assess agricultural sector opportunities; 3) African governments should produce and share reliable statistics on youth employment in agriculture and their financial inclusion; 4) policy makers should encourage special finance packages for young agripreneurs that do not require fixed collateral, e.g. by providing guarantee schemes; 5) governments should remove barriers to crowdfunding platforms, because they can effectively support young African entrepreneurs; and 6) impact investment funds should continue to be supported to ensure small agricultural business can still get capital support. 

  152. Tracking the gender responsiveness of agricultural research across the research cycle: a monitoring and evaluation framework tested in Uganda and Rwanda

    There is widespread need for gender-responsive agricultural research, yet the question of how this kind of research can be implemented and its success measured needs further interrogation. This paper presents a framework, developed on the basis of literature and validated by experts, for tracking the gender responsiveness of agricultural research throughout the research cycle, from the research plan to the dissemination of research findings. The framework was tested in Uganda and Rwanda on 14 research projects considered to be gender-responsive. Scores on the quantitative tool were triangulated with qualitative data from four case studies. Data was collected between June and August 2016, by reviewing projects’ documents and conduct- ing key informant interviews. Our findings show that most of the projects investigated were not sufficiently gender-responsive. The easy-to-use framework presented in this paper provides a much-needed tool for guiding agricultural researchers and partners to design, implement, and measure the gender responsiveness of research projects.

  153. Financing agricultural value chains to empower rural women

    Agriculture in Africa is the main sector to generate income for the large number of populations mainly in rural areas and a major contributor to the GDP of the countries. Agricultural value chain finance provides the necessary resource for smallholder farmers to increase their production and be integrated into higher-value market opportunities. In Africa, women represent more than half of the population, the majority live in rural areas. In addition, a considerable number of the agricultural workforce are women who are also responsible for nutrition and food security at the household level. And some of them are the sole provider of their families. Africa has a male dominated society where over the years there has been a gender gap in different sectors, including agriculture, with women holding the smallest percentage of land recorded. And women have been mostly excluded from important actions in agriculture such as decision-making, access to information and technology, as well as access to financial resources and services. The first initiatives were taken by women to unite their efforts to defend their rights and fight together for their social and economic development. This was done by joining cooperatives and peasant organizations. Through the same farmer organizations, advocacy has been done and different programs have been designed by governments and civil society organizations to empower and invest in rural women in terms of promoting gender sensitive decision making; support economic services to improve the living and working conditions of women; prioritize technological development policies targeting women farmers and promote their knowledge, skills and experience in food production and sustainable agriculture. While recognizing the achievements of African women farmers, much remains to be done. In this context, PAFO has the vision to launch a study on the Financing of agricultural value chains to empower rural women.

  154. Social networks and farmer exposure to improved crop varieties in Tanzania

    In Sub-Sahara Africa, adoption rates of improved crop varieties remain relatively low, which is partly due to farmers’ limited access to information. In smallholder settings, information often spreads through informal networks. Better understanding of such networks could potentially help to spur innovation and farmers’ exposure to new technologies. This study uses survey data from Tanzania to analyze social networks and their role for the spread of information about improved varieties of maize and sorghum. Regression models show that network links for the exchange of agricultural information are more likely between farmers who have similar educational but different wealth levels. Moreover, network links are more likely when farmers have direct contacts to extension officers, suggesting that information flows through informal channels can support but not replace formal channels. Social networks play a significant role for the spread of information about open-pollinated varieties. This is not the case for maize hybrids, which are sold by private seed companies.

  155. Heterogeneous effects of marketing contracts and resource-providing contracts on household income

    In the existing literature, the effects of contract farming on household welfare were examined with mixed results. Most studies looked at single contract types. This paper contributes to the literature by comparing two types of contracts – simple marketing contracts and resource- providing contracts – in the Ghanaian oil palm sector. We investigate the effects of both contracts on farm income, as well as spillovers on other household income sources. We use survey data collected with an innovative sampling design and a control function approach to address possible issues of endogeneity. Both contracts lead to large positive effects on total household income in a similar magnitude, yet through quite different mechanisms. Farmers under the marketing contract use the increase in oil palm profits to transition out of agricultural production and into off-farm employment. Farmers under the resource-providing contract have a stronger dependency on income from oil palm, which is considerably more profitable under the contract. The findings underline that contract characteristics matter for the effects and that disaggregated analysis of different income sources is important to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  156. Impact of tissue culture banana technology in Kenya: A difference-in-difference estimation approach

    Most micro-level studies on the impact of agricultural technologies build on cross-section data, which can lead to unreliable impact estimates. Here, we use panel data covering two time periods to estimate the impact of tissue culture (TC) banana technology in the Kenyan small farm sector. TC banana is an interesting case, because previous impact studies showed mixed results. We combine propensity score matching with a difference-in-difference estimator to control for selection bias and account for temporal impact variability. TC adoption has positive impacts on banana productivity and profits. The technology increases yields by 40-50% and gross margins by around 100%. These large effects represent the impact of TC technology in combination with improved management practices and higher input use, which is recommended. Looking at the isolated TC effect may underestimate impact because of synergistic relationships. The results suggest that extension efforts to deliver the technological package to smallholder farmers should be scaled up.

  157. Information Asymmetries and Technology Adoption: The Case of Tissue Culture Bananas in Kenya

    Classical innovation adoption models implicitly assume homogenous information flow across farmers, which is often not realistic. As a result, selection bias in adoption parameters may occur. We focus on tissue culture (TC) banana technology that was introduced in Kenya more than 10 years ago. Up till now, adoption rates have remained relatively low. We employ the average treatment effects approach to account for selection bias and extend it by explicitly differentiating between awareness exposure (having heard of a technology) and knowledge exposure (understanding the attributes of a technology). Using a sample of Kenyan banana farmers, we find that estimated adoption parameters differ little when comparing the classical adoption model with one that corrects for heterogeneous awareness exposure. However, parameters differ considerably when accounting for heterogeneous knowledge exposure. This is plausible: while many farmers have heard about TC technology, its successful use requires notable changes in cultivation practices, and proper understanding is not yet very widespread. These results are also important for other technologies that are knowledge-intensive and/or require considerable adjustments in traditional practices.

  158. Agricultural Productivity and Public Expenditures in Sub-Saharan Africa

    National governments, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, have limited budgets and are forced to make difficult funding decisions regarding the provision of social services and the support of agricultural programs. These provisions can play a critical role in rural incomes and agricultural production but due to data constraints, the effects of different types of social services on agricultural productivity in this region have not been analyzed in detail. This research provides indication that certain types of social services can influence agricultural production efficiency using the currently available data and multiple empirical methods. Specifically, it estimates the role of social services in the efficiency of input use for agricultural production, using both Stochastic Frontier Analysis and a Structural Equation Model. Ultimately, our conclusions are substantially limited by data constraints, but provide some indication that certain types of social services can influence agricultural production efficiency for a select set of African countries.

  159. Fairtrade, Agrochemical Input Use, and Effects on Human Health and the Environment

    It is often assumed that voluntary sustainability standards – such as Fairtrade – could not only improve the socioeconomic wellbeing of smallholder farmers in developing countries but could also help to reduce negative health and environmental impacts of agricultural production. The empirical evidence is thin, as most previous studies on the impact of sustainability standards only focused on economic indicators, such as prices, yields, and incomes. Here, we argue that Fairtrade and other sustainability standards can affect agrochemical input use through various mechanisms with possible positive and negative health and environmental effects. We use data from farmers and rural workers in Cote d'Ivoire to analyze effects of Fairtrade certification on fertilizer and pesticide use, as well as on human health and environmental toxicity. Fairtrade increases chemical input quantities and aggregated levels of toxicity. Nevertheless, Fairtrade reduces the incidence of pesticide-related acute health symptoms among farmers and workers. Certified cooperatives are more likely to offer training and other services related to the safe handling of pesticides and occupational health, which can reduce negative externalities in spite of higher input quantities. These results suggest that simplistic assumptions about the health and environmental effects of sustainability standards may be inappropriate.

  160. Farmer participation in supermarket channels and technical efficiency: The case of vegetable production in Kenya

    Supermarkets and high-value exports are currently gaining ground in the agri-food systems of many developing countries. While recent research has analyzed income effects in the small farm sector, impacts on farming efficiency have hardly been studied. Using a survey of Kenyan vegetable growers and a stochastic frontier approach, we show that participation in supermarket channels increases mean technical efficiency by 19%. This gain is bigger at lower levels of efficiency, suggesting the potential for positive income distribution effects. However, disadvantaged farms often have problems in meeting strict supermarket requirements. Innovative market linkage initiatives can increase the probability of participation significantly.

  161. Seed market liberalization, hybrid maize adoption, and impacts on smallholder farmers in Tanzania

    Since the early 1990s, liberalization of the seed market in Tanzania has attracted several foreign companies that now market maize hybrids in the country. In this article, we analyze the impacts of proprietary hybrids on maize yields, production, and household living standards. We build on a recent survey of smallholder maize farmers in two zones of Tanzania. Hybrid adoption rates are 48% and 13% in the North and East, respectively. Average net yield gains of hybrids are 50-60%, and there are also significant profit effects. Geographical disaggregation reveals that the benefits have mostly occurred in the North, which also explains higher adoption there. In the North, hybrid adoption caused a 17% increase in household living standards. We conclude that proprietary hybrids can be suitable for semi-subsistence farms and that seed market liberalization has generated positive socioeconomic developments.

  162. Synergies between Different Types of Agricultural Technologies in the Kenyan Small Farm Sector

    Sustainable intensification of agriculture will have to build on various innovations, but synergies between different types of technologies are not yet sufficiently understood. We use representative data from small farms in Kenya and propensity score matching to compare effects of input-intensive technologies and natural resource management practices on household income. When adopted in combination, positive income effects tend to be larger than when individual technologies are adopted alone. The largest gains occur when improved seeds are adopted together with organic manure and zero tillage. These results point at important synergies between plant breeding technologies and natural resource management practices.

  163. Weather index insurance, agricultural input use, and crop productivity in Kenya

    Weather risk is a serious issue in the African small farm sector that will further increase due to climate change. Farmers typically react by using low amounts of agricultural inputs. Low input use can help to minimize financial loss in bad years, but is also associated with low average yield and income. Increasing small farm productivity and income is an important prerequisite for rural poverty reduction and food security. Crop insurance could incentivize farmers to increase their input use, but indemnity-based crop insurance programs are plagued by market failures. This article contributes to the emerging literature on the role of weather index insurance (WII). We use data from a survey of farmers in Kenya, where a commercial WII scheme has been operating for several years. Regression models with instrumental variables are used to analyze WII uptake and effects on input use and crop productivity. Results show that WII uptake is positively and significantly associated with the use of chemical fertilizer and improved seeds, and also with crop yield. We conclude that upscaling WII programs may help to spur agricultural development in the small farm sector.

  164. Small farmers’ preferences for weather index insurance: insights from Kenya


    Smallholder farmers in developing countries are particularly vulnerable to climate shocks but often lack access to agricultural insurance. Weather index insurance (WII) could reduce some of the problems associated with traditional, indemnity-based insurance programs, but uptake has been lower than expected. One reason is that WII contracts are not yet sufficiently tailored to the needs and preferences of smallholder farmers. This study combines survey and choice-experimental data from Kenya to analyze the experience with an existing WII program and how specific changes in the contractual design might encourage uptake.


    Many smallholders struggle with fully understanding the functioning of the program, which undermines their confidence. Regular provision of relevant rainfall measurements and thresholds would significantly increase farmers’ willingness to pay for WII. Mechanisms to reduce basis risk are also positively valued by farmers, although not to the same extent as higher levels of transparency. Finally, offering contracts to small groups rather than individual farmers could increase insurance uptake.


    Better training on WII and regular communication are needed. Group contracts may help to reduce transaction costs. Farmer groups can also be important platforms for learning about complex innovations, including novel risk transfer products. These concrete results are specific to Kenya; however, they provide some broader policy-relevant insights into typical issues of WII in a small-farm context.

  165. The influence of farm input subsidies on the adoption of natural resource management technologies

    Farm input subsidies are often criticised on economic and ecological grounds. The promotion of natural resource management (NRM) technologies is widely seen as more sustainable to increase agricultural productivity and food security. Relatively little is known about how input subsidies affect farmers’ decisions to adopt NRM technologies. There are concerns of incompatibility, because NRM technologies are one strategy to reduce the use of external inputs in intensive production systems. However, in smallholder systems of Africa, where the average use of external inputs is low, there may possibly be interesting complementarities. Here, we analyse the situation of Malawi's Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP). Using panel data from smallholder farm households, we develop a multivariate probit model and examine how FISP participation affects farmers’ decisions to adopt various NRM technologies, such as intercropping of maize with legumes, use of organic manure, water conservation practices and vegetative strips. As expected, FISP increases the use of inorganic fertilizer and improved maize seeds. Yet, we also observe a positive association between FISP and the adoption of certain NRM technologies. For other NRM technologies, we find no significant effect. We conclude that input subsidies and the promotion of NRM technologies can be compatible strategies.

  166. Farm production diversity and dietary quality: linkages and measurement issues

    Recent research has analyzed whether higher levels of farm production diversity contribute to improved diets in smallholder farm households. We add to this literature by using and comparing different indicators, thus helping to better understand some of the underlying linkages. The analysis builds on data from Indonesia, Kenya, and Uganda. On the consumption side, we used 7-day food recall data to calculate various dietary indicators, such as dietary diversity scores, consumed quantities of fruits and vegetables, calories and micronutrients, and measures of nutritional adequacy. On the production side, we used a simple farm species count in addition to looking at the number of different food groups produced. Regression models showed that production diversity measured through simple species count is positively associated with most dietary indicators. However, when measuring production diversity in terms of the number of food groups produced, the association turns insignificant in many cases. Further analysis revealed that diverse subsistence production often contributes less to dietary diversity than cash income generated through market sales. If farm diversification responds to market incentives and builds on comparative advantage, it can contribute to improved income and nutrition. Yet, increasing the number of food groups produced on the farm independent of market incentives may foster subsistence, reduce income, and thus rather worsen dietary quality. The results suggest that improving the functioning of agricultural markets and smallholder market access are key strategies to enhance nutrition.

  167. Mobile money, market transactions, and household income in rural Kenya

    Mobile phone based money services have spread rapidly in many developing countries. We analyze micro level impacts using panel data from smallholder farmers in Kenya. Mobile money use has a large positive net impact on household income. One important pathway is through remittances, which contribute to income directly but also help to reduce risk and liquidity constraints, thus promoting agricultural commercialization. Mobile money users apply more purchased inputs, market a larger proportion of their output, and have higher farm profits. These results suggest that mobile money can help to overcome some of the important market access constraints of smallholder farmers.

  168. External influences on agro-enterprise innovation platforms in Benin, Ghana and Mali - Options for effective responses

    This paper discusses external influences on innovation platforms (IPs) and the options for effective responses. The platforms examined in this paper were conceived as vehicles for facilitating institutional change in support of innovation that benefits smallholders, in selected agro-enterprise domains in Benin, Ghana and Mali. They were designed and implemented in a manner that enabled experimentation with processes of change in the selected domains. A Research Associate in each case facilitated the work of the IPs and applied Theory-Guided Process Tracing (TGPT) methodology to document the innovation processes pursued by platform members. The recorded data allow analysis of the external influences on the IPs. This paper first presents a typology as derived from literature of the main external influences on the domains of interest, and then uses the typology to analyse the influences on and responses of the IPs. The main influences were found to emanate from global, sub-regional and national levels. The IPs' responses were diverse but generally included reconstitution of the membership, lobbying, capacity-building among smallholders, and empowerment of smallholders by organizing provision of new knowledge, skills or financial resources. The paper highlights lessons drawn by the platform members in addressing the challenges involved. It concludes that external influences are important in determining the direction of socio-technical and institutional innovation.

  169. Good agricultural practices for the production of ware potato in Cameroon

    Potato is the third most widely-cultivated food crop in the world and one of the most profitable food crops. Therefore, it allows producers to improve their living conditions with
    additional income to build homes, improve schools, and strengthen food security. Potato is also a vital source of nutrition, especially for young people, as it contains substantial levels of protein, vitamins, iron, zinc and potassium. This document describes the good agricultural practices for the production of ware potato in Cameroon and provides a  useful information such as  the enemies of the crop, the optimal growing conditions and others.

  170. Potato value chain development project in Cameroon. Internal midterm review report

    The “ONE WORLD – No Hunger” Initiative (SEWOH) by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) is part of the G7 goal to free 500 million people from hunger and malnourishment by 2030. SEWOH intends to contribute significantly to reducing poverty and hunger in developing countries in general and Cameroon in particular. The Cameroonian project is part of the framework of the global project – “Green Innovation Centres for the Agriculture and Food Sector” (ProCISA). The project that started in November 2014 is being implemented in close cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MINADER) and the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries (MINEPIA), and other partners. It focuses, among others, on the potato value chain to introduce technical and institutional innovations along with the capacity building to increase efficiency and productivity for increased income from potato farming in the West, North-West, and Adamawa regions. With its value chain focus on production and commercialization, ProCISA also targets job creation and the role of women and youth in agriculture and food security. The capacity building around Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) is essential and a significant component in the ProCISA approach. In the implementation of one of its objectives, ProCISA signed a grant agreement with the International Potato Center (CIP) due to its technical expertise on the potato food systems to implement a project titled “Potato Value Chain Development in Cameroon (PVCD),” which started in December 2018. PVCD project built on preliminary interventions conducted by CIP as a consultant from October 2016 to November 2018. In this light, the overall goal of the PVCD project is to promote sustainable intensification of potato production and provide business opportunities for small to medium-sized enterprises through innovative production practices, capacity building, and developing appropriate business models. In a specific manner, the project is structured in five (05) components as follows: Policy engagement and Advocacy (i); Training at scale on good agricultural practices (ii); Seed production and Variety promotion (iii); Promotion of innovations and business models (iv); and M&E and Knowledge sharing (v).

  171. Use of mobile financial services among farmers in Africa: Insights from Kenya

    The recent proliferation of mobile phones in rural Africa has also led to increased interest in mobile financial services (MFS), such as mobile money and mobile banking. Such services are often portrayed as promising tools to improve agricultural finance, especially among smallholders who are typically underserved by traditional banks. However, empirical evidence on the actual use of MFS for agricultural activities is thin. Here, we use nationally representative data from Kenya to analyze the use of mobile payments, mobile savings, and mobile credit among the farming population. We find that more than 80% of farmers use mobile money, but only 15% use this innovation for agriculture-related payments. Mobile loans for agricultural investments are used by less than 1% of farmers. Usage rates are somewhat higher among farmers in modern supply chains, even though for them traditional banking services are often also accessible and still much more important. Overall, the use of MFS for agriculture is lower than commonly assumed, indicating that these services do not yet have a transformative impact on smallholder farming. As Kenya is one of the leaders of the MFS boom in Africa, this general finding likely holds for other African countries as well.  

  172. Farm production, market access and dietary diversity in Malawi


    The association between farm production diversity and dietary diversity in rural smallholder households was recently analysed. Most existing studies build on household-level dietary diversity indicators calculated from 7d food consumption recalls. Herein, this association is revisited with individual-level 24 h recall data. The robustness of the results is tested by comparing household- and individual-level estimates. The role of other factors that may influence dietary diversity, such as market access and agricultural technology, is also analysed.


    A survey of smallholder farm households was carried out in Malawi in 2014. Dietary diversity scores are calculated from 24 h recall data. Production diversity scores are calculated from farm production data covering a period of 12 months. Individual- and household-level regression models are developed and estimated.


    Data were collected in sixteen districts of central and southern Malawi.


    Smallholder farm households (n 408), young children (n 519) and mothers (n 408).


    Farm production diversity is positively associated with dietary diversity. However, the estimated effects are small. Access to markets for buying food and selling farm produce and use of chemical fertilizers are shown to be more important for dietary diversity than diverse farm production. Results with household- and individual-level dietary data are very similar.


    Further increasing production diversity may not be the most effective strategy to improve diets in smallholder farm households. Improving access to markets, productivity-enhancing inputs and technologies seems to be more promising.

  173. Gender, agricultural commercialization, and collective action in Kenya

    With the commercialization of agriculture, women are increasingly disadvantaged because of persistent gender disparities in access to productive resources. Farmer collective action that intends to improve smallholder access to markets and technology could potentially accelerate this trend. Here, we use survey data of small-scale banana producers in Kenya to investigate the gender implications of recently established farmer groups. Traditionally, banana has been a women’s crop in Kenya. Our results confirm that the groups contribute to increasing male control over banana. We also analyze nutritional implications. While male control over banana revenues does not affect household calorie consumption, it has a negative marginal effect on dietary quality. We demonstrate that the negative gender implications of farmer groups can be avoided when women are group members themselves. In the poorest income segments, group membership even seems to have a positive effect on female-controlled income share. Some policy implications towards gender mainstreaming of farmer collective action are discussed.

  174. Rural food security, subsistence agriculture, and seasonality

    Many of the world’s food-insecure and undernourished people are smallholder farmers in developing countries. This is especially true in Africa. There is an urgent need to make smallholder agriculture and food systems more nutrition-sensitive. African farm households are known to consume a sizeable part of what they produce at home. Less is known about how much subsistence agriculture actually contributes to household diets, and how this contribution changes seasonally. We use representative data from rural Ethiopia covering every month of one full year to address this knowledge gap. On average, subsistence production accounts for 58% of rural households’ calorie consumption, that is, 42% of the calories consumed are from purchased foods. Some seasonal variation occurs. During the lean season, purchased foods account for more than half of all calories consumed. But even during the main harvest and post-harvest season, purchased foods contribute more than one-third to total calorie consumption. Markets are even more important for dietary quality. During all seasons, purchased foods play a much larger role for dietary diversity than subsistence production. These findings suggest that strengthening rural markets needs to be a key element in strategies to improve food security and dietary quality in the African small-farm sector.

  175. Supermarkets and agricultural labor demand in Kenya: A gendered perspective

    Many developing countries are experiencing a rapid expansion of supermarkets. New supermarket procurement systems could affect farming patterns and wider rural development. While previous studies have analyzed farm productivity and income effects, possible employment effects have received much less attention. Special supermarket requirements may entail intensified farm production and post-harvest handling, thus potentially increasing demand for hired labor. This could also have important gender implications, because female and male workers are often hired for distinct farm operations. Building on data from a recent survey of vegetable farmers in Kenya, a double-hurdle model of hired labor use is developed and estimated. Farmer participation in supermarket channels increases the likelihood of hiring labor by 20%, and demand for hired labor by 61%. A gender disaggregation shows that positive employment effects are especially pronounced for female laborers, who often belong to the most vulnerable population groups. Rural employment generation can be an important vehicle for poverty reduction.

  176. Facilitating farmers’ access to mechanisation and job creation through innovation

    With support from The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU (CTA), through a call for proposal, Hello Tractor an agriculture technology social enterprise has been selected to implement ICT-enabled smallholder mechanisation services with the objective to create jobs for youth across Nigeria and Kenya over a one-year period. Hello Tractor has a bold vision to create sustainable value for tractor owners and to radically transform how the smallholder agricultural ecosystem interacts with and derives value from technology. The enterprise connects tractor owners and smallholder farmers in Africa through a digital tractor sharing application. By creating equitable access to tractor services, the enterprise enables smallholder farmers to earn more and grow more, improving livelihoods and food security for their families and communities. The project has been implemented for 15 months from 12/02/2019 (date of signature) to 15/04/2020.




  177. Heterogeneous information exposure and technology adoption: the case of tissue culture bananas in Kenya

    Classical innovation adoption models implicitly assume homogenous information flow across farmers, which is often not realistic. As a result, selection bias in adoption parameters may occur. We focus on tissue culture (TC) banana technology that was introduced in Kenya more than 10 years ago. Up till now, adoption rates have remained relatively low. We employ the average treatment effects approach to account for selection bias and extend it by explicitly differentiating between awareness exposure (having heard of a technology) and knowledge exposure (understanding the attributes of a technology). Using a sample of Kenyan banana farmers, we find that estimated adoption parameters differ little when comparing the classical adoption model with one that corrects for heterogeneous awareness exposure. However, parameters differ considerably when accounting for heterogeneous knowledge exposure. This is plausible: while many farmers have heard about TC technology, its successful use requires notable changes in cultivation practices, and proper understanding is not yet very widespread. These results are also important for other technologies that are knowledge-intensive and require considerable adjustments in traditional practices.

  178. Women’s empowerment and gender equality in agricultural value chains: evidence from four countries in Asia and Africa

    Women play important roles at different nodes of both agricultural and off-farm value chains, but in many countries their contributions are either underestimated or limited by prevailing societal norms or gender-specific barriers. We use primary data collected in Asia (Bangladesh, Philippines) and Africa (Benin, Malawi) to examine the relationships between women’s empowerment, gender equality, and participation in a variety of local agricultural value chains that comprise the food system. We find that the value chain and the specific node of engagement matter, as do other individual and household characteristics, but in different ways depending on country context. Entrepreneurship—often engaged in by wealthier households with greater ability to take risks—is not necessarily empowering for women; nor is household wealth, as proxied by their asset ownership. Increased involvement in the market is not necessarily correlated with greater gender equality. Education is positively correlated with higher empowerment of both men and women, but the strength of this association varies. Training and extension services are generally positively associated with empowerment but could also exacerbate the inequality in empowerment between men and women in the same household.All in all, culture and context determine whether participation in value chains—and which node of the value chain—is empowering. In designing food systems interventions, care should be taken to consider the social and cultural contexts in which these food systems operate, so that interventions do not exacerbate existing gender inequalities.

  179. Mobile Money, Smallholder Farmers, and Household Welfare in Kenya

    The use of mobile phones has increased rapidly in many developing countries, including in rural areas. Besides reducing the costs of communication and improving access to information, mobile phones are an enabling technology for other innovations. One important example are mobile phone based money transfers, which could be very relevant for the rural poor, who are often underserved by the formal banking system. We analyze impacts of mobile money technology on the welfare of smallholder farm households in Kenya. Using panel survey data and regression models we show that mobile money use has a positive impact on household income. One important pathway is through remittances received from relatives and friends. Such remittances contribute to income directly, but they also help to reduce risk and liquidity constraints, thus promoting agricultural commercialization. Mobile money users apply more purchased farm inputs, market a larger proportion of their output, and have higher profits than non-users of this technology. These results suggest that mobile money can help to overcome some of the important smallholder market access constraints that obstruct rural development and poverty reduction.

  180. Linking smallholders to markets: determinants and impacts of farmer collective action in Kenya

    This article investigates determinants and impacts of cooperative organization, using the example of smallholder banana farmers in Kenya. Farmer groups are inclusive of the poor, although wealthier households are more likely to join. Employing propensity score matching, we find positive income effects for active group members. Yet price advantages of collective marketing are small, and high-value market potentials have not yet been tapped. Beyond prices, farmer groups function as important catalysts for innovation adoption through promoting efficient information flows. We discuss the conditions under which collective action is useful, and through what mechanisms the potential benefits emerge.

  181. Sustaining and improving the contribution small-scale fisheries make to healthy and sustainable food systems in Malawi

    An evidence policy brief on the contribution of small-scale fisheries to a healthy and sustainable food system in Malawi.

  182. How to enhance the sustainability and inclusiveness of smallholder aquaculture production systems in Zambia?

    Fish is a key source of income, food, and nutrition in Zambia, although unlike in the past, capture fisheries no longer meet the national demand for fish. Supply shortfalls created an opportunity to develop the aquaculture sector in Zambia, which is now one of the largest producers of farmed fish (Tilapia spp.) on the continent. In its present form, the aquaculture sector exhibits a dichotomy. It comprises, on the one hand, a smallholder sector that mainly produces for and supplies within local markets, and on the other hand, a burgeoning larger-scale commercial sector consisting of a small number of pioneering lead firms who are (re)shaping how the value chain supplies domestic, mainly urban, markets. A notable challenge confronting the development of the aquaculture value chain in Zambia is ensuring that the larger-scale commercial sector can continue to grow and generate economic benefits for the country, while simultaneously safeguarding inclusive and sustainable growth of smallholder production systems. An in-depth, mixed-methods aquaculture value chain study was carried out in Zambia in 2017 that aimed at providing relevant stakeholders with pertinent information on the value chain's contribution to economic growth and its inclusiveness, as well as its social and environmental sustainability aspects. In this article, we present some key findings from the study to shed light on how the sustainability of smallholder production systems could be enhanced while preserving the growth trend of larger producers in an inclusive way. The study found that the value chain is contributing positively towards economic growth in the country. Smallholder farmers classified as “semi-subsistence” and “commercial” face several albeit somewhat different constraints to production, thus influencing their “sustainability” status. Semi-subsistence smallholders achieve positive (yet negligible) profit margins, and their production system is not environmentally sustainable and the value chain that supports them performs sub-optimally on several social markers. The “commercial” smallholder system is more economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The study juxtaposes these findings with those from the analysis of larger pond and cage-based systems to point to a set of key options Government, research, and development organisations could consider to support smallholder farmers and enhance the sustainability of the semi-subsistence smallholder production system in particular, without overlooking the whole system.

  183. COVID-19 impacts on women fish processors and traders in sub-Saharan Africa

    The COVID-19 pandemic and accompanying responses to mitigate this global health crisis have resulted in substantial disruptions to demand, production, distribution and labor in fisheries, aquaculture and food systems. These disruptions have severely impacted women processors and traders, who play a critical role in the fisheries and aquaculture sectors and associated food systems in sub-Saharan Africa. And yet, COVID related data and responses have tended to be gender-blind or overly representative of men’s experiences and needs in the sector. As a result, policy and investments run the risk of compounding COVID-19’s noted exacerbation of inequalities. This report aims to address this gap and avoid this risk. It synthesizes the impacts on some of the two and a half million women who work across Africa trading and processing fish (FAO et al. in prep). The report then puts forward recommendations for national and regional policy and development actors engaged in sub-Saharan Africa. Implementing these recommendations will enable sector responses and investments to be more inclusive, equitable and effective.

  184. Empowering Women Fish Retailers in Egypt (EWFIRE) Project

    The project Empowering Women Fish Retailers (EWFIRE) Project. Funded by the European Commission (EuropeAid), the project supports vulnerable women retailers and processors to develop their businesses in five urban areas across the Sharkia governorate, lower Egypt (Zagazig, Faous, Belbeis, Al-Hussainyaand Abu-Kebeer).

  185. Inland fisheries critical for the diet quality of young children in sub-Saharan Africa

    Animal-source foods (ASF), such as fish, provide a critical source of nutrients for dietary quality and optimal growth of children. In sub-Saharan Africa, children often consume monotonous cereal-based diets, a key determinate of malnutrition such as stunting. Identifying existing sources of ASF for children’s diets will inform the development of nutritious food systems for vulnerable groups. Here we adopt a food systems framework (sensu HLPE, 2017) to examine links between aquatic- and terrestrial-based ASF sources with ASF consumption and dietary diversity in rural children aged 6-23 months in sub-Saharan Africa. Employing a novel approach, we merged existing geo-tagged nationally-representative datasets, including Demographic and Health Surveys for Malawi (2015-16, n=3995) and Zambia (2013-14, n=2333) with spatial data on proximity to inland fisheries (waterbodies ≥0.1km2) and formal markets. We found that children living closer to inland fisheries were more likely to consume fish and aquatic-based ASF, and exhibit higher dietary diversity. Children did not always consume more ASF if they lived were closer to a formal market or in a house that owned livestock. We found that inland fisheries are one of the most important sources of ASF for rural children in sub-Saharan Africa. We also demonstrate that secondary datasets provide a useful methodology for understanding the role of food systems for diets. As food systems transition, it is important that policy and programs preserve components of the existing food system – namely inland fisheries - to ensure the ongoing provision of nutrient-dense fish and aquatic-based ASF for the dietary quality of infants and young children.

  186. Sources of value creation in aggregator platforms for digital services in agriculture - insights from likely users in Kenya

    A fragmented digital agriculture ecosystem has been linked to the slow scale-out of digital platforms and other digital technology solutions for agriculture. This has undermined the prospects of digitalizing agriculture and increasing sectoral outcomes in sub-Saharan African countries. We conceptualized an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture as a special form of digital platforms that can enhance the value and usage of digital technologies at the industry level. Little is known about how such a platform can create value as a new service ecology in agriculture. We set out to examine the underlying structure and prioritizations of value creation sources in such a platform from the perspective of likely users in Kenya. We used a parallel convergent mixed methods approach to the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 405 respondents supported a two-factor structure, being an adaptation of the framework on value creation sources in e-Business by Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2001). We conceptualized the two factors as platform-wide efficiency and loyalty-centeredness. User experience related search costs were most impactful on platform-wide efficiency, while loyalty-centeredness was impacted most by providing guarantees for quality and reliability to platform users. Thematic analysis of 369 qualitative responses obtained platform inclusivity - comprising value chain coverage and digital inclusivity, as additional considerations for amplifying sector-wide benefits of an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture. We discuss implications for policy and practice in the light of resource constraints and the promise to digitally transform agriculture in SSA countries.

  187. Institutional capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies and strategies in Nigeria

    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR), Federal Ministry of Women affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) early in 2008. Two consultation workshops were also held, one for relevant staff in the ministries, parastatals, and NGOs; and the other for relevant university professors and researchers. This was followed by a review of relevant literature and a more detailed survey of institutions and individuals. A sample of relevant institutions and individuals were purposively selected from the Federal Capital, Abuja, Oyo, Kaduna, Enugu Ogun, Benue, and Abia States. At each location, trained data collectors compiled a list of state and federal agencies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and universities where 32 institutional questionnaires were administered, of which 29 were valid for further analysis. Similarly, 320 individual questionnaires were administered, of which 183 were valid for further analysis. The null hypothesis that job satisfaction and institutional incentive was independent of selected background information (gender, position, years spent on job, nature of institution, and level of formal education) of the experts was tested using the Chi square analysis. The respondents were mostly male (23 of 24) and were either heads of departments (10 of 24) or directors, their deputies and their equivalents (12 of 24). Most of the respondents (22 of 24) exhibited an indifferent perception to the general environment and processes involved in policymaking. Reported capacity- strengthening efforts (for 13 of the 24 institutions surveyed) amounted to an average cost of US$76.98 per person per day for the 1-3 weeks training provided. While the practice of strategic planning was widespread, mission statements were widely used in only two-fifths of selected institutions; near-term strategies were widely used in about one third; and long-term visions were widely used in a little more than one third. Even the practice of participation in planning from a broad range of personnel within the institution was only widely used in one third of the selected intuitions. Similarly, written guidelines were widely available (22 of 24), but fully disseminated in less than half of the selected institutions. However, respondents claimed that the financial guidelines were being followed strictly, but half of the respondents (12 of 24) did not know the frequency of receiving reports from the accounting system. Most of the selected institutions had both a human resource management unit (70.8 percent) and dedicated staff training centers (54.2 percent), but about half of the respondents neither knew the regularity of review of staff training needs nor when last staff training needs were assessed. The implication of this is that the extent to which the training exercises match the skill gaps of staff and capacity requirements of the institutions were unknown. Between 75–80 percent of the selected institutions engaged in some collaborative programs and linkages with other government institutions, relevant NGOs, international development partners, training institutions, and research institutions. These collaborative ventures worked mainly through cost sharing, exchange, joint engagements, and sharing of reports. Over 70 percent of the individual respondents (experts) had at least a Master of Science (MSc) or its equivalent. The majority (79.7 percent) were male who had spent more than 10 years on the job. About half of the experts worked with universities, compared to 13.1 percent in the ministries and 37.7 percent in parastatals. Their expertise cut across a broad range of subjects relevant for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies— more than one quarter were experts in agricultural economics, extension, communication, rural development, and rural sociology. The most frequently mentioned (51.4 percent) person responsible for agricultural and rural development programs, policies, and strategies was the officer-in-charge, but the list of stakeholders was long and varied. Over 60 percent of the respondents stated that at least some consultation was done with stakeholders through face-to-face communication at stakeholder fora, meetings, conferences, summits, and talks. According to the respondents, the major concerns of stakeholders about agricultural and rural development policies, programs, or strategies were the extent to which they achieve stated goals. More than half of the respondents claimed that research evidence such as the achievements of previous and on going programs, results of fresh surveys, and extension and On farm Adaptive Research (OFAR) reports were used to support the development of agricultural and rural strategies, policies, and programs. This evidence was obtained mainly from agricultural institutions and universities as well as available reports, journals, and publications. The respondents stated that the major sources of funds for the process of agricultural and rural development policy were the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN), The World Bank, state and local governments, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). They also stated that the various agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs largely benefited the poor (52.5 percent). It was noteworthy that respondents preceived that the number of women at the ministerial and research levels of agricultural and rural development was less than 1 percent. Even at the level of rural farming communities, only 15.3 percent of the respondents felt that there were more women. Furthermore, only 27.4 percent of the experts incorporated environmental issues in their work and only 20.4 percent undertook environmental analysis in their work. Finally, 91.3 percent were indifferent to their job, meaning that it would be difficult for them to perform to the best of their abilities without allowing them greater freedom in the performance of their jobs and work out a reasonable and acceptable reward package for the job done. The results of the Chi square tests showed that the experts’ perception of job satisfaction and institutional incentives is independent of all the background variables considered. The main capacity gaps for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies in Nigeria included 1) the need to entrench democratic principles and transparent leadership and 2) to bridge the gap between universities, research institutions, and policymaking and implementing entities. There was also a limited understanding of the relationships between institutional, human, and material resources versus impact of policy on target end-users at every level in the policy design, planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. Finally, there was a need for the institutionalization of effective measures for tracking changes in the role of evidence in strategic, gender-sensitive planning, through regular monitoring and evaluation, impact assessment, adequate documentation, and commitment to utilize the results of the exercise. Efforts should also be targeted towards improving the quality, gender sensitivity, timeliness, and circulation of policy-relevant evidence.

  188. Women In Food And Agriculture In Nigeria: Some Considerations For Development

    The findings of a Nigerian case study discussed in this paper indicate that the notion of wives of leisure is really not applicable to most women in Nigeria, as women have always worked. Even those in purdah engage in income generating activities within the confines of the compound. It is therefore wasteful to continue to by-pass or displace women in development. Selective mechanisation of difficult processes in agriculture could become a useful method of integrating women into, and enhancing their contributions to, development. A deliberate attempt at the involvement of women in food and agricultural development programmes and increased productivity for them would mean better utilization of their productive capacity.

  189. Harnessing net primary productivity data for monitoring sustainable development of agriculture

    This study was undertaken to assess the utility of remotely sensed net primary productivity (NPP) data to measure agricultural sustainability by applying a new methodology that captures spatial variability and trends in total NPP and in NPP removed at harvest. The sustainable intensification of agriculture is widely promoted as a means for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and transitioning toward a more productive, sustainable, and inclusive agriculture, particularity in fragile environments. Yet critics claim that the 17 SDGs and 169 targets are immeasurable and unmanageable. We propose adoption of satellite-estimated, time-series NPP data to monitor agricultural intensification and sustainability, as it is one indicator potentially valuable across several SDGs. To illustrate, we present a unique monitoring framework and a novel indicator, the agricultural appropriation of net primary productivity (AANPP) and analyze spatial trends in NPP and AANPP across the continent of Africa. AANPP focuses on the proportion of total crop NPP removed at harvest. We estimate AANPP by overlaying remotely sensed satellite imagery with rasterized crop production data at 10-by-10-kilometer spatial resolution; we explore variation in NPP and AANPP in terms of food and ecological security. The spatial distribution of NPP and AANPP illustrates the dominance of cropping systems as spatial drivers of NPP across many regions in West and East Africa, as well as in the fertile river valleys across North Africa and the Sahel, where access to irrigation and other technological inputs are inflating AANPP relative to NPP. A comparison of 2000 and 2005 datasets showed increasing AANPP in African countries south of the Sahara—particularly in Mozambique, Angola, and Zambia—whereas NPP either held stable or decreased considerably. This pattern was especially evident subnationally in Ethiopia. Such trends highlight increasing vulnerability of populations to food and ecological insecurity. When combined with other indicators and time-series data, the significance of NPP and the capacity of spatially explicit datasets have far-reaching implications for monitoring the progress of sustainable development in a post-2015 world.

  190. Assessing the impact of policy research and capacity building by IFPRI in Malawi

    This study examines the contributions of IFPRI over the last 10 years to policy development, training, and capacity-strengthening activities with Malawi, focused particularly on addressing the chronic food insecurity and malnutrition that has prevailed for the last 60 years.The paper is divided into five sections. The first describes the range of activities with which IFPRI was involved: the extensive IFPRI/Cornell food security and nutrition monitoring phase, primarily with the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development of Malawi, from 1989 to 1992; the analytical and capacity-building phase from 1992 to 1996, when IFPRI staff were located at the Bunda College of Agriculture of the University of Malawi; and the collaborative research phase, which began in 1996, and is still underway. The second section contains the results of extensive interviews, which the author had with IFPRI’s partners and stakeholders to elicit their perceptions of the value, influence, and impact of IFPRI in Malawi. This includes training, capacity strengthening,and policy research activities. The third section of the paper attempts to describe the more tangible indicators of IFPRI’s direct and indirect impacts in Malawi. The fourth section highlights some implications and lessons for IFPRI from the study of their impact in Malawi. The final section draws some conclusions.

  191. Capacity development for agricultural biotechnology in developing countries: Concepts, contexts, case studies and operational challenges of a systems perspective

    There are divergent views on what capacity development might mean in relation to agricultural biotechnology. The core of this debate is whether this should involve the development of human capital and research infrastructure, or whether it should encompass a wider range of activities which also include developing the capacity to use knowledge productively. This paper uses the innovation systems concept to shed light on this discussion, arguing that it is innovation capacity rather than science and technology capacity that has to be developed. The context of deploying biotechnology in developing countries is illustrated with an over view of Uganda and Ethiopia. The then presents 6 examples of different capacity development approaches. It concludes by suggesting that policy needs to take a multidimensional approach to capacity development in line with an innovation systems perspective. But it also argues that policy needs to recognise the need to develop the capacity of diversity of innovation systems and that a key part of the capacity development task is to bring about the integration of these different systems at strategic points in time. The paper concludes with a tentative typology of the main types of agricultural innovation systems that are likely to be important in developing countries.

  192. Private Capacity and Public Failure: Contours of Livestock Innovation Response Capacity in Kenya

    Globalization, urbanization and new market demands - together with ever-increasing quality and safety requirements - are putting significantly greater pressures on agrifood stakeholders in the world. The ability to respond to new challenges and opportunities is important not just for producers but also for industries in developing countries. This paper aims to present what "innovation response capacity" entails, especially for natural resourcebased industries in a developing country context. It will also provide an analytical framework that draws elements from agricultural innovation capacity and the innovation systems framework. This is provided through case study research conducted in Kenya by exploring two livestock product companies: Farmer's Choice and Kenchic. The cases show how companies had worked around the problem of weak interaction with the various livestockrelated agencies of the public sector by developing links with international sources of knowledge and technology. This allowed the sector to respond rapidly to different challenges. While the country's historical development explains this pattern of innovation response capacity, public policy appears to be failing in its role of nurturing and contributing to the capacities needed for development in emerging economies, such as that of Kenya.

  193. Building Capacity to Link Agriculture and Nutrition

    This book highlights the important links between agriculture and nutrition, both direct and indirect, both theoretical and practical. It explores these relationships through various frameworks, such as value chains, programmes and policies, as well as through diverse perspectives, such as gender. It assesses the impacts of various agricultural interventions and policies on nutrition and profiles the up-and-down journeys of countries such as Bangladesh, China, Ethiopia, India, and Malawi in integrating nutrition into agricultural policies and programmes. It highlights successes such as biofortification, the integration of behaviour change communication and gender equality into existing agricultural interventions, and agriculture's role in improving household access to nutritious foods and diet diversity. It analyses challenges such as climate and environmental change, undernutrition, and obesity. And it ponders big questions, such as how to build capacity, engage with the private sector, participate in the big data revolution, and foster strong governance and leadership throughout agriculture and nutrition. The book has 20 chapters and a subject index.

  194. Looking at Agricultural Innovation Platforms through an Innovation Champion Lens: An Analysis of Three Cases in West Africa

    The concept of an innovation platform is increasingly used in interventions inspired by agricultural innovation systems thinking, as a way of bringing stakeholders from a sector together to enable transformative change. An essential role on such innovation platforms is thought to be that of the ‘innovation champion’, but this role has so far not been unravelled. In this paper, by applying insights from management science to analyse three innovation platforms in West Africa from the Convergence of Sciences – Strengthening Innovation Systems programme (CoS–SIS), different types of innovation champions are mapped. The authors conclude that making a distinction among different types of innovation champions can be useful in identifying members for innovation platforms, but that the specifics of agricultural innovation appear not to be adequately captured by roles attributed to existing categories of innovation champions. Further research is needed to ascertain whether other categories exist, and how different innovation champions interact over time on agricultural innovation platforms.

  195. A mobile app and a global platform for managing fall armyworm

    Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), or FAW, is an insect native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. In the absence of natural controls or good management, it can cause significant damage to crops. It prefers maize, although it can feed on more than 80 additional species of crops including rice, sorghum, millet, sugarcane, vegetable crops and cotton. FAW was first detected in Central and West Africa in early 2016 (Benin, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, and Togo) and further reported and confirmed in the whole of mainland southern Africa (except Lesotho), Madagascar and Seychelles (Island State). In July 2018, it was confirmed in India and Yemen. By early 2019, it had been reported in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand and China. Today, in Africa and Asia, maize is the crop most infested with FAW. As a staple crop, farmers and their families are unlikely to abandon maize. However, there are ways of managing FAW in maize, as demonstrated in the Americas. FAO is taking an active role in coordinating partners’ activities, plans and approaches to provide sustainable solutions to the FAW challenge. An integral part of FAO’s sustainable management programme for FAW is the FAW Monitoring and Early Warning System (FAMEWS), which consists of a mobile app for data collection and a global platform for managing the current situation.

  196. Improved tree fallows in smallholder maize production in Zambia: do initial testers adopt the technology?

    In eastern Zambia, population growth has reduced per-capita land availability to such an extent that traditional bush fallows can no longer be practiced, and low soil fertility is a major constraint to crop production. Improved fallows (IF) based on leguminous trees are a low cash-input agroforestry practice to restore soil fertility. The objective of the study reported here was to assess the adoption of IF by farmers who tested the technology, including the extent to which the technology is practiced relative to its potential scale. The socioeconomic and agroecological determinants of the incidence and scale of adoption are estimated using a two-stage Heckman regression model that corrects for sample selection bias. Seventy-five percent of the testers have adopted the technology, which shows that IF are a suitable practice under conditions of capital scarcity, inadequate access to markets for fertilizer, and relatively low population density, which prevail in large parts of southern Africa. Adopters practice the technology to 42% of its potential scale; a non-linear relationship was found between wealth and the incidence as well as the scale of adoption; land and labor availability limit further expansion. Hence, future on-farm research should emphasize IF options which reduce land and labor requirements such as intercropping IF species with maize, and IF species which can be seeded directly.

  197. Road map for research on responsible artificial intelligence for development (AI4D) in African countries: The case study of agriculture

    Individuals from a diverse range of backgrounds are increasingly engaging in research and development in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). The main activities, although still nascent, are coalescing around three core activities: innovation, policy, and capacity building. Within agriculture, which is the focus of this paper, AI is working with converging technologies, particularly data optimization, to add value along the entire agricultural value chain, including procurement, farm automation, and market access. Our key takeaway is that, despite the promising opportunities for development, there are actual and potential challenges that African countries need to consider in deciding whether to scale up or down the application of AI in agriculture. Input from African innovators, policymakers, and academics is essential to ensure that AI solutions are aligned with African needs and priorities. This paper proposes questions that can be used to form a road map to inform research and development in this area.

  198. Effects of Fairtrade on farm household food security and living standards: Insights from Côte d’Ivoire

    Fairtrade certification has recently gained in importance for various export crops produced in developing countries. One of Fairtrade's main objectives is to improve the social conditions of smallholder farmers. Previous research showed that Fairtrade has positive effects on farmers' sales prices and incomes in many situations. However, more detailed analysis of the effects on food security and other dimensions of household living standard is rare. Here, we use data from a survey of cocoa farmers in Côte d’Ivoire to analyze how Fairtrade certification affects aggregate household consumption expenditures and the consumption of specific types of consumer goods and services. We also differentiate between poor and non-poor households. Regression models with instrumental variables suggest that Fairtrade increases aggregate consumption expenditures by 9% on average. For poor households, the effect is even larger (14%). These effects are driven by increases in non-food expenditures. We do not find significant effects on food consumption and dietary diversity. In poor households, Fairtrade primarily increases spending on other basic needs such as housing and clothing, whereas in non-poor households positive effects on education and transportation expenditures are found. We conclude that Fairtrade improves farm household living standards, but not food security.

  199. Contract farming, contract design and smallholder livelihoods

    Contract farming has gained in importance in many developing countries. Previous studies analysed effects of contracts on smallholder farmers’ welfare, yet mostlywithout considering that different types of contractual relationships exist. Here, we examine associations between contract farming and farm household income in the oilpalm sector of Ghana, explicitly differentiating between two types of contracts,namely simple marketing contracts and more comprehensive resource-providing contracts. Moreover, we look at different income sources to better understand howboth contracts are linked to farmers’ livelihood strategies. We use cross-sectional survey data and regression models. Issues of endogeneity are addressed throughmeasuring farmers’ willingness-to-participate in contracts and using this indicator asan additional covariate. Farmers with both types of contracts have significantly higherhousehold incomes than farmers without a contract, yet with notable differences interms of the income sources. Farmers with a marketing contract allocate morehousehold labour to off-farm activities and thus have higher off-farm income. In contrast, farmers with a resource-providing contract have larger oil palm plantations and thus higher farm incomes. The findings suggest that the two contract types areassociated with different livelihood strategies and that disaggregated analysis of different income sources is important to better understand possible underlying mechanisms

  200. Spoken words fly away, written words remain: Employment contracts between farmers and farm workers

    Farm workers in developing countries often belong to the poorest of the poor. They typically face low wages, informal working arrangements, and inadequate social protection. Written employment contracts with clearly defined rights and obligations could possibly help, but it is not clear how such contracts could be introduced and promoted in traditional peasant environments. To address this question, we develop and implement a randomized controlled trial with farmers in Côte d’Ivoire. We evaluate whether an awareness campaign about possible features and benefits of employment contracts can influence farmers’ preferences and willingness to sign a contract with their workers. Choice experimental results show that – in comparison to the control group – farmers who were randomly assigned to the awareness campaign have a stronger preference for written contracts and a higher willingness to include contractual features with social benefits for workers. We also analyze treatment effects on farmers’ knowledge and behavior. Farmers in the treatment group are more informed about the procedure of initiating and signing a contract. They are also significantly more likely to have started this procedure by talking with their workers about a contract and making an appointment with the local authorities. Effects on actually signing a contract as the last step of this procedure are not significant, possibly because the time frame of the research was relatively short. Nevertheless, results suggest that information and awareness campaigns may help toimprove farm workers’ employment conditions in traditional peasant environments.

  201. Nutritional implications of mobile phone use in rural Africa

    Policy brief No. 3. Adequate nutrition is a crucial welfare dimension. Malnutrition at a young age can have severe con- sequences for a person’s development of human, social, and economic capital. Also in later phases of one’s life, malnutrition can severely affect health and restrict productivity as well as overall quality of life. Efforts to improve nutrition among rural populations, for example through more diversified diets, are therefore key components of many rural development agendas, especially in Africa where undernutrition is still a large public health prob- lem. By using mobile phones, however, members of rural communities are able to improve their diets.

  202. National Agricultural Innovation System Assessment in Eritrea. Consolidated report

    FAO Eritrea, in partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture is implementing the national component of a global project entitled “Developing capacity in Agriculture Innovation System project: Scaling up the Tropical Agriculture Platform Framework”. The project aims to strengthen capacities to innovate for climate resilient agriculture and food system. One of the key activities of the project is the assessment of the Agricultural Innovation System (AIS) in Eritrea The assessment had the objectives to: 1) identify critical gaps, needs, opportunities, and good practices to formulate workable recommendations aiming at strengthening and making AIS more effective; and 2) develop an understanding of AIS and how it functions and supports climate-relevant transformation of agriculture and food systems. 

    This report presents the main findings of the AIS assessment in Eritrea. The study identified major bottlenecks and entry points for strengthening AIS as well as inform policy and decision makers on AIS performance and made recommendations for its improvement.

  203. Detecting Desert Locust Breeding Grounds: A Satellite-Assisted Modeling Approach

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of soil physical characteristics (i.e., texture and moisture conditions) to better understand the breeding conditions of desert locust (DL). Though soil moisture and texture are well-known and necessary environmental conditions for DL breeding, in this study, we highlight the ability of model-derived soil moisture estimates to contribute towards broader desert locust monitoring activities. We focus on the recent DL upsurge in East Africa from October 2019 though June 2020, utilizing known locust observations from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). We compare this information to results from the current literature and combine the two datasets to create “optimal thresholds” of breeding conditions. When considering the most optimal conditions (all thresholds met), the soil texture combined with modeled soil moisture content predicted the estimated DL egg-laying period 62.5% of the time. Accounting for the data errors and uncertainties, a 3 × 3 pixel buffer increased this to 85.2%. By including soil moisture, the areas of optimal egg laying conditions decreased from 33% to less than 20% on average.

  204. Mobile app design for sustainable agriculture in Mali-West Africa

    In Mali, agricultural activities such as seeding, harvesting, and irrigation play a significant role in productivity. These activities must be carried out appropriately and above all, at an appropriate time to achieve excellent performance. Unfortunately, most farmers are unaware of the impact of these activities on the yield of their crops. This study aims to help farmers and youth people wishing to gather information needed in the field of agriculture entrepreneurship through a mobile application (mobile app). The app designed is mainly used to disseminate information to farmers on how to perform a wide range of agricultural activities such as detailed information about the type of crops, fertilizers, pesticides, selling and buying a product of agriculture, etc. This research was conducted for the adoption of the mobile application in the agricultural field in Mali. The design process followed a User-Centered Design approach to meet the users’ requirements. The evaluation of the design showed that 89, 66% of the participants agreed with the designed application prototype. This app helps farmers and youth people improve their agricultural productivity and not to harm the environment. Therefore, the app helps them for sustainable agriculture to make better land management decisions.

  205. Catalysing Innovation in Agriculture Conversations Of change

    The experiences shared in this book of Conversations of Change capture the outcomes of three years’ work conducted by the eight CDAIS country teams from Angola, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Honduras, Laos and Rwanda. Collected between January and March 2019, they provide insights and perspectives of different actors engaged in the different capacity strengthening processes, within individuals and innovation niche partnerships, and at organisational and national level. These conversation stories highlight the complementary and cumulative benefits from combining work in all levels concurrently, and present a picture of the increased impacts from an integrated approach to strengthening capacities to innovate in agriculture. Introduction This builds on an earlier collection of Stories of Change from 2018 that showcased three different innovation partnerships in each country, and introduced different CDAIS approaches. 

  206. Regional Workshop For Strengthening National Information Communication Management Focal Units in Near East and North Africa Region

    This regional workshop was designed to strengthen the capabilities of representatives of NIFUs for analyzing the situations of their NAIS, and to use their national experiences to identify strengths, weaknesses, and threats/challenges affecting seven key areas influencing development of NAIS, namely: (i) strategy/policy, (ii) institutional aspects, (iii) stakeholders, (iv) content, (v) people, (vi) infrastructure, and (vii) financial aspects. Possible solutions for the key weaknesses and threats /challenges were defined by participants. Finally, the countries’ priorities for early implementation were identified drawing on the list of solutions/ recommendations in their own contexts. The regional workshop was also designed to follow-up on the progress made on the NERAKIN knowledge sharing and collaboration platform, in terms of providing training to the stakeholders in the region.

  207. Multi-stakeholder dialogue space on farmer-led irrigation development in Ghana: an instrument driving systemic change with private sector initiatives

    Private sector actors bring expertise, resources, and new perspectives to agricultural development, but the tendency to short-term approaches and market-based orientation has been unable to drive a systemic change in the development agenda. We explore how multi-stakeholder dialogues can capitalize on and trickle systemic change through private sector involvement. Analysis from the farmer-led irrigation development multi-stakeholder dialogue space (FLI-MDS) in Ghana shows the need for a physical and institutional space to cater for and merge different stakeholder interests. For all stakeholders, the institutional space is a multi-level-playing institution which can trickle systemic change by leveraging the private sectors investments with multi-stakeholders' collaboration, interactive learning, and potential support for commercial scaling of FLI. For private sector actors, a physical space for collaboration is crucial. It enables them to envisage their commercial interests, opening up opportunities for collaboration and mobilization of resources. Ensuring long term sustainability of an FLI-MDS requires catering for the private sector needs for a physical dialogue space to trickle systemic change and accelerate commercialization in farmer-led irrigation development.

  208. Participatory Livelihood Analysis as an Alternative Method for Agricultural Extension Needs-Assessment: Case of a Rural Community in Kenya

    The well-being of the rural population globally has been associated with the performance and resilience of the agriculture sector. The sector continually requires new needs-based knowledge and technologies. It has become necessary to empower the rural communities through a wider bottom-up system that directly addresses their needs. This paper explores the application of little-used Participatory Livelihood Analysis for the adoption and up-scaling of its use in the assessment of agricultural-extension-needs for disadvantaged rural communities. It presents a case study of a village perceived by Agriculture stakeholders as disadvantaged in Nandi County, Kenya. Using a case study design and a participatory livelihood analysis approach, the descriptive study analyses the pentagon of resources (Natural/Land, human, social, physical and financial) based on the sustainable livelihood framework. It identifies livelihood strategies, constraints and opportunities for improvement on the performance of the livelihood strategies. The study observed that the Participatory Livelihood Analysis approach was an effective method in the assessment of agricultural-extension-needs of disadvantaged communities in relatively remote locations. Further trials of the approach in similar socio-economic contexts for use in needs assessment are recommended.

  209. Youth Participation in Agriculture: A Scoping Review

    Providing economic opportunities for youth in agriculture is essential to securing the future of agriculture in Africa, addressing poverty, unemployment, and inequality. However, barriers limit youth participation in agriculture and the broader food system. This scoping review aimed to investigate the opportunities and challenges for youth in participating in agriculture and the food system in Africa. This review conducted a scoping review using the PRISMA guideline. Published studies were retrieved from online databases (Web of Science, Cab Direct, and Science Direct) for 2009 to 2019. The findings showed that existing agricultural interventions are production-centric and provide low-income earnings and inadequate social protection. We also found that the youth have pessimistic perceptions about agriculture’s capability of improving their living standards. This could be ascribed to the minimal youth involvement in agricultural activities and the youth’s shared understanding of the agricultural sector’s contribution to general economic growth. From a policy perspective, the literature revealed that current agricultural development programs do not adequately address structural issues underpinning youth participation in the economy. Therefore, to enhance the involvement of youths in agriculture, there is a need for policy implementation in the area of integrated agricultural-based interventions that are context-specific and promote meaningful youth participation in shaping future food systems.

  210. Technology and innovation trajectories in the Rwandan Agriculture sector: Are value chains an option?

    Technology and innovation are important in addressing complex problems in the agricultural sector in many developing communities. However, ways and mechanisms to integrate them in the agricultural sector are still a challenge due to the lack of clear pathways and trajectories. Value chains are seen as a strong policy instrument to increase profitability in the agricultural sector; there is also debate around whether value chains can be a potential option to organize technology and innovation trajectories in agriculture. This paper contributes to this debate by exploring the question of how value chain interactions are organized for producing, transferring and using knowledge in the Rwandan agricultural sector. Interviews with relevant value chain actors and a review of reports and scientific literature were used to explore this question. Empirical findings show that value chain structural organization can be an entry point to mainstream technology and innovation. However, this requires building synergies and complementarities among actors. Interactive learning among value chain actors is imperative, with the use of both scientific and indigenous knowledge. Linking value chains to innovation systems is one option to explore for maximizing the potential of value chains in integrating technology and innovation in the agricultural sector.

  211. Smart specialisation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities, challenges and initial mapping for Côte d’Ivoire

    This paper calls for a better integration of place-based, evidence-based and inclusive dimensions in the implementation of the Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) plans and industrial policies in sub-Saharan Africa. To this end, the analysis contrasts with and takes inspiration from the recent and ongoing international experiences in the elaboration of Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (S3). Then a preliminary mapping of the economic, scientific and innovative potentials for Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa) is achieved in line with the smart specialisation approach to evidence collection for innovation policy. The conceptual and mapping exercise can help innovation practitioners and stakeholders to identify important gaps of evidence needed to inform place-based or territorial development policies. The integration of smart specialisation principles into STI and industrial policymaking can indeed open several opportunities to identify and nurture innovative activities and novel industries. Pragmatic recommendations are drawn from these perspectives for more effective innovation-based local development strategies in Côte d’Ivoire and the region.

  212. Constructing the national innovation system in Rwanda: efforts and challenges

    The building of sustainable innovation capabilities in Africa requires an innovation system capable of producing, disseminating and using new knowledge. This paper assesses the process of constructing the National Innovation System (NIS) in Rwanda. It is posited that consensus on and acceptance of the concept of NIS among stakeholders is crucial in the early process of constructing an efficient and dynamic innovation system. Primary empirical data are presented for the case of Rwanda and analyzed in a regional context. The study shows that the NIS concept is generally being integrated and utilized in the process of building sustainable innovation capabilities in Rwanda. In particular, Rwanda exhibits promising progress in the process of establishing and reinforcing infrastructures and institutions as well as policies to promote innovation. However, there are still challenges associated with low research capacity, low level of interactions among stakeholders, limited financial resources as well as lack of coordination framework, all of which contribute to hampering the building up of sustainable innovation capabilities.

  213. Emergence of an agriculture innovation system in Rwanda: Stakeholders and policies as points of departure

    The concept of an innovation system is used to understand how innovation contributes to economic growth. However, innovation systems do not evolve evenly in different parts of the world. This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on the emergence of innovation systems in the context of developing countries. It uses the Rwandan case, where agriculture is a dominant socio-economic sector with high innovation potential. It explores how stakeholder interactions and policies contribute to the emergence of an agriculture innovation system in Rwanda. Based on interviews with relevant stakeholders and a review of policy documents, the authors use the Triple Helix model to analyze interactions among stakeholders. They also explore the policymaking approaches used to formulate policy instruments and how these policy instruments contribute to the promotion of innovation activities. The study shows that stakeholder interactions and policies are important factors in providing the preconditions for innovation performance. There is a clear expression of interest and commitment to promote innovation activities in different policy instruments. Nevertheless, further strategic issues, such as evidence-based policymaking, institutional capacity building, better allocation of resources and platforms for promoting collaboration among stakeholders, need to be improved in order to build a functioning agriculture innovation system in Rwanda.

  214. A reality check for digital agricultural extension tool development and use

    ICT-driven digital tools to support smallholder farmers are arguably inevitable for agricultural development, and they are gradually evolving with promising outlook. Yet, the development and delivery of these tools to target users are often fraught with non-trivial, and sometimes unanticipated, contextual realities that can make or mar their adoption and sustainability. This article unfolds the experiential learnings from a digital innovation project focusing on surveillance and control of a major banana disease in East Africa which is being piloted in Rwanda.

  215. Transforming Agricultural Extension Service Delivery through Innovative Bottom–Up Climate-Resilient Agribusiness Farmer Field Schools

    Conventional approaches to agricultural extension based on top–down technology transfer and information dissemination models are inadequate to help smallholder farmers tackle increasingly complex agroclimatic adversities. Innovative service delivery alternatives, such as field schools, exist but are mostly implemented in isolationistic silos with little effort to integrate them for cost reduction and greater technical effectiveness. This article presents a proof-of-concept effort to develop an innovative, climate-resilient field school methodology, integrating the attributes of Farmers’ Field School, Climate Field School, Climate-Smart Agriculture and indigenous technical knowledge of weather indicators in one package to address the gaps, while sensitizing actors on implications for policy advocacy. Some 661 local facilitators, 32% of them women and 54% youth, were trained on the innovation across East Africa. The initiative has reached 36 agribusiness champions working with 237,250 smallholder farmers in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Initial results show that the innovation is strengthening adaptation behaviour of agribusiness champions, farmers and supply chain actors, and reducing training costs. Preliminary findings indicate that the process is rapidly shaping group adaptive thinking. The integrated approach offers lessons to transform extension and to improve food security and resilience. The approach bundles the costs of previously separate processes into the cost of one joint, simultaneous process, while also strengthening technical service delivery through bundled messaging. Experience from this initiative can be leveraged to develop scalable participatory extension and training models, especially scaling out through farmer-to-farmer replication and scaling up through farmer group networks.

  216. Using improved understanding of research and extension professionals’ attitudes and beliefs to inform design of AIS approaches

    This paper seeks to understand what influences research and extension professionals’ intentions to use AIS approaches and to explore how this can inform implementation and design of more effective AIS. We applied the Reasoned Action Approach through focus groups and structured questionnaires with research and extension professionals from government and non-government organisations in Sierra Leone, where AIS approaches are not widely used although increasingly institutionalised in policy. Research and extension professionals have surprisingly positive attitudes towards using AIS approaches and associate it with a range of positive outcomes related to food security and inclusive processes. The perceived ability to successfully implement AIS approaches is strongly influenced by funding, organisational culture and dynamics between senior and junior staff. We also found that alongside use of AIS approaches there is a continued adherence to top-down approaches.

  217. Towards a Revolutionized Agricultural Extension System for the Sustainability of Smallholder Livestock Production in Developing Countries: The Potential Role of ICTs

    The creation of commercialization opportunities for smallholder farmers has taken primacy on the development agenda of many developing countries. Invariably, most of the smallholders are less productive than commercial farmers and continue to lag in commercialization. Apart from the various multifaceted challenges which smallholder farmers face, limited access to extension services stands as the underlying constraint to their sustainability. Across Africa and Asia, public extension is envisioned as a fundamental part of the process of transforming smallholder farmers because it is their major source of agricultural information. Extension continues to be deployed using different approaches which are evolving. For many decades, various authors have reported the importance of the approaches that effectively revitalize extension systems and have attempted to fit them into various typologies. However, there is a widespread concern over the inefficiency of these extension approaches in driving the sustainability of smallholder farming agenda. Further, most of the approaches that attempted to revolutionize extension have been developed and brought into the field in rapid succession, but with little or no impact at the farmer level. This paper explores the theory and application of agricultural extension approaches and argues the potential of transforming them using digital technologies. The adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as mobile phones and the internet which are envisaged to revolutionize existing extension systems and contribute towards the sustainability of smallholder farming systems is recommended

  218. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) usage among agricultural extension officers and its impact on extension delivery in Ghana

    In recent years, the agricultural industry has been experiencing an ever-increasing application of information and communication technologies globally. This new revolution has been touted to impact efficiency and productivity in the agricultural extension services within the agriculture sector. Notwithstanding this, empirical research need to be carried out amongst its users in the sector to ascertain these assertions. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to assess the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) among agricultural extension workers and its implications on extension service delivery. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 153 field extension workers, and a structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. The data obtained were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics software version 22. The study revealed that agricultural extension officers use ICT for personal communication, but not mainly for extension activities. It was recommended that the agricultural extension services provide intensive ICT training for the agricultural extension workers to enhance ICT incorporation into extension advisory service.

  219. Improving the effectiveness of agricultural extension services in supporting farmers to adapt to climate change: Insights from northeastern Ghana

    The importance of extension services in helping smallholder farmers to address the many challenges of agricultural production cannot be over-emphasized. However, relatively few studies have been conducted that investigate how the capacities of agricultural extension agents can be built to more effectively assist smallholder farmers in managing climate risks and impacts. As climate change is a key threat to smallholder food production, addressing this issue is increasingly important. This paper aims to identify how agricultural extension agents in Ghana can better support smallholder farmers in navigating and addressing the effects of climate change on food production.

  220. Driving preparedness and anticipatory actions through innovation: A web-based Rift Valley fever Early Warning Decision Support Tool

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed a web-based Rift Valley fever (RVF) Early Warning Decision Support Tool (RVF DST), which integrates near real-time RVF risk maps with geospatial data, historical and current RVF disease events from EMPRES Global Animal Disease Information System (EMPRES-i) and expert knowledge on RVF eco-epidemiology. The tool is used to build capacity for early warning and forecasting at country level, and demonstrates how near real-time modelling, risk forecasting and digital innovation can enhance preparedness and anticipatory actions. This brochure outlines the key data brought together by the RVF DST and describes early implementation experiences in East Africa, as well as possible future developments of the scheme.

  221. Joint rapid appraisal on strengthening agricultural innovation systems in Africa, Asia and Latin America by regional research and extension organizations

    This report summarizes studies conducted in a framework of TAP-AIS project implemented by FAO’s Research and Extension Unit, and funded by the European Union as a component of the European Union initiative on “Development Smart Innovation through Research in Agriculture” (DeSIRA). 

    During the last quarter of 2020, Regional Agricultural Research and Extension Organisations (RREO) in Africa, Asia and Latin America jointly carried out rapid appraisals to map the innovation environment and identify and document initiatives aimed at strengthening Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS). The focus was on functional capacity development with a view to exploring ways in which RREO can support the development of these capacities and integrate them with technical capacities. A combination of literature reviews, case studies and stakeholder surveys was used to gather information. The results were documented in three separate reports which are available from the RREO. In the present document, key findings from the regional reports are presented and discussed. There were considerable differences between regions and among countries within the regions with regard to the institutional environment in which innovation takes place. In many countries, in each of the regions, agricultural innovation is framed within structures and institutions which are largely driven by the public sector. Government support to agricultural research and extension agencies continues to be based on linear transfer of technology approaches. However, in some countries AIS thinking is being incorporated into policies and programmes.

    The case studies in the reports from the regions illustrate different ways in which multi-actor collaboration is being supported in order to enhance innovation capacity. Innovation platforms and networks have been established to provide spaces for different organisations to interact, share information and knowledge and develop partnerships. Some of these platforms and networks are continuing to operate when external support is withdrawn but the sustainability of these mechanisms is a challenge and further efforts are needed to promote local ownership and resourcing. The case studies highlighted the importance of participatory capacity needs assessments to identify priority capacity needs and design appropriate interventions to address them. There are several initiatives which provide examples of good practice in this area, including the European Union-funded Capacity Development for Agricultural Innovation Systems (CDAIS) project which operated in eight countries across the three regions. Findings from this project and others showed the value of having suitably qualified persons as facilitators in innovation processes. However, there are few people with the skills and expertise required to provide effective support and this was viewed as a major constraint to capacity strengthening efforts in all the three regions. More resources are needed to train facilitators and public agencies should give higher priority to in-house training for staff in functional capacities. viii In addition to capacity needs assessments and effective facilitation, several other success factors for effective capacity strengthening are described. These include adaptive management approaches, strong information and knowledge management processes, and the incorporation of measures to enhance sustainability during programme design. Building on emerging trends and current initiatives, opportunities for strengthening agricultural innovation systems are discussed. Suggestions are made on how RREO can help to address these opportunities; for example, by making use of new information and communication technologies to share knowledge and contribute to training. Based on the findings from the individual and synthesis reports, the RREO are preparing joint action plans to guide their future activities in enhancing innovation capacities in their regions.

  222. The fruits of knowledge co-creation in agriculture and food-related multi-stakeholder platforms in sub-Saharan Africa – A systematic literature review

    Food insecurity and the weak position of smallholders in food value chains are key challenges in many low- and middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to increase food security and make agricultural value chains more inclusive, donors, governments and researchers increasingly stimulate partnerships between multiple actors, in which knowledge exchange, joint learning and knowledge co-creation play a central role in reducing the time lag between research findings and their translation into practical outcomes. Yet, despite the growing body of literature on multi-actor and cross-sector learning in these partnerships, an overview of existing literature and a strong evidence base of results of knowledge co-creation in these platforms is missing. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper documents existing evidence of knowledge co-creation processes in multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) in sub-Saharan Africa. Findings reveal, first, many examples of positive results, including increased yields and income for farmers; policy, regime and institutional changes; and changes in environmental sustainability. Second, there are several limitations to what MSPs can achieve, including limited attention for scaling up and a lack of sustainability due to dependency on donor funding. Third, there are limitations related to the evidence base: there is a tendency to report less on failures and available findings on the effectiveness of MSPs are mixed. Considering the evidence base, we conclude that there is a need to systematically document, report and assess MSPs and not take their effectiveness for granted. A systematic literature review thereby has an important added value because the critical assessment of methodological rigour increases the credibility of results documented in the included studies.

  223. Gender analysis in farming systems and action research: A training manual

    This training manual was developed for Africa RISING, a USAID funded research-for-development (R4D) program that recognizes gender mainstreaming as key for achieving its overall research and development objectives. The program is based on an integrated action research and farming-systems approach, and strives for gender transformation. A gender capacity assessment in 2015 identified a pronounced demand among Africa RISING scientists for training in gender analysis. As a first step towards addressing this need, an annotated bibliography with selected sources for self-learning was developed. Thereafter, the concept and contents of this manual were drafted and subsequently put to the test during four trainings in Tanzania, Malawi, Ghana and Mali in 2017. Although tailored to a specific program, the manual covers aspects of gender analysis that are relevant to other actors working with similar objectives. More specifically, these are researchers that engage with smallholders and other stakeholders to jointly develop and test agricultural technologies – technologies that not only enhance productivity and profitability and are environmentally sound, but also adapted to the differential needs of women and men farmers and benefit both in an equal manner. The manual will serve as a source book for three general audiences:

    • facilitators conducting trainings on gender analysis in agricultural research;
    • researchers attending such trainings; and
    • all those interested in learning more about concepts and tools for gender analysis. 
  224. Understanding gender roles and practices in the household and on the farm: Implications for banana disease management innovation processes in Burundi

    Banana and plantain are one of the most important staple food crops and a significant source of income to smallholder farmers in the East African Great Lakes Region. Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) is a devastating bacterial disease that threatens smallholder production and livelihoods. We use a systems approach to describe how gender shapes roles and practices in the household, on the farm and in innovation processes. We draw on a case study in Burundi, where single disease stem removal (SDSR) has been introduced as a labour-saving package to reduce BXW incidence. Banana is grown by an estimated 90% of farmers, and BXW poses a critical threat to food security. We use qualitative data that include focus group discussions, interviews and transcripts from farmer learning group (FLG) discussions to describe gender norms, roles and practices and implications for awareness and uptake of SDSR in households. We identify gender patterns in innovation process, namely that men gain higher levels of access to information in FLGs than women and men are also primarily responsible for implementing SDSR. These patterns reflect gender-differentiated norms, roles and practices that are common in the household and in banana-based farming systems, thus demonstrating the ways that innovation processes perpetuate and reinforce common gender roles and practices. Women’s participation in FLGs, albeit lower than men, increases the potential of women to implement specific practices of the SDSR package. Systems approaches may be similarly used in different contexts where awareness and uptake of banana disease management packages, and other technical innovations, are not well understood. We found that gender norms, roles and practices significantly influence uptake of SDSR practices and warrant further investigation across the region, where smallholder uptake remains a pressing challenge to establish household food security.

  225. Sustainable agricultural intensification and gender- and age-biased land tenure systems

    This presentation addresses the topic of sustainable agricultural intensification and gender- and age-biased land tenure systems in Africa. 

  226. Shifting from Fragmentation to Integration: A Proposed Framework for Strengthening Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System in Egypt

    Agricultural knowledge and innovation system (AKIS) has a strong potential to enhance economic performance of farming and contribute to agricultural sustainability, as it may increase synergies and complementarity among actors. This paper is aimed to develop a proposed framework to strengthen AKIS in the study area based on the results of this study. This paper explores perception and views about strengthening AKIS in Dakhalia governorate of Egypt by applying a multi-actor approach. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews and focus group discussion. This paper focuses on three structural dimensions, namely actors, interactions, and technologies, to describe the nature of innovation processes within AKIS. Results indicate that legal and regulatory frameworks, lack of infrastructure, and weak the role of intermediary organizations are the main barriers that AKIS faces. Linkages of contracting and public–private partnerships were viewed as main interactions required to strengthen AKIS. The analysis also explores the availability of innovation requirements at each actor, as well as the distributive technologies, that should be encouraged to build the capacity the agricultural sector. A proposed framework is developed based on the results of this study and the characteristics of the AKIS in the study area. This framework could be used for stimulating innovation and enhancing coordination between actors.

  227. Demand-driven extension and advisory services – catalysing opportunities for youth in agriculture

    While education access has improved globally, gains are uneven, and development impacts driven by increases in education continue to be left on the table, especially in rural areas. Demand-driven extension and advisory services (EAS) – as a key institution educating rural people while providing agricultural advice and supplying inputs – have a critical role to play in bridging the education gap. This can help ensure that millions of young people successfully capitalise on opportunities in agriculture markets, as surveys in Rwanda and Uganda demonstrate.

  228. Developing capacities in agricultural innovation systems: scaling up the Tropical Agriculture Platform Framework - The TAP-AIS project

    This brochure presents the five-year TAP-AIS project (2019-2024) funded by the European Union under the DeSIRA Initiative and implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The project has the main objective to strengthen capacities to innovate in national agricultural innovation systems (AIS) in the context of climate-relevant, productive, and sustainable transformation of agriculture and food systems in Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Pacific.

  229. Enabling sustainable food systems: Innovators’ handbook

    Sustainable food systems are fundamental to ensuring that future generations are food secure and eat healthy diets. To transition towards sustainability, many food system activities must be reconstructed, and myriad actors around the world are starting to act locally. While some changes are easier than others, knowing how to navigate through them to promote sustainable consumption and production practices requires complex skill sets.

    This handbook is written for “sustainable food systems innovators” by a group of innovators from Asia, Africa, the Americas and Europe who are leading initiatives to grow, share, sell and consume more sustainable foods in their local contexts. It includes experiences that are changing the organizational structures of local food systems to make them more sustainable. The handbook is organized as a “choose your own adventure” story where each reader – individually or in a facilitated group – can develop their own personalized learning and action journeys according to their priorities. The topics included in this handbook are arranged into four categories of innovations: engaging consumers, producing sustainably, getting products to market and getting organized.

    Also available in French and Spanish.

  230. Nutrition, Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change in Africa Issues and Innovative Strategies

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, the rapidly evolving COVID-19, increasing population growth, and exponential expansion in demand for agricultural commodities are putting pressure on available resources, thereby posing immense challenges to the region’s capacity to achieve nutritional security related to United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Although Sub-Saharan Africa boasts vast, fertile and uncultivated arable lands, its capacity to contribute to feeding its current and future population is being seriously undermined by factors such as poor adoption and utilization of innovations and digital tools, climate change impact, environmental degradation, weak political will, limited interest in farming, lack of government support, and more. In spite of these constraints, sustainable agriculture, food security and nutrition security in Sub-Saharan Africa can be achieved by adopting a multi-pronged approach, which includes improved agricultural mechanization, adoption of high yielding crop varieties, use of information technology, public investments in improved technologies, and rural infrastructure funding.  This edited volume provides innovative policy tools for enhancing Sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to achieve sustainable agriculture, food security and nutrition security in the digital age and in the face of climate variability. Furthermore, this book presents smart strategies for increased agricultural production, reduced food waste, and enhanced nutritional outcomes by harnessing the latest discoveries in agricultural research, education and advisory services.

  231. Demand-driven extension and advisory services – catalysing opportunities for youth in agriculture

    The Unites States Agency for International Development (USAID) Feed the Future De-veloping Local Extension Capacity (DLEC) project conducted a three-country study on youth and EAS in Rwanda, Niger and Gua-temala. These case studies provided a land-scape analysis to inform actions to strengthen the inclusion of youth in EAS to improve their livelihoods and increase the effective-ness of EAS systems. Following on from the three-country study, DLEC expanded the research to examine youth engagements in EAS in Uganda and Rwanda, and take a spe-cial look at demand-driven, private sector-led, youth-inclusive EAS models. The objective of this latter study was to assess how private sector EAS engages youth and what the potential is for greater engagement. It focused on private sector initiatives, public-private partnerships, and government, NGO and project initiatives to engage youth in the private sector

  232. The power of translation: Innovation dialogues in the context of farmer-led innovation in the Algerian Sahara

    Developing irrigation technology for a diversity of farmers with rapidly changing demands can be hard for designers, especially when the technology concerns smallholders in developing countries. Innovation networks supporting the adopted technology increasingly include both globalised players and very local actors, making innovation intermediaries capable of translating innovation issues for different actors increasingly indispensable. The aim of this study was to analyse the two-way process of technology translation between international manufacturers and smallholders and to characterise the power struggle between different actors in a farmer-led drip irrigation innovation process. The study was carried out in Biskra, a growing production basin for early greenhouse vegetables in the Algerian Sahara. We conducted 42 interviews with farmers and 42 interviews with other actors involved in the innovation process

  233. The Role of Information and Interaction Processes in the Adoption of Agriculture Inputs in Uganda

    Agriculture is an essential component of food security, sustainable livelihoods, and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Smallholder farmers, however, are restricted in the number of crops they can grow due to small plot sizes. Agriculture inputs, such as fertilizers, herbicides or pesticides, and improved seed varieties, could prove to be useful resources to improve yield. Despite the potential of these agriculture technologies, input use throughout much of SSA remains low. This paper aims to better understand the process of innovation diffusion through information and interaction processes at the individual, social network, and community levels. A total of 203 participants were surveyed using a semi-structured interview method in four rural communities located in the Mbale, Lira, Kabale, and Masaka districts of Uganda. Participants were asked about their access to information technologies, information sources via social network ties, level of engagement in the local community, and agricultural input use. Results indicate households with higher levels of information access through cell phone use and weak-tie information sources are more likely to use inputs. Significant findings also include the interactional effect of cell phones and weak ties on fertilizer adoption. This research could inform policy makers of cost-effective methods of disseminating agriculture information and encouraging innovation diffusion

  234. Making room for manoeuvre: addressing gender norms to strengthen the enabling environment for agricultural innovation

    Local gender norms constitute a critical component of the enabling (ordisabling) environment for improved agricultural livelihoods–alongsidepolicies, markets, and other institutional dimensions. Yet, they havebeen largely ignored in agricultural research for development. Thisviewpoint is based on many years of experience, including a recentmajor comparative research initiative, GENNOVATE, on how gendernorms and agency interact to shape agricultural change at local levels.The evidence suggests that approaches which engage with normativedimensions of agricultural development and challenge underlyingstructures of inequality, are required to generate lasting gender-equitable development in agriculture and natural resource management

  235. The role of multinational corporations in local dairy value chain development: case of Friesland Campina WAMCO (FCW) in Nigeria

    Nigeria is arguably the largest importer of dairy products in Africa. Available statistics shows that up to 98% of the total dairy products consumed in the country are imported; and that about 75% of the entire dairy market is controlled by FrieslandCampina WAMCO (FCW). The purpose of this study is to examine the basis for the prevailing import orientation in the dairy industry since 1973. Is the orientation traceable to operations of multinational companies or the institutional and governance challenges in the country? Using triangulated data collected from FCW official reports and other relevant sources, and a content analytical technique, the study finds that the problem in the industry is multifaceted. Central to the challenges are persistent institutional and infrastructural defects, as well as faulty integration designs adopted by FCW. Based on this, the paper recommends that reversing the current trend requires government’s policies that dis-incentivizes importation. However, such policies can work only when the right atmosphere for cattle farming and local dairy production is put in place

  236. Agribusiness Investment in Agricultural Commercialisation: Rethinking Policy Incentives in Africa

    Governments in sub-Saharan Africa and their donors have made business investment a major policy goal, supported by a variety of incentives designed to support business investment in agriculture. However, little is known about the factors which influence agribusiness investment in Africa, and how effective these incentives have been. This paper examines the motivations of agribusiness investment, the effectiveness of government and donor policy incentives, and the relevance of these incentives for four different commercialisation pathways. Empirical evidence is drawn from Ethiopia, Malawi and Ghana to determine whether commercialisation pathways have emerged as a result of investments that have been incentivised by such policies

  237. A Strategic Approach to Value Chain Upgrading—Adopting Innovations and Their Impacts on Farm Households in Tanzania

    The level of agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa remains far below the global average. This is partly due to the scarce use of production- and process-enhancing technologies. This study aims to explore the driving forces and effects of adopting innovative agricultural technologies in food value chains (FVC). These enhancing FVC technologies are referred to as upgrading strategies (UPS) and are designed to improve specific aspects of crop production, postharvest processing, market interaction, and consumption. Based on cross-sectional data collected from 820 Tanzanian farm households, this study utilized the adaptive lasso to analyse the determinants of UPS. To measure the impact of their adoption on well-being, this study applied the propensity score matching approach (PSM). Results from the adaptive lasso suggested that access to credit, experience of environmental shocks and social capital were the main drivers of UPS adoption. In contrast, the engagement in off-farm wage employment impeded adoption. The results from the PSM suggested that UPS adoption has a positive and significant impact on well-being among sampled households, especially with respect to their total value of durable goods and commercialization. The paper suggests that the promotion of social capital and access to financial capital is pivotal in enhancing the adoption of innovative UPS in the farming sector

  238. Value chain development to benefit smallholders in Ghana: The effectiveness of selected interventions

    This study examines interventions in two agricultural development projects in Ghana which aimed to build competitiveness of selected value chains to generate growth and reduce poverty – the Northern Rural Growth Project, implemented between 2009 and 2016, and the Market Oriented Agriculture Programme, which began in 2004 and is still in place. These projects aimed to sustainably increase rural households’ income through the development of inclusive and profitable agricultural commodity and food value chains to generate agricultural surpluses and to benefit from improved access to remunerative markets. In this study, the efficacy of four sorts of value chain interventions implemented by the two projects are examined in the context of the strengthening maize, pineapple, mango, and citrus value chains. The study sought to identify how, where, and when might it be appropriate to intervene in value chains, particularly to benefit smallholders. While the lessons from this study do not comprehensively answer these questions, a better understanding is provided on the reasons behind the outcomes the projects attained in seeking to strengthen agricultural commodity value chains and some guidance is offered on how interventions aimed at doing so should be designed

  239. Lessons Learned Brief for Ghana and Tanzania, External Evaluation of Mobile Phone Technology-Based Nutrition and Agriculture Advisory Services in Ghana and Tanzania

    mNutrition was a five-year global initiative supported by the Department for International Development (DFID) between 2013 and 2018, organised by GSMA and implemented by in-country mobile network operators (MNOs) and other providers. The evaluation was carried out by a consortium of researchers from Gamos, the Institute of Development Studies, and the International Food Policy Research Institute. This briefing summarises key evaluation findings and presents lessons learned on three key topics: 1. The design and implementation of mobile phone-based information services to promote behaviour change; 2. Building a commercially viable business model for mobile phone-based information services; and 3. Evaluating mobile phone-based information services

  240. Assessment of rural households’ mobile phone usage status for rural innovation services in Gomma Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia

    The mobile phone technology is an important tool to enhance farmers’ to access better marketing services, agricultural extension services, health extension services and other mobile services. This study also tried to assess rural households’ mobile phone usage status for different rural innovation services in Gomma Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia. Structured interview schedule, focus group discussion, key informant interview and personal observations were used as a method of data collection tools for this study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used for this study and data were collected by using both primary and secondary source of data. Also the data were collected from 188 sample household head respondents who are using mobile phone for accessing different rural innovation services. Descriptive statistics including frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentage was used for this study. Most of the rural households used mobile phone for marketing services followed by other mobile services (news services, as torch and calculator services). The farmers who were educated more were used different innovation services through mobile phone rather less educated farmers. Finally, the rural household usage of mobile phone for different rural innovation services needed to be supported by stakeholders to solve the problems of mobile phone utilization in rural areas

  241. Impacts and Challenges of ICT Based Scale-up Campaigns: Lessons Learnt from the Use of SMS to Support Maize Farmers in the UPTAKE Project, Tanzania

    Providing smallholder farmers with support through conventional government extension approaches is challenging as the number of extension agents is decreasing. At the same time, new information and communication technologies (ICTs), such as short message services (SMS) sent via mobile phones, show considerable promise to complement existing extension services. In the UP-scaling Technology in Agriculture through Knowledge and Extension (UPTAKE) Project, ICTs were used to create awareness and increase uptake and adoption of agricultural innovations by maize farmers in Tanzania. Two SMS-based maize campaigns were implemented during the 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 cropping seasons in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Prior to the start of the campaigns, formative research to determine maize production knowledge, practices and challenges was conducted in Mbeya and Songwe Region. After the campaign a telephone survey, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. During the campaign, about 3.8 million SMS were disseminated to over 55,000 farmers. 73% were male, 19% owned smart phones and 86% farmed maize on up to 1.2 hectares of land. Farmers reported maize production challenges as: unreliable markets, inadequate extension services, pest outbreaks and lack of knowledge to identify counterfeit inputs particularly seeds and fertilizers. The UPTAKE mobile SMS campaign was a new approach to agricultural extension in this area. A telephone survey amongst a sample of farmers who received the SMS revealed that 53% of respondents considered that this was now their preferred as a source of information compared to traditional sources including neighbours and family members, demonstration plots, agricultural extension workers and radios. Key lessons learnt relate to management of databases of farmer contacts, importance of participatory processes in developing content and designing SMS campaigns, and the need for flexibility and promptness in responding to emerging threats such as delayed rains and outbreaks of pests. Good practices like buy in and authorizations from the government administrative structures and compliance with country’s regulations on communication are integral to the success of ICT projects

  242. Agricultural Technology Transfer Preferences of Smallholder Farmers in Tunisia’s Arid Regions

    The objective of this research study was to assess the sources of information on two improved agricultural and livestock technologies (barley variety and feed blocks) as well as the efficacy of numerous agricultural technology diffusion means introduced in the livestock–barley system in semi-arid Tunisia. The research used primary data collected from 671 smallholder farmers. A descriptive statistical analysis was conducted, and Kendall’s W-test and the chi-squared distribution test were deployed to categorize and evaluate the efficacy of the different methods of technology diffusion used by the Tunisian extension system. To address farmers’ perceived opinions and classify the changes from the use of the improved technologies, a qualitative approach based on the Stapel scale was used. Farmer training, demonstration, and farmer-to-farmer interactions were perceived as the most effective agricultural extension methods. The access to technology, know-how, adoption cost of that technology, and labor intensity for adoption influenced its adoption level. Farmers’ opinions about the changes resulting from the adoption of both technologies revealed that yield and resistance to drought were the most important impacts of the two technologies. The study recommends empowering the national extension system through both conventional and non-conventional technologies (ICT, video, mobile phones, etc.), given the cost-effectiveness and their impact

  243. Women’s empowerment, agricultural extension, and digitalization: Disentangling information and role-model effects in rural Uganda

    Women often have less access to agricultural information than men, constraining their participation in decision-making on crops, technologies, and practices. In the design of agricultural extension programs, women may be viewed as insignificant actors in agricultural production. Moreover, even if their role is recognized, valuable information on production does not flow freely within the household from men to women. Among groups of maize-farming households in eastern Uganda, we explore the impacts on women’s empowerment from the use of gender-responsive information and communication technologies to provide extension services, specifically videos that feature women as information providers. The research tests the relative impact of the videos, contrasting their informational effects versus their role model effects, on women’s knowledge, their agency, and their achievements in farming. The results show that targeting women with information increases their achievements in farming

  244. Development and Prospect of Food Security Cooperation in the BRICS Countries

    In recent years, the international status of agriculture in the BRICS countries—Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa—has been continuously improved. In 2018, the gross agricultural production of the BRICS countries accounted for more than 50% of the world’s total. Further strengthening the developing cooperation of the BRICS countries is of great significance for ensuring global food security. Based on the data from FAOSTAT and UN Comtrade Database, this study builds a food self-sufficiency rate and food security cooperation potential index to quantitatively analyze the food security status, cooperation effectiveness, and future trends of the BRICS countries. The study finds that the overall food security of the BRICS countries is generally showing a trend of volatility and growth, with high rates for cereals and relatively low rates for fresh products. In the future, BRICS food security cooperation should be based on their own resource endowment and socioeconomic characteristics. The BRICS countries need to constantly improve the awareness of joint cooperation and action in the future, focusing on scientific and technological cooperation, information sharing, complementary advantages in trade, and improving the global competitiveness of products. With the help of agricultural science and technology, Brazil is growing as a strong export country of food products. Russia needs to increase the introduction of agricultural science and technology and foreign capital to give full play to its resource advantages. India can improve its food self-sufficiency faster by the construction of a BRICS Agricultural Research Platform. China makes full use of BRICS resources, actively promotes agricultural enterprises to go global, and constantly optimizes the food supply structure. South Africa maintains the advantages of fruit and vegetable industry and increases the introduction and promotion of agricultural science and technology to improve the domestic food production capacity

  245. Strengthening capacity for natural sciences research: A qualitative assessment to identify good practices, capacity gaps and investment priorities in African research institutions

    Strengthening research capacity in low-and-middle-income countries is essential to drive socioeconomic development and to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Understanding strengths and weaknesses in institutions’ research capacity can guide effective targeting of investments and resources. This study assessed the capacity of institutions undertaking research in natural science topics in Africa to identify priority capacity gaps for future investment. Assessments were conducted in eight African institutions that were partners in a UK-Africa programme to strengthen research capacity in renewable energy, soil-related science, and water and sanitation. Assessments involved eighty-six interviews and three focus group discussions to identify institutions’ research capacity strengths and gaps against an evidence-informed benchmark. Use of the same interview guides and data collection processes across all institutions meant that findings could be compared

  246. Impact of ICT based extension services on dairy production and household welfare: The case of iCow service in Kenya

    Smallholder dairy farmers have the challenges of accessing timely and reliable agricultural information, and this limits them from realizing maximum farm output. The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a farming extension tool by smallholder farmers has the potential to reverse the scenario and improve farmers’ outputs and incomes leading to increased welfare. This study employed the Propensity score Matching approach to evaluate the impacts of ICT-based extension services, in this case, iCow services on milk production, milk income, and household income using cross-sectional data from a survey of dairy farmers in Uasin Gishu, Nyandarua and Bomet counties of Kenya. The use of ICT-based iCow services is shown to increase Annual milk production per cow, milk income, and household income by 13%, 29%, and 22%, respectively. Partnerships between network providers and research institutes should be encouraged as part of bridging the extension gap occasioned by reduced public expenditure on extension services

  247. The Role Of Education System In Preparing Youth For Agricultural Career Decisions And Aspirations: Exploring Ways To Attract More Youth To Engage In Agriculture And Agricultural Entrepreneurship in Tanzania

    Youth intention to pursue a career in agriculture and entrepreneurship is influenced by the knowledge they acquire through formal, informal, and nonformal settings. Changing youth perception of agriculture is essential for agriculture and youth development. The purpose of the study was to examine current youth perceptions of agriculture, solicit Tanzanian leaders' views of agriculture, and youth entrepreneurship. Understand youth intention and aspirations to choose a career in agriculture and agricultural-related fields, and the influence of the education system in shaping youth career decisions and entrepreneurship in agriculture. This study utilized a multi-method approach to examine youth and leaders perception of agriculture and the role of education systems on youth decisions on a career. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Social Cognitive Career Choice (SCCC) were used as the theories involve the human intention and motivation to create knowledge, which may result in changing behavior. Self-efficacy, environment, culture, and critical reflection are essential when constructing knowledge, contribute to youth decision making process and meaning-making

  248. Strengthening education, extension and training to accelerate climate resilience and low carbon development in the agriculture sector

    The dynamic nature of climate and its impacts on agriculture is rendering most of the existing adaptation and coping strategies unsupportive in many regions. Recent studies on economic sectors (including agriculture) across institutions and 24 counties have established the following: a widened gap between skills possessed by youth and those required by the job market; inadequate technical skills and knowledge on climate change and climate-smart technologies by the extension service providers; climate change has not been adequately integrated into Kenya’s formal agricultural education, extension and training systems such as the Kenya School of Agriculture (KSA), Agricultural Technology Development Centres (ATDCs), Agricultural Training Centres (ATCs) and Agriculture Technical Vocational Education and Training (ATVET); the existing policies and strategies for capacity building for the agriculture sector have limited provisions for promoting climate resilient and low carbon development solutions. These calls for integration of climate change into the formal education, extension and training systems; equipping the training institutions to facilitate adoption of climate-smart innovations; capacity building of the extension service providers to enhance utilization and adaptation of the appropriate support agricultural technologies, innovations and climate-smart farming practices

  249. Crop-livestock-tree Integration in Uganda: the Case of Mukono-Wakiso Innovation Platform

    Farmers in the Lake Victoria crescent zone have over the years struggled with pests and diseases in a country full of fake agricultural inputs, access to markets, post-harvest losses, declining soil fertility and the changes of weather. The production for most farmers is rain fed and is greatly affected by climatic changes. The Mukono Wakiso innovation platform (IP) was formed to help farmers find solutions to these issues. However, the platform was faced with several pitfalls among which were actors dropping off along the way, limited participation of international research organizations, limited financing for activities and focus on multiple commodities. This book chapter explores how the platform succeeded and what lies ahead for it

  250. Gender in climate change, agriculture, and natural resource policies: insights from East Africa

    Gender mainstreaming was acknowledged as an indispensable strategy for achieving gender equality at the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action. Since then, governments have made substantial efforts in developing gender-responsive policies and implementation strategies. The advent of climate change and its effects, which have continued to impact rural livelihoods and especially food security, demands that gender mainstreaming efforts are accelerated. Effective gender mainstreaming requires that gender is sufficiently integrated in policies, development plans, and implementation strategies, supported by budgetary allocations. This study analyzes the extent of gender integration in agricultural and natural resource policies in Uganda and Tanzania, and how gender is budgeted for in implementation plans at district and lower governance levels. A total of 155 policy documents, development plans, and annual action plans from national, district, and sub-county/ward levels were reviewed. In addition, district and sub-county budgets for four consecutive financial years from 2012/2013 to 2015/2016 were analyzed for gender allocations. Results show that whereas there is increasing gender responsiveness in both countries, (i) gender issues are still interpreted as “women issues,” (ii) there is disharmony in gender mainstreaming across governance levels, (iii) budgeting for gender is not yet fully embraced by governments, (iii) allocations to gender at sub-national level remain inconsistently low with sharp differences between estimated and actual budgets, and (iv) gender activities do not address any structural inequalities. We propose approaches that increase capacity to develop and execute gender-responsive policies, implementation plans, and budgets

  251. What does it Mean to Make a ‘Joint’ Decision? Unpacking Intra-household Decision Making in Agriculture: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Research-based evidence on the adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices is vital to their effective uptake, continued use and wider diffusion. In addition, an enabling policy environment at the national and regional levels is necessary for this evidence to be used effectively. This chapter analyzes a 4-year period of continuous policy engagement in East Africa in an attempt to understand the role of multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) in facilitating an enabling policy environment for climate change adaptation and mitigation. The study shows how MSPs enhanced a sense of ownership, developed knowledge, created linkages between different governance levels and a wide variety of actors (including policymakers and scientists), and, most significantly, improved policy formulation

  252. Making Smallholder Value Chain Partnerships Inclusive: Exploring Digital Farm Monitoring through Farmer Friendly Smartphone Platforms

    Value chain partnerships face difficulties achieving inclusive relations, often leading to unsustainable collaboration. Improving information flow between actors has been argued to contribute positively to a sense of inclusion in such partnership arrangements. Smallholders however usually lack the capability to use advanced communication technologies such as smartphones which offer a means for elaborate forms of information exchange. This study explores to what extent co-designing smartphone platforms with smallholders for farm monitoring contributes to smallholder ability to communicate, and how this influences smallholder sense of inclusion. The study uses an Action Design Research approach in engaging smallholders in Ghana, through multi-stakeholder and focus group discussions, in a reflexive co-design process. The research finds that co-designing a platform interface was significant in improving farmer ability to comprehend and use smartphone based platforms for communicating farm conditions and their needs with value chain partners. Farmers were however skeptical of making demands based on the platform due to their lack of power and mistrust of other actors. This highlights a need for adjusting the social and political dimensions of partnership interactions, in tandem with the advancement of digital tools, in order to effectively facilitate a sense of inclusiveness in partnerships

  253. Dynamics of the Fertilizer Value Chain in Mozambique

    Mozambique is characterized by low agricultural productivity, which is associated with low use of yield-enhancing agricultural inputs. Fertilizer application rate averaged 5.7 kg ha−1 in Mozambique during the period 2006 to 2015, considerably low by regional targets, yet constraints that affect fertilizer use have not been thoroughly investigated. This study examined the constraints on fertilizer value chains in Mozambique to contribute to fertilizer supply chain strengthening. We used a combination of multivariate analysis and descriptive methods. Our findings indicate that fertilizer use has both demand and supply constraints. Key demand-side constraints include liquidity challenges, limited awareness about the benefits of using fertilizer, and low market participation, while the main supply-side constraints include high transaction costs, limited access to finance, and lack of soil testing results and corresponding fertilizer recommendations by soil type and crop uptake. These results suggest that scaling up the input subsidy program through vouchers (either paper-based vouchers or e-vouchers) with demonstration plots and effective targeting could drive up smallholders’ demand for fertilizer and fertilizer supply by strengthening a sustainable network of wholesalers and retailers. This would likely boost agricultural productivity

  254. Adoption of ICT-Based Information Sources and Market Participation among Smallholder Livestock Farmers in South Africa

    The study explored the contribution of information and communication technology (ICT)-based information sources to market participation among smallholder livestock farmers. Use of ICTs is considered paramount for providing smallholder farmers with required market information, and also to reduce market asymmetries. A double hurdle regression was utilized to analyze data collected from 150 smallholder livestock farmers in the study area. The results show that while use of ICT-based market information sources significantly influenced market participation, the effect of using ICT-based information sources on the intensity of market participation was not significant. Other variables shown to influence both market participation and the intensity of market participation were age, additional income and membership of farmer cooperatives. This suggests the need to consider other associated factors in the application and design of interventions that utilize ICT-based information sources to achieve market engagement among smallholders

  255. The Stepping Stones to Success: How We Achieve High Ownership and Reflective Learning in Multistakeholder Processes in Uganda?

    Utilization of systems approach using multistakeholder process as modality of intervention has been increasingly experimented in agricultural research in tropical zones. Recent research findings indicated strong evidence of the positive contribution of research for development (R4D) and innovation platforms (IP) in increasing the impact of research for development interventions. However, specific factors of the process leading to higher impact yet to discovered. This study assesses the critical success factors for achieving high ownership and high stakeholder engagement in Humidtropics R4D and IP platforms located in Mukono-Wakiso and Kiboga-Kyankwanzi using a novel learning system developed for the Humidtropics program. It argues that intervention actors' playing a facilitation role, operating more in the field, balancing platform meetings with other more action oriented events, recruitment of women in the intervention team and having a process sensitive financial support strategy are critical success factors for achieving high ownership and high reflective learning in the multistakeholder processes

  256. Systems approaches to innovation in pest management: Reflections and lessons learned from an integrated research program on parasitic weeds in rice

    This paper provides a retrospective look at a systems-oriented research program, on the increasing occurrence of parasitic weeds in rainfed rice in sub-Saharan Africa, to qualitatively assess merits and identify challenges of such approach. Was gained a broad contextual overview of the problem and different stakeholders' roles, which enabled identification of entry points for innovations in parasitic weed management

  257. Building multi-stakeholder processes in agricultural research for development in Rwanda

    Humidtropics adopts an integrated systems perspective. Instead of tar-geting one single pre-selected commodity and trying to boost its produc-tivity at farm level, Humidtropics focuses on stimulating productivity, nat-ural resource management (NRM) and institutional innovations across different levels in order to achieve more sustainable impacts. It consid-ers all farm enterprises and their interactions, as well as nutrition, social differentiation (e.g. gender and youth), and policy and markets.This case study zooms in on multi-stakeholder processes in the East and Central Africa (ECA) Action Area or Flagship that were launched on 20 May 2013 in Bukavu, DR Congo. The ECA Flagship encom-passes the Rwanda, DR Congo, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia Action Sites. More specifically, the case study describes and reflects upon the first two years of Humidtropics in Rwanda., aiming to outline the multi-stakeholder process as it unfolded and highlight-ing lessons that can be learned from this. In Rwanda, activities are mainly taking place in Kadahenda and Kayonza (also referred to as Field Sites). The case study is based on meeting minutes, progress reports, event documentation, and 10 semi-structured key informant interviews. Furthermore, data originate from an IP and an R4D plat-form reflection meeting, and participatory observation by the authors. Some interview quotes used in this case study have been slightly edit-ed to enhance readibility

  258. Building multi-stakeholder processes in agricultural research for development in Burundi

    To support the multi-stakeholder process in Burundi, the national research institute ISABU (Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Bu-rundi) was requested to act as the facilitating organisation. ISABU had previously partnered with the CGIAR centres in Burundi under the CIALCA program that had supported partnerships to coordinate activities and stimulate demand-driven research. With the aim of building on existing collaboration and activities, it was decided to re-engage with former CIALCA partners, including ISABU. Within IS-BU, a soil scientist and former Minister of Education was the per-son designated to execute the role of national facilitator (also referred to as Action Site Facilitator – ASF). Over time, he was assisted in this role by colleagues from ISABU, researchers from IITA and Bioversity International, representatives of the NGOs Reseau Burundi 2000+ (RB2000+) and Floresta, two extension officers and two farmers. In different compositions, these people formed the team that facilitated the multi-stakeholder processes in Burundi

  259. Building multi-stakeholder processes in agricultural research for development in DR Congo

    This case study zooms in on multi-stakeholder processes in the East and Central Africa (ECA) Action Area or Flagship that were launched on 20 May 2013 in Bukavu, DR Congo. The ECA Flagship encom-passes the Rwanda, DR Congo, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia Action Sites. More specifically, the case study describes and reflects upon the first two years of CGIAR Humidtropics in DR Congo. aiming to outline the multi-stakeholder process as it unfolded and highlight lessons that can be learned from this. In DR Congo, activities are mainly taking place in Ngweshe (also referred to as a Field Site), in South Kivu Province in the eastern part of the country. The case study is based on meeting minutes, progress reports, event documenta-tion and 10 semi-structured interviews. Furthermore, data originate from an IP and an R4D platform reflection meeting, and participatory observation by the authors. Some interview quotes used in this case study have been slightly edited to enhance readibility

  260. Institutionalising dialogue in Rwanda through innovation platforms

    A platform of farmers, retailers and service providers, civil society organisations, NGOs, government officials, and researchers improves livelihoods in Rwanda. Through interaction and collaboration, these groups experiment with various technological and institutional innovations, thereby tackling local agricultural challenges. This experience illustrates the importance of institutionalising a space where knowledge can be co-created

  261. Multi-stakeholder processes in Central Africa: Successes, struggles and lessons learned

    The Great Lakes region of Central Africa is an area abundant in hills, people and conflicts. Its high altitude and cooler climate make it ideal for agriculture. But soils have been exhausted, spare land is no longer available, and farm households in parts of this region rank among the most food insecure and malnourished on earth. Years of civil conflict have moreover paralyzed agricultural advisory and extension services and resulted in poor access to markets. Although there is unclarity about what type of solutions will be effective to address these problems, it is clear that developing, testing and implementing solutions requires collaboration, learning and collective action between farmers, governments, civil society organisations, researchers and the private sector. To facilitate this collaboration, ‘multi-stakeholder innovation platforms’ (hence referred to as IPs) were initiated in Burundi, Rwanda and the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) as part of the CGIAR Research Program on Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics (Humidtropics). An IP is a space for learning and change. It is a group of organizations represented by one or multiple people that often have different backgrounds and interests. Depending on the issue at stake, IPs can include farmers, input providers, government officials, extension officers, Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), researchers, media, processors, retailers, etc. The IP members come together to diagnose problems, set priorities, identify opportunities and find ways to achieve their objectives

  262. Towards effective youth-led agribusiness programmes in Uganda (and elsewhere)

    Increasingly, (inter)national development organisations are investing in programmes for youth in agribusiness throughout Africa. In Uganda, 78% of the population is under 30 years of age according to the United Nations Population Fund (2011), and youth unemployment is a main concern for major development stakeholders.With agriculture as the backbone of the national economy, engaging youth in productive and sustainable agribusiness is an important objective for many of the development organizations.However, the burning question is what the most effi cient strategy is to tackle constraints and provide opportunities for Ugandan youths

  263. The sustainability and success of Innovation Platforms

    Innovation platforms are by nature democratic spaces for joint problem identification, analysis, prioritization, and the collective design and implementation of activities to overcome problems. They are part of agricultural systems, and only a very small number of the stakeholders will be represented in the innovation platforms. This article sustainability and sucess criterea ofinnovation platforms

  264. The Role of ICTs in Improving Smallholder Maize Farming Livelihoods: The Mediation of Trust in Value Chain Financing

    Maize production is of critical importance to smallholder farmers in Ghana. Various factors limit the productivityof smallholder maize farming systems undergirded by the lack of capital for critical investments both at the farmand at national policy levels. Using a value chain approach, this diagnostic study explains how a complex configuration of actor interaction within an institutionally and agro-ecologically challenged value chain leads tothe enduring absence of maize farming credit support. The authors find a cycle of credit rationing resulting from value chain challenges such as agro-ecological uncertainties, inadequate GAPs training, weak farmer groups and market insecurity. This condition is sustained by an interplay between mistrust, insufficient information acrossthe value chain and inadequate control strategies in the maize credit system. We argue that Digital Platforms(DPs) show potential to help overcome some information and communication gaps and related uncertainties that impede traditional value chain credit arrangements. This is promising in terms of aiding awareness and co-ordinated responsiveness to agro-ecological farm conditions and the development of farming records databases.Thus, DPs could generate new networks and forms of cooperation in the maize value chain in this regard. As a tool for mediating trust in value chain credit cooperation, strategic use of these DP contributions could help initiate an entry point for recalibration of trust perceptions. Significant considerations and improvements are however needed to harness DPs effectively in mediating trust for maize credit provision, not least being farmer digital inclusion in DP implementation, effective intermediation and network governance arrangements anddigital contributions towards cost-effective agro-ecological controls in the erratic maize farming context. This approach to trust building should therefore not be viewed as a quick fix but as a process of trial and error, and learning by doing

  265. Opportunities and pitfalls for researchers to contribute to the design of evidence-based agricultural policies: lessons from Uganda

    Agricultural policies in sub-Saharan Africa have paid insufficient attention to sustainable intensification. In Uganda, agricultural productivity has stagnated with aggregate increases in crop production being attributed to expansion of cultivated land area. To enhance sustainable crop intensification, the Ugandan Government collaborated with stakeholders to develop agricultural policies using an evidence-based approach. Previously, evidence-based decision-making tended to focus on the evidence base rather than evidence and its interactions within the broader policy context. We identify opportunities and pitfalls to strengthen science engagement in agricultural policy design by analysing the types of evidence required, and how it was shared and used during policy development. Qualitative tools captured stakeholders' perspectives of agricultural policies and their status in the policy cycle. Subsequent multi-level studies identified crop growth constraints and quantified yield gaps which were used to compute the economic analyses of policy options that subsequently contributed to sub-national program planning. The study identified a need to generate relevant evidence within a short time 'window' to influence policy design, power influence by different stakeholders and quality of stakeholder interaction. Opportunities for evidence integration surfaced at random phases of policy development due to researchers' 'embededness' within co-management and coordination structures

  266. Factors influencing participation dynamics in research for development interventions with multi-stakeholder platforms: A metric approach to studying stakeholder participation

    Multi-stakeholder platforms have become mainstream in projects, programmes and policy interventions aiming to improve innovation and livelihoods systems, i.e. research for development interventions in low-and middle-income contexts. However, the evidence for multi-stakeholder platforms' contribution to the performance of research for development interventions and their added value is not compelling. This paper focuses on stakeholder participation as one of the channels for multi-stakeholder platforms' contribution to the performance of research for development interventions, i.e. stakeholder participation. It uses a quantitative approach and utilizes descriptive statistics and ARIMA models. It shows that, in three Ugandan multi-stakeholder platform cases studied, participation increased both in nominal and in unique terms. Moreover, participation was rather cyclical and fluctuated during the implementation of the research for development interventions. The study also shows that, in addition to locational and intervention factors such as type of the area along a rural-urban gradient targeted by the intervention and human resources provided for multi-stake-holder platform implementation, temporal elements such as phases of research for development intervention objectives and the innovation development process play significant roles in influencing participation. The study concludes that contribution of multi-stakeholder platforms to the performance of research for development projects, programs, policies and other initiatives is constrained by locational and temporal context and conditional on the participation requirements of the objectives pursued by research for development intervention

  267. Participation without Negotiating: Influence of Stakeholder Power Imbalances and Engagement Models on Agricultural Policy Development in Uganda

    Although the political context in Uganda exhibits democratic deficit and patronage, research and development actors have given little attention to the possible negative impact these may have on agricultural policymaking and implementation processes. This article examines the influence of power in perpetuating prevailing narratives around public participation in agricultural policymaking processes. The analysis is based on qualitative data collected between September 2014 and May 2015 using 86 in‐depth interviews, 18 focus group discussions, and recorded observations in stakeholder consultations

  268. Anchoring innovation methodologies to ‘go-to-scale’; a framework to guide agricultural research for development

    Research for development (R4D) projects increasingly engage in multi-stakeholder innovation platforms (IPs) asan innovation methodology, but there is limited knowledge of how the IP methodology spreads from one contextto another. That is, how experimentation with an IP approach in one context leads to it being succesfully re-plicated in other contexts. To inspire development actors to consider the fit of an innovation methodology for acontext, following work on anchoring for scaling, was developed a framework for networking-, methodological,and institutional anchoring and applied it to a R4D IP in order to test the value of such an anchoring approach forunderstanding the scaling of innovation methodologies such as IP. The authors selected a R4D project with a FarmerResearch Group-Innovation Platform in Ethiopia, whose technical output and methodological approach weregreatly appreciated by the actors involved. Using the anchoring framework, the executed or non-executed taskswere identified. Besides, the embedding of the methodological experiment the potential up-scaling and out-scaling were systematically analyzed. The analysis yielded the strengths and weaknesses of the anchoring workdone so far to scale the innovation methodology used, and provided concrete suggestions of how to proceed if aninnovation project considers ‘going to scale’

  269. The ecologisation of agriculture through the prism of collaborative innovation

    How do the innovation platforms and facilitated networks currently deployed in the Global South help trigger dynamics of collaborative innovation that can be useful for the agroecological transition? What are the difficulties encountered and how can they be overcome? This chapter throws lights on these questions. The first part justifies the interest in studying the ecologisation of agriculture through the prism of collaborative innovation and of its paradoxes. The second part describes a diversity of collaborative mechanisms mobilized at different levels at which the agroecological transition is organized. Examples from Burkina Faso and Cameroon illustrate the different organizational forms mobilized and the way in which they help overcome certain paradoxes of collaborative innovation in order to make actors move forward. The conclusion provides a perspective for future research

  270. Programmes, projects and learning inquiries: Institutional mediation of innovation in research for development

    This paper explores innovation processes and institutional change within research for development (R4D). It draws on learning by Australian participants associated with the implementation of a three-year Australian-funded food security R4D programme in Africa, and in particular a sub-component designed to support and elicit this learning. The authors critically examine this attempt at institutional innovation via the creation of a 'learning project' (LP) in a larger programme. For systemic innovation to be achieved, it is concluded that the system of concern must envisage institutional innovation and change within the donor and external research organizations as well as with project recipients and collaborative partners. Institutional constraints and opportunities are explored, including how the overall approach to learning in this programme could have been reframed as an organizational innovation platform (IP), designing, managing and evaluating IPs at different systemic levels of governance – including within the collaborative programme with African partners, in the constituent in-country projects, in the collaborating Australian organizations and at the level of personal practice

  271. Partnerships in agricultural innovation: Who puts them together and are they enough?

    Successful cases of innovation invariably demonstrate a range of partnerships, alliances and network-like arrangements that connect together knowledge users, knowledge producers and others involved in enabling innovation in the market, policy and civil society arenas. With this comes the realisation that public agricultural research needs to strengthen links to a wider set of players from the private and civil society sectors and, of course, farmers themselves. Public agricultural extension services have traditionally played the role of linking farmers to technology. However, recent studies that view this role as one of innovation brokering point to the fact that it involves a range of innovation management tasks that go beyond simply linking to sources of researchbased knowledge and include: linking to input and output markets, network development, conflict resolution, and helping negotiate changes in the policy environment, working practices, standards and regulations and financing arrangements. But who should perform this linking task and what forms of brokering really matter? Studies in the Netherlands point to the emergence of specialist brokering organisations, which include privatised public agencies and civil society organisations that rely on a mixture of public and private funding. This section presents the findings from an agricultural research-into-use support programme operating in Asia and Africa, which has focused on finding ways to embed research into the wider set of networks involved in innovation. This has included the establishment of pilot specialist agencies to broker linkages for innovation

  272. Bottom-up, Bottom-line: Development-Relevant Enterprises in East Africa and their Significance for Agricultural Innovation

    Over the last 10 years much has been written about the role of the private sector as part of a more widely-conceived notion of agricultural sector capacity for innovation and development. This paper discusses the emergence of a new class of private enterprise in East Africa that would seem to have an important role in efforts to tackle poverty reduction and food security. These organisations appear to occupy a niche that sits between mainstream for-profit enterprises and the developmental activities of government programmes, NGOs and development projects. This type of enterprise activity is not corporate social responsibility, but an altogether new type of business model that is blending entrepreneurial skills and perspectives with mission statements that seek to both serve the needs of poor customers and address their welfare. The ethos is both "bottom-up" and "bottom-line". This paper classifies these organisations as Development-Relevant Enterprises (DevREs).The experience of the Research into Use (RIU) programme discussed in this paper suggests that supporting these types of entrepreneurial activity may form the basis of a new mode of development assistance aimed at using innovation for both social and economic purposes

  273. Innovation response capacity in relation to livestock-related emergencies in Africa

    The study explored the nature of innovation response capacity and the building of policy-relevant innovation capacity in the context of livestock-related emergencies in East Africa. The work described has been carried out on behalf of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development’s Livestock Policy Initiative (IGAD-LPI), a regional sister initiative to the FAO’s Pro-poor Livestock Policy Initiative (PPLPI).  Through two case studies, the report describes innovation response capacity in relation to livestock-related emergencies in East Africa using the examples of a recent regional drought and the zoonotic disease Rift Valley fever, situating these in on-going conceptual and policy debates. The case studies are described and then analysed using an analytical framework that considers, actors and their roles, patterns of interaction, habits and practices, and presence or absence of an enabling environment. As part of this study, policy-relevant innovation capacity was explored during two workshops which brought together livestock sector policy makers from Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda, together with representatives of international organizations and NGOs, to focus on process monitoring, policy dialogue and the sharing of experiences. The report reveals a set of policy relevant lessons and indicative practices for policy makers and practitioners on building innovation response capacity in the IGAD region

  274. Understanding knowledge systems and what works to promote science technology and innovation in Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda

    It has long been recognized that investment is needed to build capacity in Science Technology and Innovation (STI) particularly in low and medium income (LMI) countries. Yet there is little understanding as to how to do this. The combination of a) the use of research and innovation policy frameworks more aligned with High-Income Countries rather than LMI country social and economic environments and b) new commitments in many SSA countries to using research and innovation to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) mean that we need to develop new practical conceptual policy frameworks to guide future research and innovation investments that are more deeply embedded, sustainable and locally owned than was perhaps the case in the past. In relation to that need, a pilot research project is developing a new framework rooted in knowledge systems (KS) perspectives. Conceptually, a practical knowledge system approach offers potential to provide a more comprehensive understanding of science technology and innovation (STI) investment contexts, generate new evidence on the impact effectiveness of different investment options and help define tangible policy instruments/interventions. Against this backdrop the current project is developing a practical KS concept and applying this in three-country cases, Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda

  275. Exploring the impact of farmer-led research supported by civil society organisations

    This paper asks: What have been the impacts of farmer- or community-led (informal) processes of research and development in agriculture and natural resource management in terms of food security, ecological sustainability, economic empowerment, gender relations, local capacity to innovate and influence on formal agricultural research and development institutions? An innovative conceptual framework was applied to a diverse set of farmer-led research initiatives in countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America to explore approaches, outcomes and impacts of informal agricultural research and development (ARD) facilitated by civil society organisations

  276. Copyright or copyleft: An assessment of farmer-innovators’ attitudes towards intellectual property rights

    There is a broad consensus that farmers are not simply recipients of promoted techniques: rather, they are also an important source of agricultural innovations. They invent farm tools and equipment, develop new crop varieties, and add value to externally promoted technologies. When scouting, documenting and promoting such farmer-generated innovations, the thorny issue of intellectual property rights (IPRs) often emerges. Using data from 300 farmer-innovators in Kenya, Malawi and Zambia, this study seeks to contribute to a better understanding of farmers' knowledge of and preferences for IPRs and open-access innovation

  277. Voluntarism as an investment in human, social and financial capital: evidence from a farmer-to-farmer extension program in Keny

    A decline in public sector extension services in developing countries has led to an increasing emphasis on alternative extension approaches that are participatory, demand-driven, client-oriented, and farmer centered. One such approach is the volunteer farmer-trainer (VFT) approach, a form of farmer-to-farmer extension where VFTs host demonstration plots and share information on improved agricultural practices within their community. VFTs are trained by extension staff and they in turn train other farmers. A study was conducted to understand the rationale behind the decisions of smallholder farmers to volunteer their time and resources to train other farmers without pay and to continue volunteering. Data were gathered through focus group discussions and individual interviews involving 99 VFTs

  278. First experiences with a novel farmer citizen science approach: crowdsourcing participatory variety selection through on-farm triadic comparisons of technologies (tricot)

    Rapid climatic and socio-economic changes challenge current agricultural R&D capacity. The necessary quantum leap in knowledge generation should build on the innovation capacity of farmers themselves. A novel citizen science methodology, triadic comparisons of technologies or tricot, was implemented in pilot studies in India, East Africa, and Central America. The methodology involves distributing a pool of agricultural technologies in different combinations of three to individual farmers who observe these technologies under farm conditions and compare their performance. Since the combinations of three technologies overlap, statistical methods can piece together the overall performance ranking of the complete pool of technologies. The tricot approach affords wide scaling, as the distribution of trial packages and instruction sessions is relatively easy to execute, farmers do not need to be organized in collaborative groups, and feedback is easy to collect, even by phone

  279. Youth and innovation in Africa: harnessing the possibilities of Africa’s youth for the transformation of the continent

    To successfully realize the African transformation agenda, governments will have to capitalize on the potential of Africa’s youth. Growing up in an increasingly free and fair continent, the young people of Africa are dynamic, forward-looking and best positioned to find innovative solutions to local chal-lenges through the use of science and technology. To do this, conditions have to be suitable and young people need an environment in which barriers to self-actualization are broken. In the light of this, ECA hosted a moderated online discussion entitled “Youth and innovation in Africa: harnessing the possibilities of Africa’s youth for the transformation of the Continent”. The aim of the discussion was to lay the ground work for research on youth and innovation by answering the overarching question of how innovations in science and technology can be used to build on the momentum of economic growth in Africa, and to elicit ideas on how innovation in technology can harness the potential of African youth in order to advance the African development agenda and to stem steadily rising youth unemployment rates. The present report summarizes and reframes the issues raised, the solutions offered, and the lessons learned as African countries work to-wards harnessing the potential of their dynamic youth

  280. Impact of agricultural extension service on adoption of chemical fertilizer: Implications for rice productivity and development in Ghana

    Given the increasing tension between food production and food demand in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the poor development of the rice sector in Africa, the present paper examines the impact of agricultural extension on adoption of chemical fertilizers and their impact on rice productivity in Ghana. A parametric approach was employed to account for selectivity and endogeneity effects, which most impact studies fail to address. The empirical results reveal that agricultural extension service is endogenous in the chemical fertilizer adoption specification

  281. Impact of systems modelling on agronomic research and adoption of new practices in smallholder agriculture

    An analysis of the impact of simulation modelling in three diverse crop-livestock improvement projects in Agricultural Research for Development (AR4D) reveals benefits across a range of aspects including identification of objectives, design and implementation of experimental programs, effectiveness of participatory research with smallholder farmers, implementation of system change and scaling-out of results. In planning change, farmers must consider complex interactions within both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects of their crop and animal production activities. For this, whole-farm models that include household models of food, workload and financial requirements have the most utility and impact. The analysis also proposes improvements in design and implementation of AR4D projects to improve the utility of simulation modelling for securing positive agronomic and livestock outcomes and lasting legacies

  282. Brazil’s Agricultural Politics in Africa: More Food International and the Disputed Meanings of “Family Farming”

    Brazil’s influence in agricultural development in Africa has become noticeable in recent years. South–South cooperation is one of the instruments for engagement, and affinities between Brazil and African countries are invoked to justify the transfer of technology and public policies. In this article, examines the case of one of Brazil’s development cooperation programs, More Food International (MFI), to illustrate why policy concepts and ideas that emerge in particular settings, such as family farming in Brazil, do not travel easily across space and socio-political realities. Taking a discourse-analytical perspective, we consider actors’ narratives of family farming and the MFI program, and how these narratives navigate between Brazil and three African countries – Ghana, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe

  283. Can information improve rural governance and service delivery?

    In the context of an exponential rise in access to information in the last two decades, this special issue explores when and how information might be harnessed to improve governance and public service delivery in rural areas. Information is a critical component of government and citizens’ decision-making; therefore, improvements in its availability and reliability stand to benefit many dimensions of governance, including service delivery. Service delivery is especially difficult in rural areas which contain the majority of the world’s poor but face unique logistical challenges due to their remoteness. This paper reviews the features of the recent information revolution, including increased access to information due to both technological and institutional innovations. The authors then raise the question of why information often fails to support the goals of improved governance and service delivery

  284. Tanzania's story of change in nutrition: Political commitment, innovation and shrinking political space

    In the past 15 years, Tanzania has made considerable progress in the fight against child undernutrition. This paper analyses in what respects an enabling environment for nutrition action in Tanzania has emerged. It critically investigates the nature of government political commitment and assesses the breadth and depth of a range of public policies, initiatives and actions within and across nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive sectors, and at the national, sub-national and community levels. It finds that Tanzania has undertaken substantial policy innovation and institutional development, carrying significant promise to accelerate nutrition improvements, provided they are accompanied by stronger domestic investments, and greater political space enabling communities to hold the government to account for its performance combating malnutrition

  285. Does institution type affect access to finance for cassava actors in Nigeria?

    The cassava system in Nigeria is developing, with increasing attention to its potential positive outcomes. However, credit access is a major problem in expanding productive activities of the different actors across the value chains of cassava products. This study investigates the extent of access to credit by cassava actors with respect to the different financial institutions in the country using data obtained from a sample of 168 actors, including producers, processors, marketers, fabricators and end users

  286. The state of rice value chain upgrading in West Africa

    Following the food price crisis in 2008, African governments implemented policies aiming at crowding in investment in rice value chain upgrading to help domestic rice compete with imports. This study assess the state of rice value chain upgrading in West Africa by reviewing evidence on rice millers’ investment in semi-industrial and industrial milling technologies, contract farming and vertical integration during the post-crisis period 2009–2019. We find that upgrading is more dynamic in countries with high rice production and import bills and limited comparative advantage in demand. However, scaling of upgrading faces several challenges in terms of vertical coordination, technology, finance and policies. This assessment can help value chain actors and policy makers refine upgrading strategies and policies to increase food security in West Africa

  287. Science for a food-secure future Gender Equity in Agricultural Innovation Systems, Including Seed Systems

    This presentation bring successful examples of Sustainable intensification of maize-legume cropping systems for food security in eastern and southern Africa (SIMLESA): Gender Equitable Benefits through Agricultural Innovation Platforms (AIPs) in Rwanda, considerations of gender in the formal maize seed sector in Uganda and Capacity Building initiatives

  288. Actor networks for innovation in rural south africa: the case of agro-processing enterprises in Mopani district

    Innovation processes in rural contexts occur in systems that are diverse, coupled with complex challenges. Dealing with complex systems requires an understanding of the social dynamics of actor networks and innovation.This study attempted to provide insights on thecompositional dynamics of actor networks,and how they influenceinteractive learning and innovation among agro-processing enterprises in South Africa. The guiding research questions to help address the study objectives are:What are the structural characteristics of actor networks for innovation in rural contexts? Whatare the roles and functions of different actors within these networks? What kind of actors and linkages facilitate interactive learning and innovation among rural enterprises? And what types of institutions facilitate or hamper innovation processesinrural contexts? To answer the questions, exploratory research that adopted an egocentric social network analysis together with an evolving set of instruments developed by the Human Sciences Research Council,entitled the Rural Innovation Assessment Toolbox (RIAT)was undertaken. The theoretical basis for this study is grounded in systems of innovation, agricultural innovation systemsand actor-network theory

  289. Agricultural extension in transition worldwide: Policies and strategies for reform (2020)

    This publication contains twelve modules which cover a selection of major reform measures in agricultural extension being promulgated and implemented internationally, such as linking farmers to markets, making advisory services more demand-driven, promoting pluralistic advisory systems, and enhancing the role of advisory services within agricultural innovation systems. The reform issues consider the changing roles of the various public, private and non-governmental providers, and highlights the collaboration required to create synergies for more efficient and effective high quality services responding to the needs and demands of smallholder farmers. This is a substantially updated version of the 2009 publication of the same title, but with only nine modules. These nine modules were restructured and up-dated, and three modules were added. The layout of the modules changed to allow a better overview for the reader

  290. Scaling agricultural mechanization services in smallholder farming systems: Case studies from sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America

    There is great untapped potential for farm mechanization to support rural development initiatives in low- and middle-income countries. As technology transfer of large machinery from high-income countries was ineffective during the 1980s and 90s, mechanization options were developed appropriate to resource poor farmers cultivating small and scattered plots. More recently, projects that aim to increase the adoption of farm machinery have tended to target service providers rather than individual farmers. This paper uses the Scaling Scan tool to assess three project case studies designed to scale different Mechanization Service Provider Models (MSPMs) in Mexico, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. It provides a useful framework to assess the gap between international lessons learned on scaling captured in forty tactical questions over ten “scaling ingredients” as perceived by stakeholders involved in the projects, as well as private sector actors and government employees. Although at first sight the case studies seem to successfully reach high numbers of end users, the assessment exposes issues around the sustainable and transformative nature of the interventions

  291. The role of climate forecasts in smallholder agriculture: Lessons from participatory research in two communities in Senegal

    Climate forecasts have shown potential for improving resilience of African agriculture to climate shocks, but uncertainty remains about how farmers would use such information in crop management decisions and whether doing so would benefit them. This article presents results from participatory research with farmers from two agro-ecological zones of Senegal, West Africa. Based on simulation exercises, the introduction of seasonal and dekadal forecasts induced changes in farmers’ practices in almost 75% of the cases. Responses were categorized as either implying pure intensification of cropping systems (21% of cases), non-intensified strategies (31%) or a mix of both (24%)

  292. Assessment of the use of Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Agriculture (PICSA) approach by farmers to manage climate risk in Mali and Senegal

    Recently, a new approach to extension and climate information services, namely Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Agriculture (PICSA) has been developed. PICSA makes use of historical climate records, participatory decision-making tools and forecasts to help farmers identify and better plan livelihood options that are suited to local climate features and farmers’ own circumstances. This approach was implemented in 2016 in two sites in Senegal and Mali, with 57 and 47 farmers, respectively.The approach enabled farmers to make strategic plans long before the season, based on their improved knowledge of local climate features. Moreover, evidence demonstrates that PICSA stimulated farmers to consider and then implement a range of innovations which included: (i) changes in timing of activities such as sowing dates, (ii) implementing soil and water management practices, (iii) selection of crop varieties, (iv) fertiliser management and (v) adaptation of plans for the season (farm size, etc.) to the actual resources available to them

  293. Bridging the financial inclusion gender gap in smallholder agriculture in Nigeria: An untapped potential for sustainable development

    The sustainable development of Nigeria is being challenged by a persistent large financial inclusion gender gap (FIGG). The same gender gap in the country’s smallholder agriculture frustrates the multifunctional potentials of agriculture in achieving sustainable development outcomes. The smallholders drive the agricultural sector, comprise majority of the worlds’ poor and are found in all regions in Nigeria. This study used a mixed method review from secondary sources (Global Findex Databases 2011, 2014, 2017, Nigeria – CGAP Smallholder Household Survey 2016 and literatures) to investigate the trend in FIGG in smallholder agriculture in Nigeria. The causes and effects of FIGG on sustainable development were also identified by this study and the strategies to bridge the gap

  294. How to make farming and agricultural extension more nutrition-sensitive: evidence from a randomised controlled trial in Kenya

    This study analyse how agricultural extension can be made more effective in terms of increasing farmers’ adoption of pro-nutrition technologies, such as biofortified crops. In a randomised controlled trial with farmers in Kenya, the authors implemented several extension treatments and evaluated their effects on the adoption of beans biofortified with iron and zinc. Difference-in-difference estimates show that intensive agricultural training can increase technology adoption considerably. Additional nutrition training helps farmers to better appreciate the technology’s nutritional benefits and thus further increases adoption. This study is among the first to analyse how improved extension designs can help to make smallholder farming more nutrition-sensitive

  295. Understanding innovation: The development and scaling of orange-fleshed sweetpotato in major African food systems

    The development and scaling of orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) during the past 25 years is a case study of a disruptive innovation to address a pressing need – the high levels of vitamin A deficiency among children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. When the innovation was introduced consumers strongly preferred white or yellow-fleshed sweetpotato, so it was necessary to create a demand to respond to that need. This was at odds with the breeding strategy of responding to consumers’ demands. Additional elements of the innovation package include seed systems and nutrition education to create the awareness amongst consumers of the significant health benefits of OFSP. Complementary innovation is required in promotion and advocacy to ensure a supportive institutional environment. This paper aims to understand the innovation process and draws heavily on key informant knowledge, particularly from the lead author of this paper and others involved in the development and diffusion of OFSP, published literature, and project reports and briefs

  296. Conflict-induced displacement as a catalyst for agricultural innovation: Findings from South Sudan

    This article explores how conflict-induced displacement influences agricultural innovation processes and systems, and its implications after the return home or permanent resettlement of smallholder farmers. Results show that high rates of agricultural innovation occurred during displacement in the Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), many of which were maintained afterwards. Respondents cited the need for adaptation to new social and physical circumstances, changed gender roles, and enhanced inter-household communication as contributing to increased opportunities for knowledge exchange, trade, and importantly, the development of new networks, modes of organisation and social norms

  297. Improving community development by linking agriculture, nutrition and education: design of a randomised trial of “home-grown” school feeding in Mal

    Providing food through schools has well documented effects in terms of the education, health and nutrition of school children. However, there is limited evidence in terms of the benefits of providing a reliable market for small-holder farmers through “home-grown” school feeding approaches. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school feeding programmes sourced from small-holder farmers on small-holder food security, as well as on school children’s education, health and nutrition in Mali. In addition, this study will examine the links between social accountability and programme performance

  298. Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support Systems (SAKSS): Translating Evidence into Action

    As many sub-Saharan African countries have committed to the continent-wide goals of the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) of the Africa Union and New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), policymakers are challenged with designing and implementing national agricultutal strategies and policies that will allow them to achieve these goals. This chapter introduces the concept of a Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (SAKSS) as a framework by which evidence can be used to inform and strengthen the effectiveness of agricultural strategies in Africa, and in particular, CAADP. The framework describes a range of ‘strategic analysis’ options and the kind of tools and approaches needed to ensure effective ‘knowledge support systems’ for promoting evidenced-based dialogue and decisionmaking, including practical approaches on how to go about setting up such systems at country level

  299. Taking gender seriously in climate change adaptation and sustainability science research: views from feminist debates and sub-Saharan small-scale agriculture

    People, places, and production contributing the least to climate change will suffer the most. This calls for adaptation as a key climate change response. But adaptation is surrounded by problems. Finance is uncertain and fragmented, mainstreaming into development is complicated, and technical solutions often overshadow existing social relations and institutions. From a gender perspective, and as a critical research initiative to support the building of sustainability science as an umbrella field, this article raises three pertinent questions on adaptation in the global South: what is its purpose, how can development inform it, and what institutions in terms of rights and responsibilities are core to it? Focusing on sub-Saharan small-scale agriculture, three main points emerge. Regarding the purpose, adaptation should be a transformative pathway out of poverty, ill-health, and food insecurity. Regarding development, adaptation can learn from how development theory, policy, and practice have addressed women, gender, and environment in varied settings and debates. Regarding core institutions, adaptation must address gender regimes that regulate access to, use of, and control over resources, especially those defining land distribution, labour division, and strategic decision-making power

  300. Identification and Acceleration of Farmer Innovativeness in Upper East Ghana

    The generation of innovations has traditionally been attributed to research organizations and the farmer’s own potential for the development of innovative solutions has largely been neglected. In this chapter, we explore the innovativeness of farmers in Upper East Ghana. To this end, we employ farmer innovation contests for the identification of local innovations. Awards such as motorcycles function as an incentive for farmers to share innovations and develop new practices. The impact of Farmer Field Fora is evaluated by matching non-participants to participants using propensity scores of observable characteristics. The results indicate that farmers do actively generate and test innovative practices to address prevalent problems. Moreover, this innovative behavior can be further stimulated by Farmer Field Fora, which were tested to significantly and positively affect innovation generation

  301. Research, Innovation, Indigenous Knowledge and Policy Action in Africa

    This chapter tries to establish a connection between the low level of innovation and inventions in Africa and the absence of indigenous knowledge in teaching, learning and research across the continent. It starts by exploring the fundamental tenets of innovation and proceeds to look at the relationship between innovation and indigenous knowledge. The paper further explores options for mainstreaming of indigenous knowledge in policy making across the continent, and concludes with the assertion that an emphasis on indigenous knowledge is crucial in African government’s efforts at creating a crop of highly innovative and creative citizenry

  302. The role of community engagement in the adoption of new agricultural biotechnologies by farmers: the case of the Africa harvest tissue-culture banana in Kenya

    In this paper, it is reported the results of a case study of the Community Engagement (CE) strategies employed by the Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International (AH) to introduce tissue culture banana (TCB) agricultural practices to small-hold farmers in Kenya, and their impact on the uptake of the TCB, and on the nature of the relationship between AH and the relevant community of farmers and other stakeholders. Was identified six specific features of CE in the AH TCB project that were critical to its effectiveness: (1) adopting an empirical, “evidence-based” approach; (2) building on existing social networks; (3) facilitating farmer-to-farmer engagement; (4) focusing engagement on farmer groups; (5) strengthening relationships of trust through collaborative experiential learning; and (6) helping farmers to “learn the marketing game”

  303. Agricultural extension and its effects on farm productivity and income: insight from Northern Ghana

    In agricultural-dependent economies, extension programmes have been the main conduit for disseminating information on farm technologies, support rural adult learning and assist farmers in developing their farm technical and managerial skills. It is expected that extension programmes will help increase farm productivity, farm revenue, reduce poverty and minimize food insecurity. In this study, it is estimated the effects of extension services on farm productivity and income with particular reference to agricultural extension services delivered by Association of Church-based Development NGOs (ACDEP)

  304. Institutional Innovations for Encouraging Private Sector Investments: Reducing Transaction Costs on the Ethiopian Formal Seed Market

    There is a considerable shortage of improved seed in Ethiopia. Despite good reasons to invest in this market, private sector investments are not occurring. Using an institutional economics theoretical framework, this chapter analyzes the formal Ethiopian seed system and identifies transaction costs to find potential starting points for institutional innovations. Analyzing data from more than 50 expert interviews conducted in Ethiopia, it appears that transaction costs are high along the whole seed value chain and mainly born by the government, as public organizations dominate the Ethiopian seed system, leaving little room for the private sector. However, recent direct marketing pilots are a signal of careful efforts towards market liberalization

  305. Placing Rwanda’s agriculture boom: trust, women empowerment and policy impact in maize agricultural cooperatives

    Rwanda has experienced significant economic growth following the 1994 Genocide. This growth is attributed to the expansion of its agricultural sector, specifically farming intensification and the government’s focus on creating strong agriculture cooperatives. While Rwanda’s economic development has been impressive, many academics have argued that Rwanda’s growth comes at the cost of an authoritarian governmental regime, whose policies have too heavy a hand in the daily activities of smallholder farming. This study measures smallholder maize farmer loyalty to their cooperatives using the net promoter scores of five different cooperatives

  306. Cross-boundary policy entrepreneurship for climate-smart agriculture in Kenya

    Many initiatives to address contemporary complex challenges require the crossing of sector, domain, and level boundaries, which policy entrepreneurs are believed to facilitate. This study aims to enhance our understanding of how, why, and with what effect such entrepreneurs operate to cross boundaries. As this requires an account of both entrepreneurial strategy and the surrounding policy environment, we embed entrepreneurship in the policy frameworks of multiple streams, advocacy coalitions, and punctuated equilibrium. This study uses qualitative methods to analyse policy development for climate-smart agriculture (CSA) in Kenya. CSA is a cross-cutting strategy to sustainably increase agricultural productivity, resilience, and food security while curtailing greenhouse gas emissions

  307. Internet of Things: The Present Status, Future Impacts and Challenges in Nigerian Agriculture

    The present study considered the current state of internet of things in Nigeria, future prospects and challenges to the usage of the technology in Nigerian Agriculture. In Nigeria, IoT has been used to dispense feed and water to chicks, virtual fences for monitoring farmlands and forest trees, cashless sales and purchases of farm produce and input, monitoring and management of staff performances on the farm and e-wallet for input, loan and information accessibility on agricultural issues. However, there is room for improvement in the area of security for the animals (animal tracking), weather forecasting and real-time soil monitoring, livestock and crop health surveillance. Challenges faced in the usage of IoT in Nigeria are inadequate/lack of capital, skilled manpower, facilities. In conclusion, IoT has great potentials to move Nigerian agriculture to an enviable position

  308. An assessment of mobile phone-based dissemination of weather and market information in the Upper West Region of Ghana

    The rapid growth of mobile phones in Ghana has opened up the possibility of delivering timely and useful weather and market information to farmers at costs lower than traditional agricultural extension services. In this paper, we assess the usefulness, constraints, and factors likely to influence farmers’ decisions to patronize mobile phone-based weather and market information. The study rely on primary data from 310 farmers in the Upper West Region, an understudied part of Ghana. First, it is modeled farmers’ decision to patronize mobile phone-based weather and market information by estimating a binary logit model. Second, the study use descriptive statistics and hypothesis testing to analyse the level of usefulness of mobile phone-based weather and market information. The authors disaggregate the analysis by sex, income status, and age group. Finally, we use qualitative analysis to summarize the constraints associated with the utilization of mobile phone-based weather and market information

  309. Kees: A practical ICT solution for rural areas

    This paper introduces a practical e-learning system, identified as Knowledge Exchange E-learning System (abbr. KEES), for knowledge distribution in rural areas. Particularly, this paper is about providing a virtual teaching and learning environment for small holders in agriculture in those rural areas. E-learning is increasingly influencing the agricultural education (information and knowledge learning) in all forms and the current e-learning in agricultural education appears in informal and formal methods in many developed countries and some developing areas such as Asian Pacific regions

  310. Toward climate-smart agriculture in West Africa: a review of climate change impacts, adaptation strategies and policy developments for the livestock, fishery and crop production sectors

    This paper was synthesized from several scholarly literature and aimed at providing up-to-date information on climate change impacts, adaptation strategies, policies and institutional mechanisms that each agriculture subsector had put in place in dealing with climate change and its related issues in West Africa. For each subsector (crop, fishery and livestock), the current status, climate change impacts, mitigation and adaption strategies have been analyzed

  311. Enhancing Innovation Potential through Local Capacity Building in Education

    Global technology education is largely dominated by Western universities. Students from developing countries face an enormous challenge when moving from their local education system into the competitive international education market. Their local knowledge gets lost in a foreign education system where the students are required to acquire a new set of skills. This paper presents a survey among international technology students that highlights the differences. Moreover, the paper explores the situation from the developing country perspective, and brings forth a proposal for strengthening the education capacities in the developing countries particularly in the fields of ICTs and mobile technologies. Strengthening local knowledge building would allow innovations based on local needs and potentials

  312. Agricultural Modernization, Structural Change and Pro-poor Growth: Policy Options for the Democratic Republic of Congo

    This paper applies the framework for pro-poor analysis to welfare changes from a CGE-microsimulation model to analyze what are the better or worse models for agriculture modernization, and to estimate the contribution of growth and redistribution to changes in poverty in DRC. The findings indicate that labor-using technological change generates absolute and relative pro-poor effects whereas capital-using technological change leads to immiserizing growth. More importantly, the results suggest that labor-using technological change can be independently sufficient for reducing poverty via the income growth effects. This study also highlights how developing input supply networks, securing tenure among smallholders, and improving access to land for women are important for pro-poor agricultural modernization

  313. Participation in and Gains from Traditional Vegetable Value Chains: a Gendered Analysis of Perceptions of Labour, Income and Expenditure in Producers’ and Traders’ Households

    Horticulture is one of the fastest growing subsectors of agriculture in Tanzania. Gender relations in vegetable-producing and vegetable-trading households need to be understood to make value chain development equitable. This study, carried out in northern and central Tanzania, is based on data from surveys, focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. The perceptions of men and women traders and producers are investigated with regard to labour participation in traditional vegetable value chains and gains (income and expenditure) from it. Farmers were found to report more balanced intra-household labour arrangements paired with less-balanced income and expenditure shares, while traders indicated less-balanced labour contributions that went hand in hand with more-balanced shares of benefits. Farmers related limited household development not only to imbalances in benefits but also to a lack of trust and cooperation between spouses. The importance of gender-transformative approaches in agricultural value chains is emphasized herein

  314. Comparing agroforestry systems’ ex ante adoption potential and ex post adoption: on-farm participatory research from southern Malawi

    Agroforestry (AF) systems have been the focus of numerous research and development projects in southern Africa, yet their adoption rate generally remains low. Employing on-farm, participatory research techniques in southern Malawi, was compared the suitability of three AF-based systems that relay crop the dominant staple, maize (Zea mays), with the perennial legumes Sesbania sesban, Tephrosia vogelii, and Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea). The secondary objective was to compare two methodologies employed to investigate AF adoption: farming systems based ex ante adoption potential and ex post adoption analysis

  315. A Network Based Approach to Evaluate Participatory Policy Processes: An Application to CAADP in Malawi

    This chapter proposes a network-based framework to analyze and evaluate participatory and evidence-based policy processes. Four network based performance indicators are derived by incorporating a network model of political belief formation into a political bargaining model of the Baron–Grossmann–Helpman type. The application of our approach to the CAADP reform in Malawi delivers the following results: (i) beyond incentive problems, i.e. the lack of governmental accountability and government capture, political performance is limited due to a lack of adequate political knowledge and lack of political ownership. (ii) Changing participation structures implies a trade-off between different aspects of political performance, for example, we found a trade-off between political ownership and the use of political knowledge, shifting constitutional power from the government to the parliament in Malawi. Analogously, increasing political influence of donors implies a more efficient use of political knowledge but results in a simultaneous decrease of political ownership. (iii) There is no blueprint model for designing effective participation structures, hence, the identified causal relationships between structure and performance depend on the specific social, political and economic framework conditions found in Malawi

  316. Whither Participation? Evaluating Participatory Policy Processes Using the CGPE Approach: The Case of CAADP in Malawi

    In this chapter, it is applied the CGPE model to analyzing the performance of policy processes with respect to the production of efficient policy choices. Within the CGPE approach participation of stakeholder organizations is modeled in two ways. First, as classical lobbying influence and second as informational influence within a model of political belief formation. An empirical application of the CGPE model to CAADP reforms in Malawi delivered the following results: (i) inefficient agricultural policies mainly result from lack of adequate political knowledge, while biased political incentives play only a minor rule. (ii) Policy beliefs of political practitioners differ significantly from economic models. Hence, our analyses imply a cleavage between the world of economic modeling and the world of political practice. (iii) As Bayesian estimation combining objective knowledge of scientific models with the subjective wisdom of practitioners results in a compromise of both worlds, we conclude that adequate political knowledge does not yet exist in the scientific system or in political praxis and must be created in the political process. (iv) Therefore, the only effective political therapy corresponds to the application of adequate tools that facilitate interactive communication and policy learning among stakeholders and economic modelers

  317. Perceived stressors of climate vulnerability across scales in the Savannah zone of Ghana: a participatory approach

    This study addresses this particular research gap by adopting a multi-scale approach to understand how climatic and non-climatic stressors vary, and interact, across three spatial scales (household, community and district levels) to influence livelihood vulnerability of smallholder farming households in the Savannah zone of northern Ghana. This study across three case study villages utilises a series of participatory tools including semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The incidence, importance, severity and overall risk indices for stressors are calculated at the household, community, and district levels

  318. Views from two mountains: exploring climate change impacts on traditional farming communities of Eastern Africa highlands through participatory scenarios

    In this study, it is applies a participatory scenario modelling framework to assess potential societal responses to the impacts of climate change by the mid-21st century, and model consequent land use and land cover change scenarios under different livelihood futures as guided by communities’ members in the areas under investigation. The authors focused their analysis on two montane sites of the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot , the Taita Hills, Kenya, and a montane area north-west of Jimma, Ethiopia

  319. Building local institutional capacity to implement agricultural carbon projects: participatory action research with Vi Agroforestry in Kenya and ECOTRUST in Uganda

    Smallholders have begun to take advantage of a growing pool of investment in climate change mitigation. Meanwhile, early movers in this area are working to develop innovative models that will allow projects to be financially sustainable and scalable while benefiting local actors. This study focuses on two of these projects in East Africa, managed by Vi Agroforestry in Kenya and ECOTRUST in Uganda. They engaged in a participatory action research process to identify ways that local actors could take on expanded roles within the projects

  320. Participatory diagnosis and development of climate change adaptive capacity in the groundnut basin of Senegal: building a climate-smart village model

    This paper describes the strategic approaches to the development of a climate-smart village (CSV) model in the groundnut basin of Senegal. A CSV model is a participatory integrated approach using climate information, improved context-based technologies/practices aiming at reaching improved productivity (food and nutrition security), climate resilient people and ecosystem and climate mitigation. In this study, participatory vulnerability analysis, planning adaptation capacity and participatory communication for development were implemented, putting people affected by the impacts of climate change (CC) at the center of the approach. Four interdependent groups of activities/domains, namely—local and institutional knowledge, use of climate information services, development of climate-smart technology and local development plans, were covered. It was emphasized, how all this taken together could create improved livelihoods for women, men and vulnerable groups

  321. A Participatory Approach to Assessing the Climate-Smartness of Agricultural Interventions: The Lushoto Case

    Here, it is described a new participatory protocol for assessing the climate-smartness of agricultural interventions in smallholder practices. This identifies farm-level indicators (and indices) for the food security and adaptation pillars of CSA. It also supports the participatory scoring of indicators, enabling baseline and future assessments of climate-smartness to be made. The protocol was tested among 72 farmers implementing a variety of CSA interventions in the climate-smart village of Lushoto, Tanzania. Farmers especially valued interventions that improved soil fertility and structure, reduced surface runoff, and reclaimed degraded land due to the positive impacts on yield and off-season crop agriculture. Mostly, the CSA interventions increased animal production, food production, consumption and income. The protocol is easy to adapt to different regions and farming systems and allows for the better prioritisation of interventions. But we recommend that CSA is adopted as part of a monitoring, evaluation and learning process

  322. Farmer-To-Farmer Extension: A Low-Cost Approach for Promoting Climate-Smart Agriculture

    This chapter assesses the potential of farmer-to-farmer extension (F2FE) as a low-cost approach for promoting CSA. It is based on surveys of extension program managers and farmer-trainers in Cameroon, Kenya and Malawi who are involved in promoting a wide range of agricultural practices, including CSA. In the F2FE approach, extension programs provide education for farmer-trainers, who in turn educate other farmers, typically 17–37 per year. Extension program managers find this approach to be effective in boosting their ability to reach large numbers of farmers. Compared to extension programs that provide direct training to groups of farmers, F2FE reduces the cost per farmer trained by over half. There are also important gender benefits, especially when extension programs making special efforts to recruit female farmer-trainers

  323. Gender, assets, and market-oriented agriculture: learning from high-value crop and livestock projects in Africa and Asia

    Strengthening the abilities of smallholder farmers in developing countries, particularly women farmers, to produce for both home and the market is currently a development priority. In many contexts, ownership of assets is strongly gendered, reflecting existing gender norms and limiting women’s ability to invest in more profitable livelihood strategies such as market-oriented agriculture. Yet the intersection between women’s asset endowments and their ability to participate in and benefit from agricultural interventions receives minimal attention. This paper explores changes in gender relations and women’s assets in four agricultural interventions that promoted high value agriculture with different degrees of market-orientation

  324. Innovation for Marginalized Smallholder Farmers and Development: An Overview and Implications for Policy and Research

    Smallholders in Asia and Africa are affected by increasingly complex national and global ecological and economic changes. Agricultural innovation and technology shifts are critical among these forces of change and integration with services is increasingly facilitated through innovations in institutions. Here the authors focused mainly on innovation opportunities for small farmers, with a particular emphasis on marginalized small farm communities. The chapter elaborates on the concept of the ‘small farm’ and offers a synthesis of the findings of all the chapters in this volume. The contributions have reconfirmed that sustainable intensification among smallholders is not just another optimization problem for ensuring higher productivity with less environmental impact. Rather it is a complex task of creating value through innovations in the institutional, organizational and technological systems of societies

  325. Agricultural Service Delivery Through Mobile Phones: Local Innovation and Technological Opportunities in Kenya

    Kenya has emerged as a frontrunner in information and communication technologies (ICT) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The government has been actively supporting the ICT sector as one of the key drivers of economic growth. In addition to large international firms that are setting up offices in Nairobi, such as Nokia, IBM and Google, local start-ups have also been expanding rapidly. Kenyan entrepreneurs have greatly benefited from the growth of the local innovation environment in recent years, including the establishment of several innovation hubs, a growing pool of human resources, and access to finance from private investors. An increasingly well-connected customer base and improving infrastructure are also helping entrepreneurs to market their services.This chapter outlines the key factors that have supported the growth of the Kenyan mobile services sector. It reviews the agricultural m-services currently available and presents a case study of one such service, M-Farm, which offers price information and marketing services to Kenyan farmers. The chapter concludes with a brief assessment of current mobile technology trends to provide an outlook on potential future applications in the agriculture sector

  326. Diversity amongst farm households and achievements from multi-stakeholder innovation platform approach: lessons from Balaka Malawi

    Understanding diversity of smallholder farm households is of critical importance for the success of development interventions. Farming households often will devise livelihood strategies that provide the best guarantee for survival and based on their socioeconomic vulnerability. This study examines how achievements from the Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D) approach through participation in innovation platform activities accrue to smallholder farming households of diverse socioeconomic status. The study is based on a representative sample of smallholder farmers from Balaka innovation platform found in Balaka district of Malawi. Balaka innovation platform was formed in 2009 with the aim of addressing key farmer problems of low crop productivity, lack of input and output markets, limited access to agricultural credit, low incomes and poverty in general. Through multi-stakeholder dialogue, the platform proposed activities meant to improve livelihoods of participants. Some of the activities include conservation agriculture adoption, crop diversification, improved communication through the platform, linking farmers to microfinance institutions and markets, collective market participation, joining farmer groups organised by the platform and various other activities. The main aim was to improve crop productivity, household incomes and food security

  327. Enhancing Value Chain Innovation Through Collective Action: Lessons from the Andes, Africa, and Asia

    The development community has shown increasing interest in the potential of innovation systems and value chain development approaches for reducing poverty and stimulating greater gender equity in rural areas. Nevertheless, there is a shortage of systematic knowledge on how such approaches have been implemented in different contexts, the main challenges in their application, and how they can be scaled to enable large numbers of poor people to benefit from participation in value chains. This chapter provides an overview of value chain development and focuses on the International Potato Center’s experiences with the Participatory Market Chain Approach (PMCA), a flexible approach that brings together smallholder farmers, traders, processors, researchers, and other service providers in a collective process to explore potential business opportunities and develop innovations to exploit them. The PMCA is an exemplary case of South–South knowledge exchange: it was first developed and implemented in the Andes, but has since been introduced, adapted, and applied to different market chains in Africa and Asia, where it has contributed to improved rural livelihoods. The experiences of adjusting and implementing the approach in these different contexts and the outcomes of those interventions, and complementary approaches, are examined in this chapter. Lessons learned from these experiences are shared with a goal of informing the promotion, improvement, and scaling of value chain approaches in the future

  328. Agricultural Research and Extension Linkages in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Agricultural innovation systems require strong linkage between research and extension organizations in particular, and among the various actors engaged in the agricultural sector in general. In the context of Ethiopia and the Amhara regional state, the agricultural research and extension system is characterized by a large number of actors in a fragmented and underdeveloped innovation system, resulting in very low national and regional innovation capacities. Farmers are generally viewed as passive recipients of technology. As a result, research outputs do not reach farmers and remain shelved in research centers. Instead, research and extension need to take place within interlinked, overlapping and iterative processes. This chapter reviews past initiatives to bring about integration among these actors to identify areas for improvement

  329. The Role of Farmers’ Entrepreneurial Orientation on Agricultural Innovations in Ugandan Multi-Stakeholder Platform

    This chapter aims to shed light on the broad debate surrounding when and why farmers adopt agricultural innovations, especially in the context of multi-stakeholder platforms (MSP) seeking to scale climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices. No research has yet tested the hypothesis that farmer entrepreneurship—defined as the innovative use of agricultural resources to create opportunities for value creation—may facilitate the adoption of CSA practices. This study is intended to fill that information gap. Farmers involved in coffee and honey MSPs in the Manafwa region of Uganda filled out questionnaires that evaluated four types of entrepreneurial competences: innovativeness, risk-taking, proactiveness and intentions. The goal was to investigate quantitatively the influence of farmer entrepreneurship and farm characteristics on product innovation, process innovation and market innovation. Results confirmed earlier research showing that farmer educational levels have a stronger influence on process innovation than any other variable. In addition, it was shown that farm size and access to resources have a significant effect on all forms of agricultural innovation

  330. Small Farmers, Big Impacts

    While the development commu­ nity has recently begun the turn toward climate-sensitive program­ ming, climate-related efforts have focused on big transformations and big polluters. Energy generation and deforestation are easily identified sources of greenhouse gas emissions for which we have data and policy tools, and therefore a certain degree of comfort. Certainly, global emissions are greatly influenced by energy generation, distress­ing rates of deforestation in what remains of the world's tropical forests, and other large sources of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the future of development's work at the intersection of climate change and human well-being lies not in an exclusive focus on big drivers of change, but in a broader engagement that includes a focus on the ways in which the livelihoods decisions of the rural poor might exacerbate or ameliorate the green­ house gas emissions that shape climate change. The convergence of two fallacies have led to a lack of focus on the individual and community decisions that affect climate-related development efforts: a fallacy of stationarity, enabled by our lim­ ited understanding of lives and livelihoods of the rural poor in the developing world, and a fallacy of scale that results from the particular ways in which we have come to our understandings of these live­ lihoods and their potential impact on climate

  331. Small Farmers and Market Economy: A Case Study of Dagomba in Northern Ghana

    Ghana is characterized by obvious economic disparities between northern and southern Ghana. In this paper, we analyze these disparities and economic growth by examining the current farming structure with reference to land use patterns and farming practices and linkages with the market economy. Using data collected through household surveys from 2004 to 2015 in the Dagomba area, gathered from five compounds of 12 to 14 farmers each, the study concludes that the position of agriculture as a source of income in rural areas has declined rapidly, indicating a potential de-agrarianization in rural Ghana. Nonetheless, in northern Ghana, which is resource-poor, agriculture is still seen as an important income source. Because of the unfavorable position of agriculture in the Ghanaian context, outmigration is occurring from rural to urban areas, especially by male family members, resulting in significant change in household composition (more elderly household heads). Changes in family composition and decreased farm sizes have an important implication for food security and livelihoods of Ghanaian families. All these adversities suggest the need to craft farming systems that encourage increased food production through the introduction of new production technology and crop diversification

  332. Determinants of crop-livestock integration by small farmers in Benin

    Despite the numerous work conducted on integrated crop-livestock systems, very little is known about factors determining farmers’ trend to integrate. Our study aimed at a socioeconomic characterization of endogenous crop-livestock integration in Benin and identification of determinants of farmers’ decision to use these practices. Two hundred and forty farmers were surveyed in three agro- ecological regions randomly selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on farmer’s characteristics, production factors and agriculture and breeding by-products valorization practices. On the basis of main links between both productions, three integration levels (no integration, NI: 36%; partial integration, PI: 55%; total integration, TI: 9%) were identified and characterized according to socioeconomic characteristics of farmers. Then the multinomial logistic regression technique was used to predict the integration level of a given farmer in function of its socioeconomic characteristics. The three integration levels differ significantly (p<0.001) according to variables such as membership in farmers’ association, educational level, weight of agricultural experience, farming equipment and size of herds. The decision by a farmer to choose the total integration type significantly depends (p <0.001) on the size of his cattle herd, his membership in farmers’ association, the weight of his agricultural experience and his equipment value. Thus, integration is a practice used by small farmers with good experience in agriculture. Strategies for improving integration of cropping and breeding are to motivated farmers for cattle keeping and membership in an association

  333. Do research and extension services improve small farmers’ perceived performance?

    In Europe, research and extension services (RES) play a relevant role in the agricultural sector. A Structural Equation Model has evaluated the impact of RES on perceived farm performance in a sample of 247 holdings. The authors interest is not only on the perceived benefits for small-scale holdings which request technical advice but also on the intermediate role of Strategic Orientations (SO), including market orientation and innovation attitude, that could improve the effectiveness of RES. The key findings support that SO is a dynamic and determinant organizational factor that RES can stimulate, and involve a positive effect on farms’ perceived performance

  334. Coaching and Mentoring in Agricultural Value Chains

    The Livestock and Irrigation Value Chains for Ethiopian Smallholders (LIVES) project supports the efforts of the GoE to transform the smallholder agriculture sector to a more market-oriented sector. LIVES uses a value chain framework to develop targeted livestock and irrigated agriculture commodities through integrated technical and institutional innovations. Such a framework recognizes that value chain actors add value at different stages of the value chain and that individuals and organizations provide inputs and services to the value chain actors. Capacity development plays a critical enabling role to facilitate adoption and scaling out of value chain development interventions and approaches by addressing attitudinal, knowledge and skills gaps in value chain actors, service providers and value chain supporters. LIVES capacity development interventions focus on the facilitation of strategic linkages and the transfer of knowledge and skills through practical training, coaching and mentoring, and study tours to develop gender transformative and environmentally sustainable livestock and irrigation value chains. The interventions are determined by gaps in knowledge, skills and attitudes of value chain actors and service providers to adopt and scale out value chain development approaches and interventions. The project uses individual and group methods to coach and mentor value chain actors and service providers. A good coaching and mentoring practice requires systematic planning, implementation, and review of processes, relationships and outcomes. This guide is meant to provide a structure and guidance for project and partner staff who are involved in coaching and mentoring of producer households and service providers to successfully introduce and adopt specific livestock and irrigation value chain development interventions

  335. Limits of the New Green Revolution for Africa: Reconceptualising Gendered Agricultural Value Chains

    In order to address food insecurity, the New Green Revolution for Africa (GR4A) promotes tighterintegration of African smallholder farmers, especially women, into formal markets via value chains to improve farmers’ input access and to encourage the sale of crop surpluses. This commentary offers a theoretical and practical critique of the GR4A model, drawing on early findings from a five-year study of value chain initiatives in Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, and Mozambique. It highlights the limitations of a model that views heightened market interactions as uniformly beneficial for smallholder farmers. The authors challenge the notion that there is a broadly similar and replicable process for the construction of markets and the development of gender-sensitive value chains in all recipient countries. Instead the study builds upon the feminist network political ecology and co-production literatures to conceptualise value chains as complex assemblages co-produced by abroad set of actors, including socially differentiated farmers

  336. The Gambia Agro-Corridor - Agriculture Value Chain Development

    The main cash crop of The Gambia is groundnuts. The country is primarily a agricultural country with 80 percent of the population of just over 2 million depending on agriculture for its food and cash income. The farming economy is the only means of income creation for the majority of rural families most whom live below the poverty line. The agricultural sector is the most important sector of the Gambian economy, contributing 32% of the gross domestic product, providing employment and income for 80% of the population, and accounting for 70% of the country's foreign exchange earnings. Design, develop and deploy climate smart agriculture - agriculture that sustainably increases productivity, enhances resilience (adaptation), reduces/removes GHGs (mitigation) where possible, and enhances achievement of national food security and development goals using Aratibiotech Limited climate smart agriculture ( as a platform for ecological and industrial Agro-corridor in The Gambia from in-puts production, cultivation, post-harvest, processing and marketing. Research on policies, institutions, and technologies to strengthen the development of rural agro-enterprises that would directly contribute to the strengthening of the rural economy for international trade system and an increasing orientation of developing The Gambia agriculture toward export markets as a source of economic growth, human capital development for integrated agriculture for national development by collaboration between academia, government and industry for sustainable development

  337. Empowering Women Farmers in Agricultural Value Chains

    Although many smallholder communities are yet to embark on their journey towards gender empowerment, this report presents best practice examples which demonstrate that significant strides can be achieved in relatively short time periods. Women’s Coffee initiatives are engaging consumers about the role of women in coffee production, and providing additional premiums that fund projects targeted at women, such as the projects implemented by UNICAFEC in Peru and Soppexcca in Nicaragua. Women’s committees are providing a platform for women to receive training, access funding, engage in development of micro-enterprises and have a greater say within producer organisations, such as the CODEMU women’s committee in Pangoa in Peru, which is integrated to the cooperative’s management structure. Quotas for women are also rapidly increasing women’s representation on cooperative boards, as seen in PRODECOOP in Nicaragua

  338. Political Instability in Africa Impacts on Agricultural Value Chains

    Efficient agricultural value chains create competitiveness and accelerate industrialisation. Though they have the ability to advance economic partnership and competition, in most African countries, agricultural value chains remain underdeveloped and underexploited; moreover, they are hardly affected by political instability with direct consequences on society. Regional integration with many spill-over, affects agriculture, while food prices and countries' macroeconomic policies affects food security. Recommendations are made to put in place strong conflict prevention indicators, efficient and sustainable conflicts resolutions, regional integration facilities with larger market coverage, equitable allocation of resources among populations, effective human capital and mobility improvement, applied agricultural research and related activities development, effective production and manufacturing diversification, and, increased domestic saving as well as investment increase

  339. The Role of Advanced Technology in Agricultural Innovation

    In many countries of the world, technology plays a leading role in the transformation of businesses. This study adopts a survey of literature in agriculture sector and gives certain recommendations which are evolved after descriptive analysis of literature. After systematic review of literature in Chinese, Pakistani and Nigerian context, our paper describes that agricultural policy and agricultural funding are connected to many problems in agriculture field and needs social and strategic steps to be taken particularly in Nigeria. The way observed by the study includes increased budgetary allocation for agriculture, adding a line of technological development, and expansion to social responsiveness in Agricultural Motor Mechanics and Tractors Operators Training Centres (AMMOTRAC). This study has theoretical implications in social, technology and business research and has practical implication regarding liaison and funding cooperation among the Research and Development (R&D) Agencies

  340. Challenges Of Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships For Agricultural Support Services Provision In Rice Production In Benue State, Nigeria

    Recent approaches at enhancing the provision of agricultural support services to rice farmers in Nigeria involve multi-stakeholder partnerships. For effective performance, there is the need for right mix of partners' interests and resources otherwise conflicts may become inevitable. This study therefore investigated challenges in a multi-stakeholder partnership in rice production in Benue state that may predispose the system to conflicts and make it unsustainable. Using simple random sampling technique, 170 rice farmers were selected from the list of cooperative societies that participated in the scheme. Interview schedule containing respondents' level of interaction with other stakeholders (17-33), access to agric-support services (8-24) and potential sources of conflicts (mean score) was used to collect data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and PPMC

  341. Science-Policy Interfaces For Sustainable Climate-Smart Agriculture Uptake: Lessons Learnt From National Science-Policy Dialogue Platforms In West Africa

    Connecting science with policy has always been challenging for both scientists and policy makers. In Ghana, Mali and Senegal, multi-stakeholder national science-policy dialogue platforms on climate-smart agriculture (CSA) were setup to use scientificevidence to create awareness of climate change impacts on agriculture andadvocate for the mainstreaming of climate change and CSA into agriculturaldevelopment plans. Based on the platforms’operations and achievements, the authors used semi-structured questionnaire interviews and reviewed technical reports produced by the platforms to analyse how their modes of operation and achievements improve understanding of the science-policy interfaces between agricultural and climate change decision making. Results showed that these platforms constitute an innovative approach to effectively engaging decision-makers and sustainably mainstreaming climate change into development plans. Effective science-policyinteraction requires: (a) institutionalizing dialogue platforms by embedding them within national institutions, which improves their credibility, relevance andlegitimacy among policymakers; (b) two-way communication, which contributes substantially to the co-development of solutions that address climate changevulnerabilities and impacts; and (c) relevant communication products and packaging of evidence that aligns with country priorities, which facilitates its uptake in policy-making processes

  342. Effects of multi-stakeholder platforms on multi-stakeholder innovation networks: Implications for research for development interventions targeting innovations at scale

    Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) have been playing an increasing role in interventions aiming to generate and scale innovations in agricultural systems. However, the contribution of MSPs in achieving innovations and scaling has been varied, and many factors have been reported to be important for their performance. This paper aims to provide evidence on the contribution of MSPs to innovation and scaling by focusing on three developing country cases in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Rwanda. Through social network analysis and logistic models, the paper studies the changes in the characteristics of multi-stakeholder innovation networks targeted by MSPs and identifies factors that play significant roles in triggering these changes. The study argues that investigating multi-stakeholder innovation network characteristics targeted by the MSP using a network approach in early implementation can contribute to better performance in generating and scaling innovations, and that funding can be an effective implementation tool in developing country contexts

  343. Influence of multi-stakeholder innovation platform approach on smallholder farmers marketing decisions

    One of the very numerous decisions that smallholder farmers face world wide relates to market participation inagricultural markets and, consequently choosing the appropriate marketing channel for their agricultural produce.Such decisions impact on their incomes and subsequently on their welfare. The objective of this study was todetermine how a multi-stakeholder innovation platform approach influences pigeon pea (Cajanus Cajan L.)marketing decisions in smallholder farming in Malawi. The study relied on primary data collected from 115 households in Balaka District in Malawi during an impact survey done in November 2014. Results confirmedthat the multi-stakeholder innovation platform approach improves decision making in pigeon pea marketing.Variables such as access to transport services and market information, improved extension, capacity buildingthrough farmer training, adoption of conservation agriculture and membership to farmer groups influencedmarketing decisions

  344. Multi-stakeholder process strengthens agricultural innovations and sustainable livelihoods of farmers in Southern Nigeria

    In this paper, it is explored the strategic role of Multi-stakeholder processes (MSP) in agricultural innovations and how ithas impacted livelihood assets’(LAs) capital dynamics ofstakeholders in platforms in West Africa.The authors demonstrate how LA capitalsand socio-economic dynamics induced by MSP can enhancecassava production efficiency but also create opportunities andchallenges that influence platform dynamics and impacts. We usea multistage sampling procedure and sustainable livelihoodmodel (e.g. stochastic frontier functions and Tobit regression) toanalyse LA capital dynamics of the stakeholders

  345. Agricultural innovation systems and farm technology adoption: findings from a study of the Ghanaian plantain sector

    The paper explores the strength of social networks in the agricultural innovation systems (AISs) in Ghana and the effect of AISs on adoption of improved farm technology. The paper uses social network analysis (SNA) tools to identify, map and analyze the AISs and the two-stage Heckman selection model. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods allows testing the differential effects of social networks on technology adoption in the Ghananian Plantain Sector

  346. Q method to map the diversity of stakeholder viewpoints along agricultural innovation systems: A case study on cattle genetic improvement in Niger

    The complex balance between innovation and conservation regarding animal genetic resources makes it difficult to find mutually accepted improvement pathways between breeders, government agencies, and research and education institutions. This study maps stakeholder viewpoints on cattle genetic improvement in Niger using the Q method. Fifty-three statements derived from expert opinions and focus group interviews were ranked by 22 respondents along a seven-grade scale expressing their degree of approval. The Q method reveals a limited consensus on development goals, overall strategy, and the present context of operation. Beyond this consensus, three discourses are identified that express distinct attitudes regarding the balance between conservation and progress, leading to distinct strategies. The first discourse fits with a modernist vision and government strategies established in the 2000s based on exotic crossbreeding and improved purebred Azawak. The second discourse lines up with the previous livestock development strategy of Niger (before 2000) based on indigenous breeds. The third discourse represents a conservationist vision, with minor importance in the present sampling. Tentative observations are proposed on the consequences of this divide in opinions on livestock policies in Niger, including extension. The Q method appears effective in identifying the concerns of stakeholders on complex agricultural innovation topics. As a sensing tool to follow-up policy implementation in similarly complex agricultural topics, the Q method may inform adaptive extension and education strategies

  347. Scaling and institutionalization within agricultural innovation systems: the case of cocoa farmer field schools in Cameroon

    The farmer field school (FFS) concept has been widely adopted, and such schools have the reputation of strengthening farmers’ capacity to innovate. Although their impact has been studied widely, what is involved in their scaling and in their becoming an integral part of agricultural innovation systems has been studied much less. In the case of the Sustainable Tree Crops Programme in Cameroon, we investigate how a public–private partnership (PPP) did not lead to satisfactory widespread scaling in the cocoa innovation system. We build a detailed understanding of the key dimensions and dynamics involved and the wider lessons that might be learned regarding complex scaling processes in the context of agricultural innovation systems. Original interview data and document analysis inform the case study. A specific analytical approach was used to structure the broad-based exploration of the qualitative dataset

  348. Knowledge and attitude towards collaboration in agricultural innovation systems amongst stakeholders in the North West Province, South Africa

    The current study examined the extent of knowledge concerning agricultural innovation systems amongst researchers, extension agents, farmers, input dealers, and marketers, while determining their attitude towards collaborating with agricultural innovation systems. Through using a simple random sampling technique; researchers, extension agents, farmers, input dealers, and marketers were selected as the study population. Information was gathered by distributing a structured questionnaire amongst the various participants and analysing the data gained concerning their wealth of knowledge and their corresponding willingness to collaborate. The results show that researchers, extension agents, farmers, input dealers, and marketers are aware of, and have adequate knowledge of, these systems available to them, to be able to utilise them effectively. However, they expressed different attitudes towards collaboration with agricultural innovation systems

  349. Platform, Participation, and Power: How Dominant and Minority Stakeholders Shape Agricultural Innovation

    Within agricultural innovation systems (AIS), various stakeholder groups inevitably interpret ‘innovation’ from their own vantage point of privilege and power. In rural developing areas where small-scale and subsistence farming systems support livelihoods, dominant policy actors often focus heavily on participatory modernization and commercialization initiatives to enhance productivity, access, and quality. However, existing social hierarchies may undermine the potential of such initiatives to promote inclusive and sustainable farmer-driven innovation. Focusing on the chronically food insecure smallholder agricultural systems operating in Yatta Sub-county, Eastern Kenya, this paper explores how power dynamics between stakeholders can influence, and can be influenced by, participatory agricultural innovation initiatives

  350. Scrutinizing Factors Impeding Research-Farmer Relationship in the Context of the Agriculture Innovation System

    The objective of this research was to scrutinize factors that impeded research-farmer relationship in the context of agricultural innovation system from researchers’ perspective in Ethiopia. The research design used for this study was qualitative research approach. Respondents were interviewed using a snowball sampling technique. Data were collected primarily using in-depth interview, documents and analysed descriptively using the principle of grounded theory. The study revealed that research-farmer relationship was affected by resource scarcity and inefficient use; feebleness of the extension system; narrow vision among researchers and farmers; inadequate preparedness to share knowledge; weak coordination among the various actors; poor at-tention for research; inefficient use of research results; lack of attractive rewarding system and farmers’ atti-tude for research and researchers. The conclusion is that the number of researchers to conduct demand-driven research was insufficient. Moreover, the scarce resources were inefficiently used by the various stakeholders conducting research that is less relevant to farmers need. The extension system of the country did not encourage researchers to work with farmers. The recommendations from the research is that the government of the country can take actions that can improve the relationship of researchers with farmers by employing knowledgeable, skilful, dedicated, concerned and committed people in knowledge institutes; allocating sufficient budget for research and changing the linear extension system to agricultural innovation system

  351. Fostering Agricultural Innovation System of Egypt

    This paper examines the AIS sector in Egypt. Study the basic components of AIS in Egypt and the Requirements of fostering the AIS of Egypt including the promotiong of Public Private Partnerships, an Economic Sustainable Reform Agenda, Propagation and Diffusion of Knowledge, Pluraristic Investments, ICT infrastructure and Investments for an Enabling Environment

    This paper was presented in th 20th European Seminar for Extension Education

  352. Mechanisms and Approaches to Realizing Behavioral Change at Scale

    How can the transition and transformation towards more sustainable food and agriculture (SFA) materialize at country-level? Who will own, drive and be committed to this process? How can the process be sustainable and reach scale? The practical, "how-to" contribution titled "System-Wide Capacity Development for SFA" attempts to answer these questions. It illustrates how the desired SFA transition and transformation can indeed be achieved through applying a system-wide capacity development approach can be practically applied that empowers people, strengthens organizations, institutions and the enabling policy environment. This is underscored with a practical and encouraging example in Rwanda with transferable, methodological lessons learned applicable across different continents and contexts. The contribution is part of the FAO-Elsevier publication "“Sustainable Food and Agriculture (SFA): An Integrated Approach” edited by Clayton Campanhola and Shivaji Pandey with contributions from 78 experienced scientists, teachers, policy experts and leaders from 30 organizations including universities, public, private and international institutions

  353. Capacity development and investment in agricultural R+D in Africa

    Economic development and the successful transformation ofagriculture have been at the core of impressive change in countriessuch as China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina. This transformation has relied on substantial and effective investment inagriculture, and, in particular, building capacity in all aspects of agricultural change – from technology development and transfer through infrastructural development and the processing of agricultural commodities into consumer products. This paper discuss these aspects relating the capacity development and the investments in agricultural research in African context

  354. The Roles for Agricultural Research Systems, Advisory Services and Capacity Development and Knowledge Transfer

    This chapter starting presenting the current status of agricultural research systems in SSA at national and regional levels against a backdrop of key policy changes and progressive elaboration of agricultural knowledge frameworks registered in the last decade or so. The section argues for endogenous mechanisms to encourage sustainable funding of agricultural research in the region. Section 2 discusses key trends and some innovative approaches that are helping bridge the supply and demand mismatch in AAS. Section 3 discusses progress in the practice and delivery of agricultural capacity development in SSA, emphasizing key actions that have been taken to decrease the gender gap in agricultural research and extension. The last section of the chapter includes pertinent conclusions and recommendations to ground possible policy action

  355. Implications of Evaluation Trends for Capacity Development

    This chapter examines empirical results of evaluation reports from the AfrED database in order to unpack the relationship between the demand for evaluations and the capacities needed to meet that demand. The analysis further explores ways in which current M&E training and education provision can be enhanced to respond to capacity development needs. In achieving its objectives, the chapter also draws evidence from a secondary analysis of the results of a survey of evaluation practitioners’ perceptions of ECD challenges in the sector. The primary question guiding the chapter is: How can a snapshot of trends in evaluation supply, demand and practice provide an indication of the kinds of skills and capabilities that may be required of evaluators in the future and serve as a guide for those tasked with ECD?

  356. User-centred design of a digital advisory service: enhancing public agricultural extension for sustainable intensification in Tanzania

    Sustainable intensification (SI) is promoted as a rural development paradigm for sub-Saharan Africa. Achieving SI requires smallholder farmers to have access toinformation that is context-specific, increases their decision-making capacities, andadapts to changing environments. Current extension services often struggle toaddress these needs. New mobile phone-based services can help. In order toenhance the public extension service in Tanzania, we created a digital service thataddresses smallholder farmers’different information needs for implementing SI.Using a co-design methodology –User-Centered Design– the authors elicited feedback from farmers and extension agents in Tanzania to create a new digital information service, called Ushauri. This automated hotline gives farmers access to a set of pre-recorded messages. Additionally, farmers can ask questions in a mailbox. Extension agents then listen to these questions through an online platform, where they record and send replies via automated push-calls. A test with 97 farmers in Tanzania showed that farmers actively engaged with the service to access agricultural advice. Extension agents were able to answer questions with reduced workload compared to conventional communication channels. This study illustrates how User-Centered Design can be used to develop information services for complex and resource-restricted smallholder farming contexts

  357. Multi-scale assessment of the livestock sector for policy design in Zambia

    While livestock constitute a strategic sector to reduce poverty and enhance growth in developing countries, decision makers often lack data reflecting the diversity of livestock functions and systems. The authors therefore mobilised the Livestock Sector Investment Policy Toolkit to assess the economic contributions of livestock in Zambia. Valuing their plural contributions by system, we found that mixed rainfed systems were the main contributors to added value, even if specialised intensive systems provided around 45% of meat and milk production. Demand-oriented policies promoting intensive systems would not have the same effects on economic growth as growth-oriented policies focusing on smallholder mixed farming

  358. Potato market access, marketing efficiency and on-farm value addition in Uganda

    Understanding barriers to market access for smallholder farmers and their marketing efficiency when they participate in agricultural value chains is key to unlocking the market potential and overcoming market failures. This study aimed at determining factors limiting farmers’ market access, the break-even point for undertaking postharvest value addition activities by the farmers, and the market efficiency of the Uganda potato market chains in which the smallholder farmers are participating. This study was based on the hypothesis that market access and efficiency are higher where farmers have contract arrangements with buyers, and where they are directly linked with the buyers at the end of the value chain. The study was carried out in the popular potato growing districts of Kabale and Mbale in Uganda. The survey involved purposive selection of the study areas and random selection of potato farmers and traders. The authors used an Ordinary Least Square model to determine factors that influence potato smallholder farmers’ market access. They also used break-even analysis to determine the break-even point for potato farmers to take up postharvest value addition activities, and a value addition approach to determine market efficiency

  359. Agricultural growth and sex-disaggregated employment in Africa: Future perspectives under different investment scenarios

    Literature is scanty on how public agricultural investments can help reducing the impact of future challenges such as climate change and population pressure on national economies. The objective of this study is to assess the medium and long-term effects of alternative agricultural research and development investment scenarios on male and female employment in 14 African countries. The authors first estimate the effects of agricultural investment scenarios on the overall GDP growth of a given country using partial and general equilibrium models. Secondly, using employment elasticities to GDP growth, we estimate the impact of GDP growth on overall employment in the economy. Results show that, increased investments in agriculture could generate higher overall employment and reduce gender disparities in labor participation. In 8 out of 14 sampled countries, female employment increased more than male employment in response to agricultural investments. Investment in infrastructure had higher impact on female employment growth compared to productivity scenarios

  360. Job design and behavioural outcome of employees in agricultural research training, Ibadan, Nigeria

    This study focused on the relationship between job design and behavioural outcomes of employees in Agricultural Research Training, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study was quantitative and the items in the questionnaire were adapted from previous studies. A total of 227 respondents were surveyed and statistical regression models were used to examine the relationship between the independent variables (job design) and dependent variables (employee behavioural outcomes). The findings showed that 14.4% of the variance in job design dimensions can explain the variance in employee behavioural outcome. The model revealed that task identity, sense of autonomy and skill variety had more statistical significance in predicting employee behavioural outcome, recording the highest beta value than other variables such as task significance and feedback mechanisms. The model indicates that the strength of regression weights of paths has a strong direction

  361. Multi-scale governance in agriculture systems: Interplay between national and local institutions around the production dimension of food security in Mali

    The paper documents the institutional logics of three case studies. The first case study focuses on farmer cooperatives and analyses the rules and routines enforced by new national legislation in replacement of traditional village associations. The argument behind this new arrangement was to better facilitate members’ access to agricultural inputs and services to enhance food production. The second case is about the institutional arrangement of seed systems in Mali. The new agricultural development framework includes a Seed Law aimed at facilitating farmers’ access to high quality seed. Seed is considered a major driver of production increase and the government has devoted significant effort to improve access of farmers. The third case, offering another example of a cross-scalar institutional divide, relates to the institutional arrangement established through the local convention for the management of natural resources. This case highlights the process of the devolution of tasks and responsibilities to local communities through the decentralization policy. The reactions and controversies relating to these three examples of institutional arrangements are analyzed below to bring insights on diagnosing institutions.  Through exploring these cases, this paper tests bricolage as an analytical framework for doing an institutional diagnostic. It aims at contributing to methodological and theoretical insights on the way sustainable institutions can be generated in conflicting institutional logics in the context of multi-scale governance

  362. Gender differences in the adoption of agricultural technology: The case of improved maize varieties in southern Ethiopia

    This study explores the role of gender-based decision-making in the adoption of improved maize varieties. The primary data were collected in 2018 from 560 farm households in Dawuro Zone, Ethiopia, and were comparatively analyzed across gender categories of households: male decision-making, female decision-making and joint decision-making, using a double-hurdle model. The results show that the intensity of improved maize varieties adopted on plots managed by male, female, and joint decision-making households are significantly different. This effect diminishes in the model when we take other factors into account. Using the gender of the heads of households and agricultural decision-maker, the current study did not find significant evidence of gender difference in the rate and intensity of adoption of improved maize varieties. The intensity of adoption of improved maize varieties is lower for female-headed households where decisions are made jointly by men and women, compared to the male-headed households where decisions are made jointly.  As the economic status is a key driver of adoption of improved maize varieties, it is recommended that the policies and programs that aim at developing and disseminating quality maize seeds in southern Ethiopia should emphatically support economically less endowed but more gender egalitarian joint decision-making households, especially female-headed ones

  363. Can small farms benefit from big companies’ initiatives to promote mechanization in Africa? A case study from Zambia

    After years of neglect, there is a renewed interest in agricultural mechanization in Africa. Since government initiatives to promote mechanization are confronted with major governance challenges, private-sector initiatives may offer a promising alternative. However, given limited scientific studies on such private-sector options such approaches are often viewed skeptically. One concern is that multi-national agribusiness companies take advantage of smallholder farmers. Another concern is that mechanization causes rural unemployment. To shed light on these concerns, this paper analyzes an initiative of the agricultural machinery manufacturer John Deere to promote smallholder mechanization in Zambia through a contractor model. The analysis focuses on the impact of this initiative on farmers who receive tractor services using Propensity Score Matching. The results indicate that farmers can almost double their income by cultivating a much larger share of their land

  364. Innovation intermediation in a digital age: Comparing public and private new-ICT platforms for agricultural extension in Ghana

    Agricultural extension in sub-Saharan Africa has often been criticised for its focus on linear knowledge transfer, and limited attention to systemic approaches to service delivery. Currently, the region is experiencing a new-ICT revolution and there are high expectations of new-ICTs to enhance interaction and information exchange in extension service delivery. Using an innovation systems perspective, we distinguish the roles demand-articulation, matching demand and supply, and innovation process management for innovation-intermediaries. The study explores literature on how new-ICT may support these roles, with specific interest in the possibilities of environmental monitoring and new forms of organisation enabled by enhanced connectivity. In order to contribute to the understanding of this area, the paper reports on a comparative study of two new-ICT platforms embedded in Ghanaian public and private extension organisations respectively. The study assess the roles that these platforms (aim to) support, and document achievements and constraints based on interviews with extension staff and farmers

  365. Digital platforms for smallholder credit access: The mediation of trust for cooperation in maize value chain financing

    Despite the positive attributions ascribed to Digital Platforms (DPs), empirical studies that explore the role of DPs in smallholder credit access are lacking, particularly that which takes into account the dynamics of trust in complex actor interactions in the value chain. Consequently, it remains unclear whether, and how DPs influence trust and actor cooperation in value chain financing of maize production in Ghana. Responding to this gap, the aim of this paper is to analyse the role of trust in credit related value chain cooperation, its relation with information and the extent to which DPs could mediate it

  366. Using smart ICT to provide weather and water information to smallholders in Africa: The case of the Gash River Basin, Sudan

    One solution that may help farmers face climate challenges is for them to access real-time water-related information by using smart Information and Communication a Technology (ICT). This paper shows how integrating remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), flood-forecasting models and communication platforms can, in near real time, alert smallholder farmers and relevant government departments about incoming floods, using the Gash basin of Sudan as an example. The paper outlines how to develop tools that can monitor plot-specific information from satellite measurements, and supply detailed and specific information on crops, rather than providing very general statements on crop growth. Farmers are able to use such tools to optimize their farm profits by providing water to their crops in the right place, at the right time and in the right quantity. Finally, the work demonstrates the high potential of combining technology, namely remote sensing data and simple a agro-meteorological model with limited parameters, for large-scale monitoring of spate irrigation systems and information sharing to advise farmers as to how to apply this information to their managerial decisions

  367. The Cashew Value Chain in Mozambique

    This report identifies key obstacles to job creation within the cashew sector and provides insight on how to remove obstacles. It begins with a general description of cashew culture, its characteristics and cultivation practices, and emphasizes the multipurpose uses of cashew, including a range of by-products that could support generation of new and better jobs. The report also presents an overview of the world cashew industry. It concludes that the global industry is flourishing and the market for cashew nuts is growing faster than other popular nuts such as almonds, macadamia, pistachios, and walnuts. This provides an opportunity for African cashew producers to capture a growing world marke

  368. South Sudan : Linking the Agriculture and Food Sector to the Job Creation Agenda

    This report seeks to support the larger jobs study by examining how investment in South Sudan’s food sector can not only address food security needs, it can generate income and lay the foundation for livelihood and job creation in the country. It argues that applying a value chain lens to investments in the sector can contribute to creating direct, indirect, and induced labor in the food system. The goal is to move the country from a dependency on humanitarian aid to building recovery and resilience in the short term in a way that can produce stable jobs over the medium to long term. More specifically, it looks at the potential technology and organizational arrangements that investment programs can start supporting now to stimulate value chain development for increased economic activity and job creation

  369. Toward Scaled-Up and Sustainable Agriculture Finance and Insurance in Uganda

     This technical report covers the rapid assessment of agriculture finance and its recommendations, the findings of the situation and gap analysis of the Uganda Agricultural Insurance Scheme (UAIS), and where appropriate, presents the WBG’s recommendations for strengthening the scheme; it also includes a proposal for two additional insurance programs, one for crop and one for livestock, targeted at small-scale farmers. Section one is comprised of four chapters that provide important background information: chapter one provides context for the study; chapter two describes the agricultural sector in Uganda, including the constraints and risk exposure faced by small-scale farmers; chapter three offers an overview of the agriculture finance landscape; and chapter four describes past and present agricultural insurance initiatives, including the UAIS

  370. Cote d’Ivoire Climate-Smart Agriculture Investment Plan

    This document provides an investment plan for climate-smart agriculture (CSA) in Côte d’Ivoire, developped with support of the Adaptation of African Agriculture (AAA) Initiative and the World Bank, and technical assistance of the CGIAR Research Program on Climatre Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). It identifies specific interventions that define on-the-ground actions that are consistent with Côte d’Ivoire’s NDC and National Agricultural Investment Plan II (2017-2025), which can be funded by public- and private-sector partners. CSA interventions are designed to increase agricultural productivity; help farmers, livestock keepers and fisher-people adapt and build resilience to climate risks; and, where appropriate, reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change. CSA interventions can include on-farm technologies such as stress-tolerant crop varieties and livestock breeds, agricultural management activities (involving water, soil, fertilizers, pests, etc.) and agricultural services such as insurance, credit and weather advisories

  371. Lesotho Climate-Smart Agriculture Investment Plan : Opportunities for Transitioning to More Productive, Climate-Resilient, and Low Carbon Agriculture

    Lesotho's agricultural system faces a growing number of climate-related vulnerabilities with droughts, floods, pests, and extreme temperatures occurring more frequently. In response, the Government of Lesotho is collaborating with the World Bank to integrate climate change into the country’s agriculture policy agenda through the Lesotho Climate-Smart Agriculture Investment Plan (CSAIP). 

    The objective of this report is to fill knowledge gaps and identify investments to transform Lesotho’s agriculture to a productive, resilient, and low-emissions sector. The report identifies climate-smart agriculture (CSA) strategies to mitigate and adapt to climate vulnerability and evaluates the costs and benefits of investments to implement the strategies. CSA is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. CSA comprises three pillars: increasing productivity, enhancing resilience and adaptation, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector compared to past trends. A CSA strategy refers to a plan of actions to achieve CSA goals and targets for a country. Apart from climate change, Lesotho’s agriculture sector is confronted with several endogenous and exogenous risk factors that make the country heavily dependent on food imports to meet domestic consumption needs 

  372. Unlocking Agriculture Finance and Insurance in Uganda : The Financial Sector's Role in Agricultural Transformation

    As a key pillar of the Ugandan economy, the agriculture sector is a critical driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation. Uganda's agricultural sector is dominated by smallholders with low levels of productivity. The agriculture sector is highly exposed to co-variant risks, which include weather, biological, infrastructure (post-harvest loss), price, and market risks. This plethora of risks suppresses appetite for investment in the sector. Despite the sector's contribution to the economy, farmers' access to finance remains a major constraint. Recognizing agriculture finance's critical role in the agricultural transformation agenda, the government of Uganda (GoU) is supporting several initiatives to unlock agricultural finance. To manage the financial impacts of production shocks, the GoU seeks to use agricultural insurance to derisk rural lending and expand access to rural credit for smallholders. In partnership with private insurance companies, the GoU launched the Uganda Agriculture Insurance Scheme (UAIS) as a five-year pilot in July 2016. The objectives of the scheme are to ensure that Ugandan farmers are protected against the effects of agriculture risks, especially production risks; to increase farmers' access to credit; and to make crops, livestock, and aquaculture insurance affordable to smallholder producers. The UAIS offers a range of crop, livestock, poultry, and aquaculture insurance coverage to Ugandan farmers, and is promoted by the GoU through the provision of premium subsidies. The objective of the review is to provide recommendations for enhancing the scalability and sustainability of the GoU's approach to promoting agriculture insurance in Uganda

  373. Mali Climate-Smart Agriculture Investment Plan

    This document provides an investment plan for climate-smart agriculture (CSA) in Mali, developed with support of the AAA Initiative and the World Bank, and technical assistanceof the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, the World Agroforestry Centre and the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security (CCAFS). It identifies specific interventions that define on-the-ground action that are consistent with Mali’s NDC and national agricultural strategy, which can be funded by public and private sector partners. CSA interventions are designed to increase agricultural productivity, to help farmers, livestock keepers and fisher-people adapt and build resilience to climate risks, and, where appropriate, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change.This plan includes a set of 12 key CSA investments for Mali that were developed with strong stakeholder engagement, expert input and scientific evidence. This plan is not intended to be comprehensive but can further include additional projects when more funds will be available. The plan presents a situation analysis of Mali’s national policies, plans and programs in relation to key climate risks, which form the context for key prioritized interventions. Designed project concepts are developed for each of these key investments, including the main project objectives, components and implementation arrangements. These provide a tangible set of project concepts for potential investors and donors to consider for funding. Finally, a general framing for developing a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework for the CSA investment plan (CSAIP) is provided, showing how CSA outcomes relate to other M&E frameworks and other monitoring activities for national-level development priorities

  374. Tanzania Economic Update, December 2019 : Transforming Agriculture - Realizing the Potential of Agriculture for Inclusive Growth and Poverty Reduction

    The Government's Tanzania Development Vision 2025 and the Five-Year Development Plan (FYDP II) set out ambitious goals for reducing poverty and sustainably industrializing so that the country can achieve middle-income status by 2025. The government recognizes agriculture as central to realizing its objectives of socioeconomic development, which are well-articulated in the Second Agriculture Sector Development Program (ASDP II). Among the goals of ASDP II are to transform agriculture by promoting commercialization, prioritizing high-potential commodity value chains, and mobilizing capital by giving the formal private sector a growing role in agriculture. Because agriculture and related value chains drive two-thirds of all jobs—three-quarters for the poor— the sector is central to creating more and better jobs at scale and significantly reducing poverty. This report makes a deep analysis in the policies and regulatory issues in affecting the Tanzanian Agricultural Transformation agenda

  375. Analysis of Indigenous Chicken Value Chain in Uganda

    Knowledge on indigenous chicken production exists but its potential is not yet fully exploited. Although the actors could be known, it is not clear where value is lost or gained, neither is it clear which of the actor gains or losses most, nor the challenges they face. Moreover, if some of the actors are exploited and therefore, realize glaring losses, the entire value chain will be affected and this will affect not only the actors who earn a direct living from the chain, but the entire nation for loss of gainful employment and revenue. It is therefore critical that the efforts are dedicated to unearthing the many unknowns regarding the indigenous chicken value chain. A baseline study was conducted in 25 villages in two agro-ecological zones.  Survey data was collected on the indigenous chicken production practices used in both zones following the procedure of Bjorndal (2010) for value chain analysis

  376. Designing interventions in local value chains for improved health and nutrition: Insights from Malawi

    This paper begins with a brief review of research on nutrition-sensitive value chains in developing countries. It then presents the Value Chains and Nutrition framework for intervention design that explores food supply and demand conditions across a portfolio of local value chains that are relevant for improving nutrition outcomes. The authors explore the framework in a case study on rural Malawi. Available evidence highlights the dominance of maize in diets, but also the willingness of rural households to consume other nutritious foods (e.g. leafy greens, tree fruits, dried fish) during the year. Addressing the supply constraints (e.g. low productivity, seasonality) and demand constraints (e.g. low income, preference for maize) along local value chains will require carefully sequenced interventions within and across value chains. Strategies for achieving nutrition goals in this context will require stronger collaborative ties between NGOs, government agencies and the private sector and deeper learning among stakeholders than has typically been the case

  377. Value chains to improve diets: Diagnostics to support intervention design in Malawi

    In this paper, the authors apply an innovative multisectoral diagnostic to examine the entry points for potential interventions in food systems to improve the diets in a rural population in Malawi. The paper is structured as follows: The authors begin by describing the country context and the methods necessary to diagnose and contextualize dietary problems in target populations, prioritizing nutritious foods based on their relative and potential contribution to diets. Then they assess constraints and intervention opportunities along these food chains, mapping the evidence from the diagnostics to a framework based on constraints in supply and demand for these specific foods. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications in terms of intervention design and research gaps

  378. Food insecurity as a supply chain problem. Evidence and lessons from the production and supply of bananas in Uganda

    This research attempts to examine the challenges faced in the production and supply of bananas in Uganda and how the supply chain perspective can help us address these challenges better. The authors juxtapose the supply chain approach against the value chain perspective and argue that the supply chain perspective offers a much deeper understanding of market-based challenges, which affect livelihoods of smallholders who often sell their products at rock-bottom prices.A cross sectional survey of various banana production and consumptions points in Uganda was conducted

  379. Understanding adaptive capacity of smallholder African indigenous vegetable farmers to climate change in Kenya

    At present, agricultural policies in Kenya often ignore specific target groups because there is a lack of contextual information on farmers’ specific socio-economic conditions. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by answering the following research questions: 1. What determines the adaptive capacity of AIV farmers in Kenya? 2. How does access to capital assets differ by farming household characteristics and between the selected areas? 3. What are the AC levels of AIV farmers in the selected zones of Kenya? 4. What policy structure would be needed to enhance the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers?

  380. Small-scale postharvest practices among plantain farmers and traders: A potential for reducing losses in rivers state, Nigeria

    This paper proposes the adoption of small-scale friendly postharvest techniques in the form of small-scale postharvest practices (SSPPs). To justify this proposal, the impact of SSPPs adoption on self-reported losses were investigated in Rivers State Nigeria. The factors influencing plantain farmers and traders intention to use SSPPs were also studied. Multistage and snowball sampling techniques were used to obtain data from farmers and traders, respectively

  381. Smallholder farmers' livelihood adaptation to climate variability and ecological changes in the savanna agro ecological zone of Ghana

    The paper makes significant contribution to the body of literature on the possible role of adaptation by farmers in Ghana particularly the fragile savannah ecological zone. The study explored smallholder farmers' responses to climate and ecological change effects on their livelihood activities that have emerged since the mid-1980s within the savanna agro ecological zone of Northern Ghana using an ethnographic approach.

  382. The impact of smallholder farmers’ participation in avocado export markets on the labor market, farm yields, sales prices, and incomes in Kenya

    Smallholder producers in sub-Saharan Africa are often unable integrate into markets and access high-value opportunities by effectively participating in global chains for high-value fresh produce. Using data from a survey of large avocado farmers in Kenya, this study examines the determinants and impacts of smallholder-producer participation in avocado export markets on labor inputs, farm yields, sales prices, and incomes, using a switching regression framework to control for selection effects

  383. On-farm performance and farmers’ participatory assessment of new stress-tolerant maize hybrids in Eastern Africa

    The present study was designed with the following objectives: i) to evaluate selected stress-tolerant maize hybrids developed by CIMMYT in eastern Africa under farmers’ conditions; ii) to identify farmers’ selection criteria in evaluating and selecting maize hybrids; iii) to let farmers evaluate the varieties and score them for the identified criteria and overall. In a novel approach, we also compared the importance of the different criteria, as stated by farmers, with the importance as revealed by regressing the overall evaluation score on the scores for the individual criteria, interpreting the coefficients as a weight or level of importance

  384. Approach for Designing Context-Specific, Locally Owned Interventions to Reduce Postharvest Losses: Case Study on Tomato Value Chains in Nigeria

    evelopment projects on interventions to reduce postharvest losses (PHL) are often implemented largely independently of the specific context and without sufficient adaptation to the needs of people who are supposed to use them. An approach is needed for the design and implementation of specific, locally owned interventions in development projects. This approach is based on Participatory Development and includes Living Lab and World Cafés. We applied the approach in a case study on reducing PHL in tomato value chains in Nigeria. The approach consists of nine steps. After scoping the sector, selected value chain stakeholders (case: farmers, transporters, traders, retailers) were gathered in Living Lab workshops. In the workshop, participants analyzed the product, information, and monetary flows in their own value chain, identified causes for PHL, and selected potential interventions to reduce these (case: plastic crates instead of raffia baskets to transport tomatoes). Selected interventions were implemented, tested, and monitored in pilot projects with the workshop participants. This was followed by an evaluation workshop. At the end of the case study, 89% of participants bought crates to keep using them in their value chain

  385. Sunflower Value Chain Enhancements for the Rural Economy in Tanzania: A Village Computable General Equilibrium-CGE Approach

    Poverty is prevalent and widespread in rural Tanzania, where agriculture is the main activity. The government is making significant public investments intended to speed the growth of agriculture as a means to accelerate inclusive economic growth. In line with public investments, the government is promoting public–private partnerships by encouraging the use of improved agricultural innovations and linking farmers to markets, seeking to increase their yields and income. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence using multipliers analysis about the extent of how gains in agricultural productivity and market linkages for farmers in rural areas help improve the economy at the household level. This paper assesses the welfare effects of the sunflower value chain for a rural economy in Tanzania using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the selected village, which has a high potential for sunflower. Findings highlight the use of the CGE model, first, for analyzing and understanding the economic sectors at a village level. Second, the effects of various upgrading strategies promoted for improving rural farming communities by the government and non-governmental development partners at the micro-scale are analyzed and potential agricultural commodity value chains identified. The multiplier analysis provided insights regarding the potential of sunflower crops for the village economy

  386. Intensification and Upgrading Dynamics in Emerging Dairy Clusters in the East African Highlands

    Based on farmer and value chain actor interviews, this comparative study of five emerging dairy clusters elaborates on the upgrading of farming systems, value chains, and context shapes transformations from semi-subsistent to market-oriented dairy farming. The main results show unequal cluster upgrading along two intensification dimensions: dairy feeding system and cash cropping. Intensive dairy is competing with other high-value cash crop options that resource-endowed farmers specialize in, given conducive support service arrangements and context conditions. A large number of drivers and co-dependencies between technical, value chain, and institutional upgrading build up to system jumps. Transformation may take decades when market and context conditions remain sub-optimal. Clusters can be expected to move further along initial intensification pathways, unless actors consciously redirect course. The main theoretical implications for debate about cluster upgrading are that co-dependencies between farming system, market, and context factors determine upgrading outcomes; the implications for the debate about intensification pathways are that they need to consider differences in farmer resource endowments, path dependency, concurrency, and upgrading investments. Sustainability issues for consideration include enabling a larger proportion of resource-poor farmers to participate in markets; enabling private input and service provision models; attention for food safety; and climate smartness

  387. Making Contract Farming Arrangements Work in Africa’s Bioeconomy: Evidence from Cassava Outgrower Schemes in Ghana

    This paper uniquely focuses on rapidly-developing domestic value chains in Africa’s emerging bioeconomy. It uses a comparative case study approach of a public and private cassava outgrower scheme in Ghana to investigate which contract farming arrangements are sustainable for both farmers and agribusiness firms. A complementary combination of qualitative and quantitative methods is employed to assess the sustainability of these institutional arrangements. The results indicate that ad hoc or opportunistic investments that only address smallholders’ marketing challenges are not sufficient to ensure mutually beneficial and sustainable schemes. The results suggest that firms’ capacity and commitment to design contracts with embedded support services for outgrowers is essential to smallholder participation and the long-term viability of these arrangements. Public-private partnerships in outgrower schemes can present a viable option that harnesses the strengths of both sectors and overcomes their institutional weaknesses

  388. The Future of the Food System: Cases Involving the Private Sector in South Africa

    With a large proportion of sub-Saharan African countries’ GDP still heavily reliant on agriculture, global trends in agri-food business are having an increasing impact on African countries. South Africa, a leader in agribusiness on the continent, has a well-established agri-food sector that is facing increasing pressure from various social and environmental sources. This paper uses interview data with corporate executives from South African food businesses to explore how they are adapting to the dual pressures of environmental change and globalisation. It shows that companies now have to adapt to macro-trends both within and outside the formal food sector and how this in turn has repercussions for building sustainable farming systems—both small and large-scale. It concludes with the recognition that building a sustainable food system is a complex process involving a diversity of actors, however changes are already being seen. Businesses have strategically recognised the need to align the economic bottom line with social and environmental factors, but real sustainability will only happen when all stakeholders are included in food governance

  389. The Vulnerability of Rice Value Chains in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change, variability, and economic globalization threatens to disrupt rice value chains across the subcontinent, undermining their important role in economic development, food security, and poverty reduction. This paper maps existing research on the vulnerability of rice value chains, synthesizes the evidence and the risks posed by climate change and economic globalization, and discusses agriculture and rural development policies and their relevance for the vulnerability of rice value chains in sub-Saharan Africa. Important avenues for future research are identified. These include the impacts of multiple, simultaneous pressures on rice value chains, the effects of climate change and variability on parts of the value chain other than production, and the forms and extent to which different development policies hinder or enhance the resilience of rice value chains in the face of climatic and other pressures

  390. Improving Agricultural Commodities ValueChains: How to Collaborate with the Private Sector for the Benefit of Smallholder Farmers

    This paper is divided into three sections. First, presents the strenghts and weaknesses of each of the three main sectors: the public sector, the private sector and the NGO sector. Second the author will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Public-Private Partnerships. Thirs it will touch on the importance of the value chain concept by using the example of successful collaboration between the three sectors to improve the smallholder indigenous poultry sector in Kenya, a project introduced and implemented by Winrock International

  391. Production of indigenous vegetables and livelihood of farmers in Nigeria–Canada vegetable project

    Many indigenous vegetables are generally underutilized across different cultures, but they remain alternatives to exotic vegetables that often are expensive. This study investigated effects of participation in indigenous vegetable production on livelihood of farmers. Multistaged sampling was used to collect data from 222 vegetable farmers sampled from using a semi-structured questionnaire. Principal component analysis and endogenous switching regression (ESR) were employed for analysis

  392. Using Indigenous Knowledge to Enhance Rainfall Forecasts Among Smallholder Farmers in Mt. Elgon Region, Eastern Uganda

    The frequency and severity of uncertain rainfall and climate extremes are projected to increase across many parts of the world. Access to rainfall forecasting information becomes an essential and critical resource that smallholder farmers should use to take advantage of good rains and avoid its adverse effects. In many smallholder farming communities, the reliability and accuracy of the scientific information is questionable and therefore not adequately used to make informed farming decisions. Amidst this dilemma, smallholder farmers rely heavily on indigenous knowledge to comprehend rainfall patterns in their day-to-day and seasonal farming calendar. A study carried out among smallholder farmers in the Mt. Elgon region indicated that a large proportion of farmers used a wide range of indigenous indicators to predict rainfall patterns. The indicators used by farmers were largely celestial objects and/or animal/plant behaviour to forecast onset and cessation of rains. While this is true, the type of indicators used to forecast the rainfall patterns were site specific, made prediction over a short temporal scale (days to a few weeks) and did not provide adequate information on rainfall amount, intensity and distribution which are key parameters for making evidence-based farming decisions

  393. Mainstreaming Underutilized Indigenous and Traditional Crops into Food Systems: A South African Perspective

    This paper reviewed the potential of underutilized indigenous and traditional crops to bring about a transformative change to South Africa’s food system. South Africa has a dichotomous food system, characterized by a distinct, dominant agro-industrial, and, alternative, informal food system. This dichotomous food system has inadvertently undermined the development of smallholder producers. While the dominant agro-industrial food system has led to improvements in food supply, it has also resulted in significant trade-offs with agro-biodiversity, dietary diversity, environmental sustainability, and socio-economic stability, especially amongst the rural poor. This challenges South Africa’s ability to deliver on sustainable and healthy food systems under environmental change. The review proposes a transdisciplinary approach to mainstreaming underutilized indigenous and traditional crops into the food system, which offers real opportunities for developing a sustainable and healthy food system, while, at the same time, achieving societal goals such as employment creation, wellbeing, and environmental sustainability

  394. The Revolution of Mobile Phone-Enabled Services for Agricultural Development (m-Agri Services) in Africa: The Challenges for Sustainability

    There are very few published literature sources that focus on the potential benefits of m-Agri services in Africa and none of which explore their sustainability. This study, therefore, explores the evolution, provision, and sustainability of these m-Agri services in Africa. An overview of the current landscape of m-Agri services in Africa is provided and this illustrates how varied these services are in design, content, and quality. Key findings from the exploratory literature review reveal that services are highly likely to fail to achieve their intended purpose or be abandoned when implementers ignore the literacy, skills, culture, and demands of the target users. This study recommends that, to enhance the sustainability of m-Agri services, the implementers need to design the services with the users involved, carefully analyse, and understand the target environment, and design for scale and a long-term purpose. While privacy and security of users need to be ensured, the reuse or improvement of existing initiatives should be explored, and projects need to be data-driven and maintained as open source. Thus, the study concludes that policymakers can support the long-term benefit of m-Agri services by ensuring favourable policies for both users and implementers

  395. Adoption and income effects of agricultural extension in northern Ghana

    Relying on cross-sectional data from 300 smallholder rice farmers, the study examined the effects of agricultural extension on improved rice variety adoption and farm income in northern Ghana. A recursive bivariate probit (RBP) model was used to assess the effect of agricultural extension on adoption while regression with endogenous treatment effect model (RETEM) was adopted to evaluate the effect of agricultural extension on farm income. The results indicate a statistically significant effect of agricultural extension on both adoption and farm income. According to the RETEM model, farm income of participants in agricultural extension increased by GH¢916 relative to non-participants. The study highlights significant factors affecting adoption and farm income and provides insight into measures to enhance technology adoption and farm income among smallholder agrarian households in Ghana and other developing countries.

  396. Scaling practices within agricultural innovation platforms: Between pushing and pulling

    Growing empirical evidence suggests that innovation platforms can be effective in enhancing agricultural research impact by creating an enabling environment for scaling of innovations such as novel technologies, practices and busines models . However, efforts to understand how these innovation platforms operate to scale innovations are insufficient. Such knowledge is critical for improving the design of agricultural innovation systems, specifically within the context of a rising interest in the innovation platform approach to support the transformation of agriculture across Africa. This paper investigates the scaling approaches employed by innovation platforms established in Rwanda. The study focused on four innovation platforms created as part of the Sub-Saharan Africa Challenge Program and analysed their activities and the resulting scaling outcomes

  397. Gendered constraints for adopting climate-smart agriculture amongst smallholder Ethiopian women farmers

    This study uses 344 women and men survey respondents involved in conservation agriculture (CA) and small-scale irrigation schemes (SSIS) as data sources for examining the effect of gendered constraints for adopting climate-smart agriculture amongst women in three areas in Ethiopia. Qualitative and quantitative data collections were applied using survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's chi-square test and binary logistic regression using statistical software for the social sciences (SPSS) version 24. Thematic and narrative analysis methods were used to analyze qualitative data. The findings show that women smallholders uptake is affected by limited access to credit, extension, restricted membership in cooperatives and water user associations, lack of access or user rights to land, skill training, information, and restricted mobility. Agricultural development interventions should be implemented by accepting and considering individual farmer's entitlement to development

  398. Unpacking the drivers behind the use of the Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) approach: The case of rice research and extension professionals in Sierra Leone

    Agriculture Innovation System (AIS) thinking and approaches are largely perceived as a sine-qua-non for the design and implementation of effective and sustainable agriculture development programmes. AIS has gained popularity in the agriculture innovation literature and has been embedded in policy documents of agriculture sector institutions in many countries. However, there is much less evidence of AIS thinking influencing the behaviours of research and extension institutions and staff ‘on the ground’. An important research gap is the need to better understand the attitudes and beliefs of extension and research professionals regarding AIS and that drive behaviours. Sierra Leone, like most developing countries, has embraced the use of AIS (at least in theory) as evident in policy documents of government institutions – the leading innovation system actors in the country. This study uses the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to assess the cognitive foundation of agricultural research scientists and extension professionals' intention to use the AIS approach related to rice innovation (the country's staple food crop)

  399. South–South Cooperation, Agribusiness, and African Agricultural Development: Brazil and China in Ghana and Mozambique

    The rise of new powers in development has generated much debate on the extent to which South–South Cooperation (SSC) constitutes a new paradigm of development more relevant to African needs or a disguise for a new form of imperialism. This paper critically examines the rise of Chinese and Brazilian technical and economic cooperation in African agriculture with two cases drawn from Ghana and Mozambique. Using a historical framework, policy documents, case studies, and an analysis of the political economy of agrarian development, this paper trace the role of agricultural development in the relations of China and Brazil in Africa, and the extents to which recent developments in agribusiness and structural neoliberal reforms of African economies have influenced Brazilian and Chinese contemporary engagements with African agriculture. We examine the extent to which the different policy frameworks, political interests in agriculture, and institutional frameworks influence and impede the outcomes of Chinese and Brazilian development intents

  400. Development of the project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI)

    In this paper, the authors describe the adaptation and validation of a project-level WEAI (or pro-WEAI) that agricultural development projects can use to identify key areas of women’s (and men’s) disempowerment, design appropriate strategies to address identified deficiencies, and monitor project outcomes related to women’s empowerment. The 12 pro-WEAI indicators are mapped to three domains: intrinsic agency (power within), instrumental agency (power to), and collective agency (power with). A gender parity index compares the empowerment scores of men and women in the same household. The authors describe the development of pro-WEAI, including: (1) pro-WEAI’s distinctiveness from other versions of the WEAI; (2) the process of piloting pro-WEAI in 13 agricultural development projects during the Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project, phase 2 (GAAP2); (3) analysis of quantitative data from the GAAP2 projects, including intrahousehold patterns of empowerment/disempowerment; and (4) a summary of the findings from the qualitative work exploring concepts of women’s empowerment in the project sites. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned from pro-WEAI and possibilities for further development of empowerment metrics

  401. To diversify or not to diversify, that is the question. Pursuing agricultural development for smallholder farmers in marginal areas of Ghana

    Many smallholder farmers in developing countries grow multiple crop species on their farms, maintaining de facto crop diversity. Rarely do agricultural development strategies consider this crop diversity as an entry point for fostering agricultural innovation. This paper presents a case study, from an agricultural research-for-development project in northern Ghana, which examines the relationship between crop diversity and self-consumption of food crops, and cash income from crops sold by smallholder farmers in the target areas. By testing the presence and direction of these relationships, it is possible to assess whether smallholder farmers may benefit more from a diversification or a specialization agricultural development strategy for improving their livelihoods. Based on a household survey of 637 randomly selected households, we calculated crop diversity as well as its contribution to self-consumption (measured as imputed monetary value) and to cash income for each household. With these data we estimated a system of three simultaneous equations

  402. Learning impact of farmer field schools of integrated crop–livestock systems in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Four FFSs concerning integrated crop–livestock systems were implemented by a R&D project namely “Adaptation to Climate Change in West Asia and North Africa (WANA) Marginal Environments through Sustainable Crop and Livestock Diversification (ACC project)” during the summer season 2013 in three villages namely Village 4, Village 7 and Village 1750 in Sinai Peninsula. This study aimed to do the following: (1) assess the learning impacts of farmer field schools of integrated crop–livestock package and (2) explore the factors that affect the respondents’ learning index. Data were collected from the enrolled farmers (96 farmers) using an ex-post facilitator-made knowledge and implementation test during the period from April to October 2013. Mean, mode, standard deviation, range, frequencies, percentages, Learning Index (LI), and Chi-Square were used for data analysis and presentation

  403. Transfer of knowledge through expatriates nationals (TOKTEN) as a gender sensitive development assistance modality in patriarchal societies: An example from Kassala State, Eastern Sudan

    Transfer of knowledge through expatriate nationals (TOKTEN) initiative is a UNDP technical assistance modality that aims at human resource capacity building in countries that suffer from brain-drain. One of the main constraints that impede maximum contribution of human resource development programs towards sustainable development is lack of gender-sensitivity. TOKTEN initiative is believed to overcome this constraint. Thus, this paper will examine this thesis in the Sudanese setting. Data were collected from 46 trainees who attended a training workshop arranged through TOKTEN initiative. t-Test was used to examine the difference in the level of knowledge of the male and female trainees about the different concepts and topics under consideration before and after the workshop

  404. Analysis and Diagnosis of the Agrarian System in the Niayes Region, Northwest Senegal (West Africa)

    The agrarian system Analysis and Diagnosis is used for this study, the goal of which was to provide a corpus of basic knowledge and elements of reflection necessary for the understanding the Niayes farming systems dynamics in Senegal, West Africa. Such holistic work has never been done before for this small region that provides the majority of vegetables in the area, thanks to its microclimate and access to fresh water in an arid country. Reading of the landscape and historical interviews coupled with fine-tuned household surveys were used to build a typology of agricultural production units (each type being represented by a production system)

  405. Assessment of Technical Efficiency and Its Potential Determinants among Small-Scale Coffee Farmers in Rwanda

    Coffee production is the main economic activity for smallholder farmers in Rwanda; it is also a major export crop. However, Rwandan coffee production has been facing structural changes with a significant decline in production. Considering the importance of the coffee sector to rural livelihoods and its potential role in export earnings, there is a need to ensure that small-scale coffee farmers efficiently use scarce resources in their production activities. Thus, this study estimates the technical efficiency and possible sources of inefficiency in small-scale coffee farming in the Northern Province of Rwanda. Three hundred and twenty coffee farmers are sampled to carry out a simultaneous estimation of the stochastic production frontier and technical inefficiency model

  406. Market Awareness and Participation for Cattle Farmers in the Kaonafatso ya Dikgomo (KyD) Scheme in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    The objective of the study was to outline the determinants of market awareness and participation in the Kaonafatso ya Dikgomo (KyD) scheme in South Africa. The study utilised a cross-sectional survey of a randomly selected sample of 116 KyD farmers in KwaZulu-Natal Province. A Logit model was used to analyse the data. The results show that more farmers are aware of farmgate market channels, but however, they tended to utilise auction market channels. Furthermore, gender, marital status, educational level, employment status, farm income, source of income, herd size, labour and training were significant variables in the awareness and use of butcheries, auctions and farm gate markets. The study concludes that the scheme is particularly effective in influencing commercialisation through utilisation of more lucrative market channels such as auctions

  407. Vulnerability of the agricultural sector to climate change: The development of a pan-tropical Climate Risk Vulnerability Assessment to inform sub-national decision making

    The purpose of this study is to develop a robust, rigorous and replicable methodology that is flexible to data limitations and spatially prioritizes the vulnerability of agriculture and rural livelihoods to climate change. The methodology was applied in Vietnam, Uganda and Nicaragua, three contrasting developing countries that are particularly threatened by climate change. We conceptualize vulnerability to climate change following the widely adopted combination of sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity. We used Ecocrop and Maxent ecological models under a high emission climate scenario to assess the sensitivity of the main food security and cash crops to climate change. Using a participatory approach, we identified exposure to natural hazards and the main indicators of adaptive capacity, which were modelled and analysed using geographic information systems. We finally combined the components of vulnerability using equal-weighting to produce a crop specific vulnerability index and a final accumulative score. We have mapped the hotspots of climate change vulnerability and identified the underlying driving indicators

  408. Prioritizing options for multi-objective agricultural development through the Positive Deviance approach

    This study aims to explore how the Positive Deviance approach can be adapted to identify and prioritize rural development interventions for diverse farming households that pursue multiple objectives. We describe the adapted approach, consisting of three research steps, and a case study implementation in Tanzania. Based on this experience,  the potential of the Positive Deviance approach for household-specific prioritization of multi-objective development opportunities is discussed

  409. Women’s empowerment in agriculture and agricultural productivity: Evidence from rural maize farmer households in western Kenya

    This paper documents a positive relationship between maize productivity in western Kenya and women’s empowerment in agriculture, measured using indicators derived from the abbreviated version of the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index. Applying a cross-sectional instrumental-variable regression method to a data set of 707 maize farm households from western Kenya, we find that women’s empowerment in agriculture significantly increases maize productivity. Although all indicators of women’s empowerment significantly increase productivity, there is no significant association between the women’s workload (amount of time spent working) and maize productivity.

  410. Report on the Eastern Africa Regional Field Sharing Event & Policy Tour

    This report brings the experience of an Sharing Evend and Police tour held in eastern africa by FAO and the Rwanda agricultural board. The Field School study tour was organized by FAO Rwanda in collaboration with the Rwanda Agricultural board and involved participants from Kenya and Ethiopia. The participants from Ethiopia were 2 (Government and FAO) and those from Kenya were 9 (FAO, MOALF, University, Research). The tour was focussed on two districts namely Rulindo and Rubavu. On the first day the group visited FS facilitator training in Rulindo and later a visit to FFS facilitator group. On the second day, the group travelled to Rubavu and visited the FFS facilitator cooperative (COFAR) and later an FFS group in action in Rugerero

  411. Climate, Agriculture and Knowledge in Africa: Agricultural Research and Advisory Services in the Face of Climate Change

    The project case-studies described in this document a range of local-level, mainly donor-funded projects in four countries (Sierra Leone, Benin, Uganda and Mozambique). These projects incorporate climate change in their design and rationale in different ways, but generally base themselves on broad-brush climate trends or climate uncertainty rather than on specific downscaled projections. They also demonstrate a continuum ranging from pure knowledge provision, through breeding, seed supply, input provision and marketing, to provision of hardware and infrastructure, especially in irrigation. Despite the opportunities for smallholders to benefit from climate mitigation programmes, this aspect was not significant for the projects we studied, and we suggest there are not yet significant numbers of donor-funded agricultural projects in Africa combining adaptation and mitigation objectives

  412. Strengthening pluralistic agricultural extension in Malawi

    At the request of the USAID Malawi Mission, the MEAS project (Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services – a USAID funded project) conducted a rapid scoping mission to examine the pluralistic extension system in Malawi and to develop recommendations for strengthening extension and advisory services in the country. The fieldwork for the assessment work was carried from 3-27 January, 2012 and included in-depth interviews with Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development (MAIWD) staff at all levels, international and national non-governmental organization (NGO) directors and staff, lead farmers, university faculty, agricultural researchers and private sector representatives. To the extent possible, interviews were carried out on the “shop floors” of the different respondents, allowing the MEAS team to visit farms, area and district extension and project offices, universities and training centers, and research facilities. The mission aimed to understand the institutional landscape, identify the principal actors, ascertain respective resources levels, targets, operational modalities, inter-organizational relationships, areas of conflict and gaps. Based upon the information collected and observations the team identified a number of key issues within the pluralistic extension system in Malawi that will need to be addressed in order to develop a more sustainable, farmer-led and market driven system of extension and advisory services

  413. A review of case studies on targeting women advisory service providers in capacity development programmes: Final report

    This Final report identifies best-fit practices, and makes recommendations on how to target women advisory service providers in capacity development programmes. It is envisaged that the study will contribute to the ultimate aim of creating a foundation on which AFAAS can develop a strategy for supporting the Country Forums in making informed decisions on empowering women to be engaged in the provision of Agricultural Advisory Services. A desk study was undertaken to identify best-fit practices, and make recommendations on how to target capacity-strengthening programmes at women advisory service providers. The main source of information was published literature. The review identified three particularly useful case studies: the African Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment (AWLAE) programme, the African Women in Agricultural Research and Development (AWARD), and the programme on Strengthening Agricultural Technical Training using a Gender Lens in Sudan. All were donor funded and targeted the public sector. Despite the favourable gender-sensitive policy environment in most African nations, they have yet to adopt a systematic approach to addressing the gender gap in the capacity of agricultural extension workers

  414. Market-oriented agricultural advisory services (MOASS): Guidelines for setting up MOAAS pilots

    This report is the result of a study that was carried out for the African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services (AFAAS), to make an inventory of experiences with ‘market-oriented agricultural advisory services’ (MOAAS). Lessons learned have been drawn from the cases studied. These lessons are the basis for guidelines formulated for setting up market-oriented agricultural advisory services. The guidelines will be used by the AFAAS Country Forums, with the aim of strengthening the agricultural knowledge systems in their respective countries. Cases and experiences were studied in relation to commercial-oriented agriculture, published
    on the Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services (GFRAS) website, and other relevant documents found through internet search. A snowballing approach was used. The outputs of this study are: (1) a list of key documents, relevant for those involved in MOAAS implementation; (2) a report summarising MOAAS approaches and lessons learned on effective implementation; and (3) practical guidelines for starting up MOAAS pilot initiatives

  415. Emerging approaches for responding to climate change in African agricultural advisory services: Challenges, opportunities and recommendations for an AFAAS climate change response strategy

    This report, drawing on a rapid desk-based review, seeks to outline the potential role of Afican Advisory Services (AAS) in addressing climate change and explores how far AAS in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are able to respond to climatic and other pressures. Recommendations are outlined, indicating how AFAAS can help AAS to understand climate change better and become more ‘adaptive’ in their responses

  416. Concept and learning framework for the African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services (AFAAS)

    The objective of this consultancy assignment was to develop a concept and learning framework for AFAAS to use to systematically undertake lesson learning in AAS. The task was undertaken in the context of AFAAS being in its infancy and in the process of setting up its operational structures and instruments. The consultants therefore relied on conceptual thinking, literature review and their own experience, especially in the area of social learning and knowledge management. Feedback from the AFAAS secretariat and AFAAS panel of experts added value and relevance to the proposed concept and learning framework

  417. Scoping Study of Gender-responsive Agricultural Services for Rural Poverty Reduction in Africa

    This report synthesizes findings from seven country scoping studies on gender-responsive approaches to rural advisory services (RAS) in Africa. The studies, which were conducted in (Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Sudan, and Uganda), were meant to identify existing policies, programmes, approaches, and tools into which gender considerations had been injected, and then to  provide them as RAS to farmers, with specific focus on women and youth

  418. Proceedings of the African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services (AFAAS) Uganda Country Chapter meeting 2008

    The African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services (AFAAS), a not-forprofit continental body was conceptualized for the promotion of efficient and effective Agricultural Advisory Services (AAS) in Africa. The continental body is to provide a central platform to facilitate lesson learning and information sharing amongst African countries to develop a pool of best fit knowledge, skills, technologies and experiences for easy access by users with the overall aim of improving rural livelihoods. AFAAS was launched in October 2004 during a symposium in Kampala, Uganda, which is also the host country for its Secretariat. Current membership
    includes 14 countries: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Mali, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. As a further step to operationalize AFAAS, each member country establishes a Country Chapter. Accordingly, the Uganda Country Chapter was launched on 9th September 2008.

    The objectives of the meeting included: 1. Put in place AFAAS Uganda Country Chapter;2. Establish a committee to draft by-laws for the Uganda Country Chapter in line with AFAAS guiding principles and FAAP
    principles; 3. Present a tool for diagnosing capacity needs of AAS providers; 4. Agree on strategies for identifying country level AAS priorities and fostering ownership of the Country Chapter; 5. Discuss the AFAAS-FARA-NI-RFO consultation questions

  419. Policy Brief : Road map for mainstreaming gender into RAS for poverty reduction in Africa

    This report synthesizes findings from seven country scoping studies on gender‐responsive approaches to rural advisory services (RAS) in Africa. The studies, which were conducted in Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Sudan, and Uganda, were meant to identify existing policies, programmes, approaches, and tools into which gender considerations had been injected, and then to provide them as RAS to farmers, with specific focus on women and youth. The goal was to propose a road map for mainstreaming RAS to promote sustainable agriculture in Africa

  420. Gender and Rangelands’ Management in Tunisia with a focus on Medenine and Zaghouen “Partnerships for Improving Pastoral Policies” PIPP

    The “Partnerships for Improving Pastoral Policies” PIPP project has as its objective to update the Tunisian pastoral law and / or to develop a pastoral code. The approach involves multiple institutional levels that include local communities, national governments and international actors. The engagement of different stakeholders in the negotiation process is recognized and fostered. Furthermore, the approach aims to develop capacities of stakeholders involved. The capacity development focuses on enabling skills to activate and coordinate networks and to include women, youth and marginalized groups into the process. Skills development related to governance of common natural resources is also part of the process. The purpose of this study is to explore gender roles, relations, constraints and opportunities in livestock production with a focus on rangelands. Overall, there is very little research conducted on gender issues (such as roles, relations, and responsibilities) in rangelands in Tunisia. This study is therefore an important step towards filling this research gap and particularly bridging gender issues across roles, decision-making power, participation in public life and entrepreneurship, access to resources, innovation adoption, and adaptation to climate change

  421. Gendered aspirations and occupations among rural youth, in agriculture and beyond: A cross-regional perspective

    Based on 25 case studies from the global comparative study ‘GENNOVATE: Enabling gender equality in agricultural and environmental innovation’, this paper explores rural young women’s and men’s occupational aspirations and trajectories in India, Mali, Malawi, Morocco, Mexico, Nigeria, and the Philippines. The study draw upon qualitative data from 50 sex-segregated focus groups with the youth to show that across the study’s regional contexts, young rural women and men predominantly aspire for formal blue and white-collar jobs

  422. Designing and Conducting Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) for Impact Evaluations of Agricultural Development Research: A Case Study from ICARDA’s ‘Mind the Gap’ Project in Tunisia

    This document is designed to help researchers apply RCTs so they can gain a more accurate insight into the impacts of different extension strategies in different locations. It provides information on the benefits of an RCT approach in comparison to other impact evaluation models; provides a step-by-step implementation guide and a framework to avoid challenges; and demonstrates how an RCT approach was implemented within the context of the ‘Mind the Gap’ initiative.

  423. Power to the partners? Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) as an approach for more pluralistic agricultural extension service in Egypt

    Agriculture remains a key and sensitive economic sector in Egypt. Given contemporary geo-political concerns that limit access to international markets, it continues to remain responsible for the production of food and
    fiber needed for a growing population. Efficacy in agricultural Extension Services (AES), within the broader scope of an agricultural innovation system, has the potential to assist in the government’s mandate, and
    particularly so given historical levels of high public investment and attention to this institution. The focus of this study is on current limitations in both access to, and delivery of, effective public extension services; as well as on opportunities for enhancing the delivery of more pluralistic and equitable extension services through public private partnerships (PPPs). The methodological framework is largely qualitative, guided by a review of both historical and contemporary literature. Recommendations for reviving efficacy in public provision of AES in Egypt include: (i) establishment of non-parastatal CSOs, or representative farmers’ and producers’ NGOs and associations, (ii) recruitment of new village extension workers (VEWs) as an urgent requirement to fill the gap resulting from retirement of an aged population of extension agents, and (iii) enhancing organizational and institutional arrangements required to facilitate better linkages between researchers and end users of knowledge generated

  424. Adaptability and suitability of local cattle breeds in Egypt: Farmers and actors’ perceptions and practices of the cattle value chain

    This study aimed to describe the situation of this local breed based on the perceptions and practices of the actors in the sector (including farmers, traders and service suppliers), and to draw perspectives for its future. From the interviews, the Baladi appeared adapted and more resistant to harsh conditions, especially to extreme warm temperatures, feed shortage periods, and some diseases, in particular foot-and-mouth disease. However, there is no organization or collective action to preserve or promote this breed because of its low level of dairy production, although its meat is highly valued in rural areas and could be the source of a potential niche market

  425. Swot analysis of traditional skimmed milk chain around greater Cairo

    The aim of this study was to apply SWOT analysis on traditional skimmed milk chain around Greater Cairo which considered as one of the main dairy markets in Egypt. This study was carried out in El-Reka village
    located in south of Greater Cairo, (Giza governorate), nearby Beni Suef governorate. SWOT analysis was applied including food safety aspect and value chain analysis to raise the major advantages and constraints of
    the traditional sector. This study was based on regular field visits, interviews, and analysis of milk samples. Main stakeholders of the chain were farmers, owners of milk collection points, owners of milk collection
    centers, and owners of dairy processing units. SWOT analysis allowed highlighting the major role of the social network to explain the flexibility and adaptability of this sector to the major constraints in link with
    international competitiveness and national constraints, mainly on the limitation of land access. Other weaknesses concerned high feedstuffs prices on markets, and lack of public services, in terms of milk quality
    control and herd management at farm level

  426. Characterization of Buffalo Veal Supply Chain in Villages around Cairo

    This study aims to characterize buffalo veal supply chain in 5 villages around Cairo. Value chain approach was applied to analyze veal supply chain using the data of 82 farmers, 4 traders and 4 butchers. Economic analysis was applied to different scenarios of raising calves using buffalo milk, cow milk or milk replacer. Survey analysis showed that 65% of farmers sold veal as early as possible. However, 61% of farmers sold their calves for economic reasons, 14 % for technical reasons and 25 % for both economic and technical reasons. Survey analysis showed the high demand on veal meat due to its unique quality. Technical and economic pressures on farmers motivate them to sell veal. Buffalo veal chain provides farmers with money to cover their needs, offers jobs through the whole year. Many butchers and traders prefer to slaughter veal due to the low price of veal compared with older or heavier cattle. Economic analysis of different alternatives to raise calves proved the feasibility of using milk replacer compared with cow or buffalo milk. Slaughtering veal, lack of finance and training programs to raise buffalo calves decreased the contribution of buffaloes in Egyptian meat market. High demand of veal meat and veal selling decision sustain the veal supply chain around Cairo. This study confirms that all chain actors and the related enterprises should be considered to set new regulations for the current veal chain

  427. What drives capacity to innovate? Insights from women and men small-scale farmers in Africa, Asia, and Latin America

    What are key characteristics of rural innovators? How are their experiences similar for women and men, and how are they different? To examine these questions, this study draw on individual interviews with 336 rural women and men known in their communities for trying out new things in agriculture. The data form part of 84 GENNOVATE community case studies from 19 countries. Building on study participants’ own reflections and experiences with innovation in their agricultural livelihoods, we combine variable-oriented analysis and analysis of specific individuals’ lived experience. Results indicate that factors related to personality and agency are
    what most drive women’s and men’s capacity to innovate. Access to resources is not a prerequisite but rather an important enabling aspect. Different types of women have great potential for local innovation, but structural inequalities make men better positioned to access resources and leverage support. Men’s support is important when women challenge the status quo

  428. Strengthening the capacity of early-career researchers: Investments to secure the future productivity and resilience of dryland agriculture

    This document describes the central role of Capacity strengthening to ICARDA’s mission: it delivers quality research and development impact and ensures that agricultural investments are sustainable over the long-term. Targeting young scientists is especially important as investments now could deliver impacts for decades to come – ensuring that countries and institutions have the right combination of skills and knowledge to meet future challenges

  429. Measuring the effectiveness of extension innovations for out-scaling agricultural technologies

    Using a combination of an ordered logit and Heckman selection models and a case study from an out-scaling program for a barley technology package in Ethiopia, this study provided evidence that a newly introduced farmer-to-farmer extension approach offers a viable option for tackling this development challenge. Model results showed that unlike the conventional approach, the new extension approach was effective in creating better access to seeds of the improved varieties and positively influencing farmers’ perceptions, ultimately leading to favorable adoption decisions. Therefore, the new extension approach proved to be potent in strengthening the extension and seed distribution systems that are often weak links in the research-to-development continuum. The policy implications of these results are that developing world agricultural extension needs to be reoriented more towards enhancing farmer-to-farmer information and seed exchange. Moreover, building the capacity of forerunner farmers for acquiring and processing up-to-date information and knowledge about the improved technologies should be central in developing world extension strategy. By so doing, the desired outcomes in terms of wider adoption and diffusion of improved agricultural technologies could be achieved

  430. Innovation Platform, Farmers’ Organizations, and Market to Empower Small Farmers Benefit from an Autochthonous Meat Sheep Value Chain Under Low Input Production Systems

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe farming systems in Zoghmar community at Sidi Bouzid site; 2) analyze the existing lamb production chain and 3) develop potential technical and organizational pathways to better respond to farmers and consumers needs. A total of 120 surveys was conducted in Sidi Bouzid region including sheep owners, butchers and consumers. The project initiated the formation of a farmers association at Zoghmar community to establish a transparent lamb production chain. The association was taken as a framework to rehabilitate the rangeland with the cooperation of the Ministry of agriculture (OEP-CRDA). More coordination is now put on place to bring all stakeholders together in a lamb value chain concept (lamb production-Allouch Sidi Bouzid label and market)

  431. Using participatory rural appraisal to investigate food production, nutrition and safety in the Tanzanian dairy value chain

    This study was part of a larger project that applied an integrated framework for combined nutritional, food safety and value chain analysis to assess the dairy value chain in two regions of Tanzania, namely Morogoro and Tanga. Here, we report on the use of participatory rural appraisals (PRAs) with producers and consumers to investigate seasonality, constraints and opportunities in cow milk production and consumption in ten villages in Tanzania and describe attitudes and practices surrounding milk quality and safety. The PRAs allowed identifying strong seasonal milk production and consumption practices reflecting rainfall patterns and a dependence on the natural environment. A wide range of production constraints were described by producers including insufficient technical know-how, poor quality breeds, cattle diseases, lack of capital, feed, water and reliable markets. While milk availability had a strong influence on milk consumption, findings showed that there are a range of other factors such as the consistency of milk, purchasing power and the availability of other foods which also influence consumer choice

  432. A framework for coupling a participatory approach and life cycle assessment for public decision-making in rural territory management

    The aim of this paper is to propose an innovative operational framework that couples life cycle assessment (LCA) and a participatory approach to overcome these issues. The first step was to conduct a progressive participatory diagnosis of the socio-ecological structure of the rural territory and to characterise the main cropping systems. The results of the diagnosis and other data were progressively triangulated, validated and consolidated with the stakeholders at the territorial level. The paper discusses the quality and validity of data obtained using a participatory approach. To improve the appropriation of results by stakeholders, the LCA method was applied using a territorial approach to distinguish on-site and off-site activities as well as global and local impacts. The applicability of the framework was tested on a case study in a semi-arid region in central Tunisia

  433. Participatory innovation analysis along livestock value chains: Case of swine value chain in Benin

    The present rise of pork demand in Benin calls for an assessment of the swine value chain (VC) to envision its development. A participatory approach is here proposed to join this assessment to a stimulation of innovation among stakeholders. The approach is divided in four stages: i) identification of actors and direct links along the VC, ii) characterisation of innovation practices, iii) identification of bottlenecks and opportunities using innovation system framework, and iv) measurement of agreement among VC actors about constraints and value-added sharing, using proportional piling tool. A second survey, two full years after the first one, assessed the impact of actions conducted with VC actors. A typological analysis of innovation practices was conducted to define “innovation profiles” among each of the three main categories of actors: swine stockbreeders (n = 134), pork butchers (n = 45) and input suppliers (n = 25). Three innovation profiles were retained for each category, which may be understood as covering 2 distinct innovator profiles and one non-innovator profile

  434. A participatory and practical irrigation scheduling in semiarid areas: the case of Gumselassa irrigation scheme in Northern Ethiopia

    Local extension agents can benefit from the simple procedures in developing irrigation calendars for other irrigated crops. This study gives important lesson for local and regional decision makers, on their endeavour to increase the productivity of small scale irrigated agriculture. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the study area, practical irrigation schedule development method, alternative irrigation schedules and data collection and analysis methods. Section 3 presents the results. In this section results of the alternative irrigation schedules which included depth of the applied water, yield and yield components, soil salinity and local opinions are presented. Section 4  discusses the results. Section 5 draws conclusions on the main findings of the study and presents policy implications.

  435. Participatory agroecological research on climate change adaptation improves smallholder farmer household food security and dietary diversity in Malawi

    This study examines whether agroecological farming practices, when employed by highly vulnerable households in sub-Saharan Africa, can improve food security and dietary diversity. The research involved a four-year study with 425 smallholder households, selected purposively based on high levels of food insecurity and/or positive HIV status. The households carried out agroecological experiments of their own choosing over a four-year period. Baseline (n = 306) and follow-up (n = 352) surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 respectively to assess changes in farming practices, food security, crop diversity and dietary diversity. Longitudinal mixed effects models were used with 203 matched households to estimate determinants of change in food security and dietary diversity at the population level. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were also conducted to provide depth to the survey findings. The findings show that participatory agroecology experimentation increased intercropping, legume diversification and the addition of compost, manure and crop residue amendments to the soil. Intercropping was associated with food security and the use of organic soil amendments was associated with gains in dietary diversity in bivariate analysis

  436. Enabling environment for PPPs in agricultural extension projects: Policy imperatives for impact

    Most of the world's agricultural extension services are funded and delivered by the public sector with the private sector contributing approximately 5%. The low private sector engagement in provision of agricultural extension may be attributed to poor enabling environment, which has deterred rather than encouraged private sector investment. Debates on engaging private sector in agricultural extension argue that private investment in extension is bound to generate agricultural productivity. Consequently, PPPs in agriculture are considered to be drivers for modernization of the sector. However, the promotion of PPPs for agricultural development to-date has placed limited emphasis on the enabling environment which supports the formation and implementation of these partnerships. This article adopts an exploratory research design and used a qualitative approach backed by document review and semi-structured interviews to collect data. This article presents a sector diagnosis of the policy, legal and regulatory frameworks for PPP in agricultural extension in Uganda

  437. Household-specific targeting of agricultural advice via mobile phones: Feasibility of a minimum data approach for smallholder context

    The objective of the study was to identify a viable trade-off between low data requirements and useful household-specific prioritizations of advisory messages. At three sites in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania independently, we collected experimental preference rankings from smallholder farmers for receiving information about different agricultural and livelihood practices. At each site, was identified socio-economic household variables that improved model-based predictions of individual farmers’ information preferences. The study used the models to predict household-specific rankings of information options based on 2–4 variables, requiring the farmer to answer between 5 and 10 questions through an ICT interface

  438. Rapid transformation of food systems in developing regions: Highlighting the role of agricultural research & innovations

    Developing regions' food system has transformed rapidly in the past several decades. The food system is the dendritic cluster of R&D value chains, and the value chains linking input suppliers to farmers, and farmers upstream to wholesalers and processors midstream, to retailers then consumers downstream. This study analyze the transformation in terms of these value chains' structure and conduct, and the effects of changes in those on its performance in terms of impacts on consumers and farmers, as well as the efficiency of and waste in the overall chain. We highlight the role of, and implications for agricultural research, viewed broadly as farm technology as well as research pertaining to all aspects of input and output value chain

  439. Adapting to changing climate through improving adaptive capacity at the local level – The case of smallholder horticultural producers in Ghana

    This study examined the trend in climate in Ghana, how smallholder horticultural farmers perceive this changing climate and how they are responding to its perceived effects. A survey of 480 resource-constrained horticultural producers was conducted in two municipalities of Ghana. Descriptive analysis and Weighted Average Index were employed to rank identified adaptation strategies and challenges. The results showed that farmers are already experiencing increasing temperature and declining rainfall patterns consistent with trends of observed climate changing in the last two decades. To reduce vulnerability and improve resilience of smallholders’ production activities, a range of farmer driven soil, water and crop conservation measures and farm management practices are being adopted. The most important adaptation practices identified include fertilization, supplementary irrigation, crop rotation, intercropping and mixed farming. Enhancing households’ climate adaptive capacity is dependent on factors such as improved access to financial resources, climate and production information, market accessibility, farm equipment, storage facilities and other institutional support. To facilitate effective and successful adaptation at the local level, government and institutional support are recommended to complement households’ autonomous strategies for improved decision-making, adaptation plans and actions

  440. Effective scaling of climate smart agriculture innovations in African smallholder agriculture: A review of approaches, policy and institutional strategy needs

    This study aims to contribute to literature on climate smart agriculture (CSA)  scaling by identifying institutional and policy strategies that can help effect scaling of CSA practices in developing regions particularly SSA region. Increased adoption rates are more likely to enhance the overall impact of CSA innovations on productivity, food security, livelihoods and overall sustainability of agriculture. Furthermore, the study seeks to highlight and suggest possible approaches/strategies that the research and development community can adopt in taking CSA to scale. In the process, the review also aims to draw lessons on some of the key factors that can ensure success and sustainability of CSA scaling efforts in the Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) region

  441. Determinants of the involvement of extension agents in disseminating climate smart agricultural initiatives: Implication for scaling up

    Globally, the role of extension agents in scaling up the utilization of Climate Smart Agricultural Initiatives (CSAI) by farmers remains very crucial. This study examined the determinants of the involvement of extension agents in the dissemination of CSAI to farmers. A two-staged random sampling technique was used to elicit information from 277 extension agents in South West Nigeria using a structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using frequency counts, percentage and linear regression analysis

  442. Interceding role of institutional extension services on the livelihood impacts of drought tolerant maize technology adoption in Zimbabwe

    This study, evaluates the intervening influence of extension services on livelihood impacts of drought tolerant maize adoption and the potential mechanisms through which extension can enhance or reduce impact of drought tolerant maize using cross-sectional household level data from smallholder maize producers in Zimbabwe. Specifically, we examine whether access to agriculture extension services influences the relationship between livelihood outcomes and the adoption of drought-tolerant maize varieties in selected districts in the country

  443. Farmers' preferences for high-input agriculture supported by site-specific extension services: Evidence from a choice experiment in Nigeria

    In this paper, was analyzed farmers' preferences for high-input maize production supported by site-specific nutrient management recommendations provided by an ICT-based extension tool that is being developed for extension services in the maize belt of Nigeria. Was used a choice experiment to provide ex-ante insights on the adoption potentials of site-specific extension services from the perspective of farmers. We control for attribute non-attendance and account for class as well as scale heterogeneity in preferences using different models, and find robust results. Was found that farmers have strong preferences to switch from general to ICT-enabled site-specific soil fertility management recommendations which lend credence to the inclusion of digital technologies in agricultural extension

  444. GeoFarmer: A monitoring and feedback system for agricultural development projects

    In this paper, is first described the design and development process of a modular ICT application system called GeoFarmer. Geofarmer was designed to provide a means by which farmers can communicate their experiences, both positive and negative, with each other and with experts and consequently better manage their crops and farms. We designed GeoFarmer in a collaborative, incremental and iterative process in which user needs and preferences were paramount. The aim was to get a customizable system for near real-time data flows between system users, i.e., experts to farmers, which could support processes of co-innovation and usage of GeoFarmer for citizen (farmer) science projects. Was described the iterative development process based on our experiences with GeoFarmer in five projects within four geographical domains in Tanzania, Uganda, Colombia, and Ghana

  445. Impact of outsourced agricultural extension program on smallholder farmers’ net farm income in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    This paper examines the determinants of participation in an outsourced extension programs and its impact of smallholder farmers' net farm income in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to obtain cross-sectional farm-level data from a sample of 300 farm households, using a structured questionnaire for the interview. The determinants and impacts of participation were estimated using the propensity score matching (PSM) to account for sample selection bias. The results show that participation in an outsourced extension program is influenced by age, education, membership of a farmers’ group, and off-farm income, farm size, awareness, trust and participation incentives

  446. A comparative analysis of governance and leadership in agricultural development policy networks

    This paper comparatively analyzes the structure of agricultural policy development networks that connect organizations working on agricultural development, climate change and food security in fourteen smallholder farming communities across East Africa, West Africa and South Asia. This paper focuses on the following key objectives: 1) assess the extent to which empirical agricultural development policy networks vary in structure in relation to the modes of network governance theoretical framework; 2) explore which types of organizational actors hold specific network leadership positions; and 3) understand the role INGOs play in the coordination of agricultural development policy networks 

  447. The participatory market chain approach: Stimulating innovations along the indigenous African leafy vegetables market chain

    The Participatory Market Chain Approach (PMCA), which aims to stimulate gender-responsive innovations in commodity chains, was used to improve the performance of ALVs market chains in central Uganda. This paper presents the results of applying the PMCA in a phased manner on the Indigenous African Leafy Vegetables (ALVs) commodity chain in the context of a collaborative research project implemented in central Uganda

  448. Factors influencing the intensity of use of ICT tools by youth along agricultural value chains: Evidence from Busia County, Kenya

    This study analyzed the determinants of ICT usage in agricultural value chains among rural youth in Busia County, Kenya. A total of 213 young farmers were randomly selected and interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression model were applied in data analysis. Findings showed youth participation using ICTs was concentrated at the marketing level of the agricultural chain activities. Age, marital status, transport cost, distance to market, land size and extension services were significant in explaining the intensity of use of ICTs for agriculture

  449. Bridging research and policy: evidence based indicators on agricultural value chains to inform decision-makers on inclusiveness and sustainability

    The objective of this paper is to show how Value Chain Analysis for Development (VCA4D) applied sustainable development concept for value chain analysis to establish a manageable set of criteria allowing to provide quantitative information, which is desperately lacking in many situations in developing economies, usable by decision makers and in line with policymakers concerns and strategies (the “international development agenda”). The use of researchers to perform the analysis, contributes to the reinforcement of the linkages and mutual understanding between researchers and policy makers

  450. Opportunities to Enhance the Competitiveness of Malawi’s Tea Industry: Evidence from an Analysis of the Tea Value Chain

    This work aims to understand the opportunities to enhance the Malawi's tea industry. Using value chain analysis, this study sought to address two key questions relevant to Malawi’s tea industry and the county’s policymakers:Given the constraints the industry faces, can the Tea industry in Malawi improve its competitiveness in the global tea market? and What are the opportunities and threats to the expansion of the Tea industry in Malawi?

  451. Competitiveness in the Cash Crop Sector: The Case of the Cameroonian Cocoa Industry Value Chain

    This paper aims at analysing the competitive performance of a very tradeable global commodity and the main export crop of Cameroon from 1961 to 2013 through the application of a step-wise analytical framework accommodating aspects of agri-value chain analysis. This conventional analysis was expanded to include value chain comparisons between various valueadding processes in the Cameroonian cocoa value chain as well as consensus vs. variations in opinions of different actors within the cocoa industry regarding the factors influencing the industry’s competitive performance from the application of the Porter Diamond model. Information from chain actors through the cocoa executive survey (CES) was used to further expand the framework and analyse the relationship between the various factors affecting the industry’s performance i.e. identify factors which are interrelated in influencing the industry and those that show a degree of independence

  452. Generating employment and increasing income in agricultural value chains and thereby fostering food security: Case studies of rice and cotton in Benin and Senegal

    In this paper, was used a case study approach to investigate the patterns of employment and income generation in cotton and rice value chains in Senegal and Benin. The purpose of the paper is to provide a comprehensive description of both value chains in both countries, emphasizing export potential and innovation entry points with the goal of assessing capacity to generate income, create jobs, and bring about food security. To this end, was combined quantitative and qualitative data to identify direct and indirect value chains’ effects on employment and income, paying special attention to vulnerable groups such as youth, women, and informal employees. Surveys data as well as Social Accounting Matrix, have been used to assess the effects of these value chains on employment and income. Our results show strong relationships between value chains and jobs and income patterns

  453. Bridging gender gaps through innovations in agricultural value chains in Africa

    This paper examines innovations for bridging gender gaps in agricultural value chains in Africa. It focuses on innovative platforms for addressing gender gaps, considering women contribute up to 40 percent of labor in agricultural production. Women remain at the bottom of value chains and face gender-specific constraints attributable to gender and social norms, discriminatory beliefs and practices, gender-blind designs and delivery of technologies and innovations which impede women s participation in value chains. Consequently, women are unable to adjust to challenges and opportunities of technological progress, commercial orientation, and global integration

  454. The Rapid Transformation of the Fish Value Chain in Nigeria: Evidence from Kebbi State

    This study presents the results from a meso-inventory conducted in Kebbi State, Northern Nigeria between March and July 2018. Was explored the extent to which the farmed-fish value chain is transforming structurally and the roles of capture fishing versus farmed fish. Kebbi is one of Nigeria’s leading states for fish production. Though largely Sudan Savanna (in the north) and Northern Guinea savanna (in the south), and thus semi-arid tropics, there is still a lot of water and a lot of fish. Kebbi’s role in fish production stems from the presence of the longest river in West Africa (River Niger) in the State. River Niger traverses about 374 km within the state

  455. The transformation of value chains in Africa: Evidence from the first large survey of maize traders in Nigeria

    This brief summarizes a report on the first large survey of maize traders in Nigeria in the past several decades. The sample of about 1400 traders covered one state in the South and four in the North, with traders in city wholesale markets in the North (Jos, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina) and South (Ibadan) and regional markets in secondary cities in the North. These urban traders source maize from farms and other traders, and assemble, bulk, and transport or buy transport services. Was administered formal questionnaires to traders individually, and surveyed assets and behavior in 2016 and 2011; five years before

  456. Women in African Agriculture: Integrating Women into Value Chains to Build a Stronger Sector

    The first section of this paper outlines the effect of gender norms on the productivity and incomes of women in the agricultural sectors of various African countries. The main challenges faced by women in value chains are outlined, including limited land rights, lower education levels and lower financial inclusion, as well as traditional division of labour in the household. These constraints are examined in turn, and their implications in terms of agricultural productivity and earnings are discussed. In the second section, the status of women in value chains is expanded upon, with examples of how gender norms concretely result in systematic marginalization of women in value chains, their concentration in different activities, and the types of technology they adopt. The third and final section discusses the importance of applying a gendered-lens when developing and implementing technological and institutional innovations. Using examples of recorded initiatives, it makes recommendations on how to close the productivity and earning gender gap, and on how to deliver agricultural interventions that will reach women.

  457. Natural Rubber value chains: A game changer for smallholders

    The study analyzed the value chain of natural rubber in Nigeria. The study specifically mapped the natural rubber value chain and identify the functions performed by the respondents in the chain; identified the existing marketing channels and estimated the marketing margin at each value addition point. Data for the study were collected using a well-structured questionnaire administered to 425 respondents selected using a two–stage sampling process involving random and purposive sampling techniques

  458. Transmission in the Beef Value Chain – The Case of Bloemfontein, South Africa

    This study examines the price transmission mechanisms in the Bloemfontein beef market using the producer price and retail prices at four retail outlets collected over a period of 3 years. It further estimates the causality links between the producer and retail prices. The traditional (Engle-Granger) and standardized (Enders & Siklos) Augmented Dickey- Fuller procedures were used to test for co-integration and asymmetry in price transmission

  459. Price Seasonality in the Catfish Value Chain in Uganda

    Seasonal patterns in production and demand are common in many agricultural markets. Charting these patterns provides information that complements fundamental and technical analyses. It is in this spirit that this paper seeks to examine price seasonality in the catfish value chain in Uganda. The analysis draws on monthly prices taken from secondary source recorded data and uses moving average index to chart price patterns

  460. Improving milk value chains through solar milk cooling

    This report is a summary of the several activities pursued within the Program of Accompanying Research for Agricultural Innovation (PARI) to contribute to sustainable agricultural growth, food and nutrition security in Africa and India. The Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Tropics and Subtropics worked in the identification of technological innovations and further intervention in the dairy value chain, offering a potential solution for cooling milk from the earliest stage of milk production and
    aiming at the reduction of milk spoilage. The Social and Institutional Change in Agricultural Development institute worked in the socioeconomic assessment of the technology. The case studies presented are for Tunisia and Kenya. Preliminary introduction of the technology took place in Tunisia before the commencement of the PARI project. The lessons learned in the introduction of the solar milk cooling technology in Tunisia and the improvements within the PARI project, along the intervention in the value chain in Tunisia, were transferred to Kenya. The protocol involves the documentation of the state-of-the-art milk production, followed by the introduction of
    the technology, the adaptation and adoption by the farmers

  461. An analysis of Malawi’s pigeon pea value chain

    The study began with a review of literature on Malawi’s pigeon pea sector. Specifically, the literature review examined secondary material on pigeon pea production, trade (international and export market) and consumption/demand in Malawi. The literature review also included a quick analysis of secondary data on pigeon pea to understand trends in production, productivity, marketing, pricing, processing and consumption/demand.

  462. Vocational Education and Training for Farmers and Other Actors in the Agri-Food Value Chain in Africa

    The study analyzes the current state of Agricultural Technical and Vocational Education and Training (ATVET) in Africa and presents its challenges and opportunities. A review of the ATVET in selected Sub-Saharan Africa countries shows that there are far too few training opportunities for young people and that often, the training offered does not match the needs of the private sector and of local administrations. ATVET trainings focus primarily on production skills and on producers themselves with
    too little practical training. ATVET needs to be adapted to the context of increasingly commercial and technical 21st century agricultural systems. We use the German dual ATVET system as a case study for best practices. The study concludes that an effective reform of ATVET in Africa would require policies and initiatives that tackle the general challenges as well as taking advantage of country-specific opportunities

  463. Measuring the fragility of agribusiness value chains: a case study of the South African lamb chain

    The paper specifically proposes a framework to detect and quantify non-linear consequences in response to progressively deteriorating chain fragility factors. The paper’s approach is a novel alternative to the traditional value chain ‘risk assessment’. Application of the framework to the South African lamb chain reveals that a number of specific factors, like quality and safety performance and cash flow position, have consistently high fragility scores throughout the chain while some factors are uniquely localized to a specific role-player or activity, which highlights the techno-economic uniqueness of individual activities in a chain

  464. Innovation development and transfer by Agricultural Development Agencies: a case study of cowpea IPM in Northern Ghana

    This paper draws on data collected during 12 months of fieldwork in Northern Ghana. The fieldwork researched two communities in two districts of Northern Ghana and three Agricultural Development Agencies (ADA); Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) and World Vision Ghana (WVG). Data collection was achieved through formal surveys, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observations. A total of 120 individual interviews were conducted for the formal survey guided by the questionnaire. Thirty individual questionnaire - 10 each - were administered to the three ADA-SARI, WVG, and MOFA. Again documentation of activities from the three ADA was gathered

  465. Models in innovation studies: a critical reflection based on comparison of four innovation processes in Benin

    in the context of the EU-funded JOLISAA (JOint Learning in Innovation Systems in African Agriculture) project, four local innovation processes involving smallholders in Benin were selected for in-depth assessment: innovation in hwedo agrofishing, integrated soil fertility management (ISFM), rice parboiling and soy value chains. Stakeholders directly involved in the innovation process were interviewed. As alternative to the currently challenged transfer-of-technology model of agricultural research and development (ARD) and in order to develop a framework for process monitoring, this paper presents underlying explanatory/analytical models derived out of lessons learnt from the four case studies, reflecting the main features of and the main drivers behind these innovation processes

  466. Multi-stakeholder innovation processes in African smallholder farming: key lessons and policy recommendations from Benin, Kenya and South Africa

    Within the context of the European-funded JOLISAA FP7 project (JOint Learning in Innovation Systems in African Agriculture), several agricultural innovation experiences focused on smallholders were assessed in Benin, Kenya and South Africa. Fifty-six cases were characterised through review of grey literature and interviews with resource persons according to a common analytical framework inspired by the innovation systems perspective. Of these, 13 were assessed in greater depth through semistructured interviews, focus-group discussions and multistakeholder workshops. The cases cover a wide diversity of experiences in terms of types, domains, scales, timelines, initiators of innovation and stakeholders involved

  467. Developing capacity for change of students and staff in Higher Education to enhance the potential of innovation in agriculture

    This paper presents the common framework on CD for AIS developed by TAP and points to the relevance of meta-learning and the importance of “functional capacities”, if higher education institutions and their graduates are to become active players in the agricultural innovation system. The Framework was developed through an inclusive, participatory and multi-stakeholders approach with contributions by TAP Partners, including FARA and the Global Conference on Higher Education and Research in Agriculture. The Common Framework consists of a conceptual background document, a synthesis paper and a guidance note on operationalization of the Framework. In January 2016, TAP partners approved this Common Framework which is now being applied in eight countries in Africa (4), Asia (2) and Central America (2) with support of the EU-funded Capacity Development for Agricultural Innovation Systems (CDAIS) project, jointly implemented by AGRINATURA and FAO in collaboration with local partners from 2015 to 2018

  468. Leadership Mechanisms Associated With Performance Of Coffee Innovation Platforms In Uganda

    This study sought to explain how leadership mechanisms enabled the actors in coffee innovation platforms to achieve their expectations. Data was collected through key informant interviews with 26 actors of the coffee steering committees; three focus group discussions of 19 participants and document review. Analysis was done using content and thematic analysis. The study found that selection of leaders, rules of engagement, incentives, organizational structures, personal attributes and distributed roles are critical but missing leadership facets which require due attention of the innovation intermediaries to build and sustain interactions and relationships in the Innovation Platforms

  469. Climate Change Effects on Crop Production in Yatta sub-County: Farmer Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies

    In Yatta sub-County, a semi-arid land, there is scanty information on the causes and effects of climate change, as well as agricultural adaptation strategies. This scanty information assessment of climate related risks, and decision making about appropriate adaptation measures. A survey was conducted in two wards of Yatta, Kenya, to identify opportunities for building farmer capacity in dealing with climate variability. A semistructured questionnaire was administered to 60 households randomly distributed in the two wards and data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS)

  470. The African Indigenous Vegetables Value Chain Governance in Kenya

    This study investigated how value chain governance influences farmer participation in vegetable markets and food security in Kenya. This study employed exploratory case study design to provide chain architecture, isolate primary actors, their roles, relations, constraints and opportunities for upgrading by smallholders. A mixed method approach involving a multistage sampling technique of 339 respondents was employed to bring to the surface insights on chain architecture, market margins and governance structures and their implications as regards upgrading trajectories for small-scale farmers in Kenya

  471. Identifying Priority Value Chains in Tanzania

    This paper uses a Rural Investment and Policy Analysis (RIAPA) model for the mainland Tanzania economy to identify the agricultural activities and value-chains whose expansion will be most effective at fostering economic development along four dimensions: generating economic growth in the agricultural-food sector of Tanzania; reducing national and rural poverty; generating employment; and improving nutrition by diversifying dietsThe results of scenarios run through the model suggests that there is no single value-chain that can achieve all of the policy objectives. Instead, a more balanced portfolio of value-chains would not only enhance agriculture’s future contribution to poverty reduction and economic growth, but also promote faster rural transformation and dietary diversification, both of which are needed to create job opportunities and improve nutrition outcomes over the longer-term

  472. Women’s vulnerability in bean value chain development at the Maendeleo innovation platform, Eastern DR

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vulnerabilities of women involved in a bean value chain development intervention at the Maendeloe Innovation Platform in Eastern DRC. Specifically, the paper first discusses the roles of women and men in the value chain, what production resources and benefits they access and control, the role of the IP as a vehicle for women’s empowerment, and identifies women’s gender needs. Secondly, the paper identifies women’s vulnerabilities, and the capacities that the IP could build on, to support their participation in bean value chain development

  473. Estimating causal effects of cassava based value-webs on smallholders’ welfare: a multivalued treatment approach

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the impact of value-webs as an innovation in agricultural production on welfare of cassava smallholders in Nigeria. The estimation procedure involved the alternative process of multivalued treatment models when treatment units have multiple values. The study thus extends previous impact studies which focused on estimating causal effects from binary treatment units. The treatment units were determined from the extent of utilization of cassava which informed the classification of households into value-web groups. Value-web is defined here as a measure of joint linkages of product chains within the cassava system. The determinants of the choice of utilization were also estimated

  474. Analysis of the Value Chains for Root and Tuber Crops in Malawi: The Case of Sweet Potatoes

    A value chain study on sweet potato was conducted in 11 districts of Malawi across all the three regions to analyze and identify bottlenecks and inherent opportunities for possible investments for upgrading and development of the value chain. The study applied both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect primary data from 94 farmers belonging to 7 farmer groups using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), 14 traders and 16 key informants comprising policy makers, NGO representatives and scientists from both local and international research institutions. The data was collected in 11 districts: Mzimba and Nkhata Bay, in the Northern Region; Nkhotakota, Ntchisi, Lilongwe, Dedza, and Ntcheu in the Central Region and Zomba, Blantyre and Mulanje in the Southern Region in February to March 2017. Applying the value chain approach, the study used several analytical techniques that include Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis, profitability analysis at various stages along the chain and input (seed) demand analysis

  475. Institutional innovation and pro-poor agricultural growth: cannabis cultivation in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa as fertile opportunity

    This paper published in the 56th Annual Conference of The Agriculture Economics Association of South Africa, describes the opportunities of innovation bringed by the new global cannabis marketing, especially in Lesotho and aims to fill the gap of focused social scientific research on the potential of cannabis cultivation to promote inclusive growth creating conditions of improved social justice and economic emancipation

  476. Honey Bee Network in Africa: Co-creating a Grassroots Innovation Ecosystem in Africa

    This paper presents a case study of the Honey Bee Network’s decentralized model for collecting, verifying and disseminating grassroots innovations and provides a roadmap for its replication in Africa. The Honey Bee Network brings together governmental and non‐governmental institutions, members of academia, scholars and a large number of volunteers. Through the Network’s activities, locally-designed solutions and traditional knowledge with the potential to be refined and scaled up are scouted and members of the Network work with the innovators to help their ideas reach their commercial or non‐commercial potential. The Network has been involved in the sharing of grassroots technology developed in India with Kenya, notably a food processing machine, seed sowing device, and a small tractor. Through these pilot programs, actors at the grassroots had a chance to collaborate and co‐design solutions adapted to the Kenyan context. This experience revealed a willingness in Kenya to further invest in grassroots innovation initiatives, and Network members identified many conditions that would make Kenya the right choice for an African network hub, such as a rich traditional knowledge system and institutional willingness and recognition of the dynamism of the informal sector

  477. Formation of effective multi-stakeholder Platforms: Lessons from coffee innovation platforms in Uganda

    This study sought to examine the gaps and draw lessons for effective Innovation platforms (IPs) formation using the case of the coffee IPs in the four districts of Luwero, Ntungamo, Bushenyi and Rakai in Uganda. Data were collected through key informant interviews with 32 actors of the coffee steering committees and from document review. Qualitative data analysis was conducted using content and thematic analysis

  478. Yield effects of selected agronomic innovation packages in maize cropping systems of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    The main goal of the study is to quantify the effects of a) change in nitrogen fertilization rate, b) adjustment of sowing date, c) implementation of new cultivars, and d) supplementary irrigation on maize cropping systems across six African countries including Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Malawi, Ethiopia and Burkina Faso. For this purpose, 30 years (1980-2010) of climate data are used as well as soil and management information obtained from global datasets at 0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution. The nitrogen and cultivar packages were tested for all six countries whereas the changes in sowing dates (Ghana and Malawi) and the irrigation (Ethiopia) package were used in specific countries only. The crop modelling framework SIMPLACE was used to test the effects of innovation packages at the country level

  479. Improving coffee sector Climate-Smart Awareness and decision-making

    This report describes the work carried out by Institute of International Agriculture (IITA) and Olam in the Mt. Elgon region in Uganda to develop climate-smart agricultural (CSA) practices to help farmers to manage the specific effects of weather variability/climate change to that region and lay them out in a “Stepwise” pathway tailored to specific farmer segments to help them make smarter and more timely investment in resilience building practices. Olam, a coffee trader in Uganda, offering direct services to its farmers, sees the project value in its ability to save costs in the short-term while building farmer climate resilience in the long-term, all the while creating a more sustainable supply

  480. Enhancing partnership among Africa RISING, NAFAKA and TUBORESHE CHAKULA - Programs for fast tracking delivery and scaling of agricultural technologies in Tanzania: Annual Report

    This report describes the activities carried out by the Africa RISING-NAFAKA parnership. The Africa RISING-NAFAKA partnership project focuses on the delivery and scaling of promising interventions that enhance agricultural productivity in Tanzania. The key interventions are the promotion of climate-smart agricultural innovations, dissemination of best-bet crop management packages, rehabilitation and protection of natural resources, and reduction of food waste and spoilage. The project focus is on three crop enterprises—maize, rice, and legumes (common bean, chickpea, cowpea, and green gram)—with nutrition and postharvest handling as cross-cutting themes. The key partners in the project include one USAID-funded project under the Feed the Future (FtF) Initiative in Tanzania—CMSD/NAFAKA, National Agricultural Research Institutions (Dakawa, Hombolo, and Uyole), District Councils, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), as well as the private sector (agro-input companies, millers, and processors)

  481. Understanding gender roles and practices in innovation processes: A case study of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) disease management in Burundi

    This poster describes a research experience carried out in Burundi that investigate the influency of the gender roles in the management of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) disease

  482. Innovation platform and governance of local rice value chains in Benin: Between game of power and internal democracy?

    This article used thematic content analysis to assess the influence of IPs on the governance of the parboiled rice value chain. The findings reveal that local rice value chains are characterized by unequal access to resources and asymmetry of power, which generates inequalities within groups. Although their influence is less discernible, IPs have contributed to greater visibility for some emerging stakeholders and rebalanced stakeholders in terms of influence in value chains

  483. Gender and innovation for climate-smart agriculture. Assessment of gender-responsiveness of RAN's agricultural-focused innovations

    This report conducted a gender assessment exercise to evaluate if the current solutions/innovations are gender responsive or not. Three innovations were selected that are primarily focused towards Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) and that had affordability and ease of use as key objectives. The gender assessment embraced a qualitative research approach. This choice was guided by the need to appreciate respondents’ understanding and experiences or perceptions of the different innovations that RAN has been nurturing and developing over the years

  484. ICTs for conservation agriculture: influence of actor positioning in knowledge networks in Laikipia and Machakos counties, Kenya

    The aim of this paper was to elucidate the positioning of actors in the CA knowledge network and how this influences use of ICTs; Analyse the institutional relationships influencing use of knowledge channels and examine the socio-economic factors determining the use of ICTs. The study is based on the following hypotheses: (i) institutions with more linkages and networks positively influenve diffusion and knowledge, (ii) actors in central positions exhibit a positive association with a variety of knowledge channels, and (iii) socio-economic factors are positively associated with age, gender, education, land size and choice of knowledge channels

  485. Innovation platforms for solving marketing inefficiencies [Tanzania]

    This article describes the creation of an innovation platform in Masalala, north-western Tanzania, in order to improve smallholder paddy production and reduce inefficiencies in access to inputs and credit. Other value chains actors, including millers and buyers, have also benefitted from an improved supply of better quality paddy

  486. Empowering women in integrated crop-livestock farming through innovation platforms: Experience in semi-arid Zimbabwe

    This brief proposes to donors, government and research partners that engaging women through innovation platforms (IPs) in the inclusive processes of technology and market development can accelerate transitions towards greater sustainability, food security, nutrition, education and health

  487. Bridging technology adoption gaps in livestock sector in Ethiopia: A innovation system perspective

    This paper assesses the role of economic, social, political and organizational processes on technology adoption in smallholder livestock production systems based on innovation systems perspective. Functions of the innovation systems framework was used to assess the missing links in the dairy sector value chains

  488. Perspectives on innovation adoption (Poultry)

    This presentations describes the Perspectives on innovation adoption in Poutry systems. Was presented at he Technology for African Agricultural Transformation (TAAT) poultry value chain inception meeting, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 21 June 2018. Nairobi, Kenya. It is divided in: Diverse Innovations in Livestock Value Chains, Innovation adoption Theory, Approaches to adoption and Conclusions

  489. Capitalizing on incentives: Training and certification of dairy traders as a pathway to better milk, health and nutrition

    This poster resumes the investigation of long-term effects and potential of a training and certification scheme launched in 2006 to address milk food safety concerns in the informal dairy markets and offer a route for the gradual legitimization of informal dairy actors. The scheme offered training on hygienic practices, quality testing and business skills and facilitated access to a government license, and was designed to scale up and be selfsustaining. The study explored the dairy traders’ experience with the scheme, their perceptions of the training relevance and perceived benefits of and constraints to their success with the aim of identifying routes that will impact health and nutrition. It also explored the gender differential impact and experience and identified the opportunities and constraints to sustainability. Were conducted eight gender-disaggregated focus group discussions with trained and untrained traders operating in the informal sector in two urban areas in Kenya: Kisumu and Eldoret

  490. Training Workshop and Capacity Building on Proven Livestock Technology in Eastern Africa

    This presentation was presented in Addis Ababa (Kenya) and discuss about the initiatives carried out by FAO, CGIAR, Technologies for African Agricultural Transformation (TAAT) and the ILRI in order enhance the capacity development for agriculture on proven Livestock Technology in Eastern Africa

  491. Capacity development for a policy network in Kenya

    This presentation was prepared for the "Training Workshop: Research to Inform Agricultural and Food Security Policy and Practice in Kenya" realized during 19-21 February 2018, and presents the efforts carried out by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) to enhance capacity development in Kenya

  492. Making connections, enabling innovation—Capacity development: strengthening institutions, skills and knowledge

    This poster shows the ILRI and CGIAR activities to enhance Capacity development in the year of 2018

  493. Determinants of farmer participation in direct marketing channels: A case study for cassava in the Oyo State of Nigeria

    This study focused on analysing the determinants of farmer participation in direct marketing channels using the case of the cassava sector in the Oyo State of Nigeria. The Bivariate Tobit model was applied in the empirical analysis, based on a primary dataset generated from 400 rural cassava farmers from the Oyo State of Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to analyse the effects of the determinants of farmer decision to either participate in the processor or middlemen marketing channels in the Oyo State of Nigeria. An empirical study on rural farmers’ participation in the cassava marketing channels is relevant because the cassava sector in the Oyo State of Nigeria provides numerous employment opportunities to rural farmers and other actors. The cassava processing sector in Oyo State is rapidly expanding, and it requires a constant supply of cassava output. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that farmers have access to this direct market to encourage them to increase their cassava outputs

  494. Impact assessment: Rural Development Support Programme in Guéra

    Thw IFAD-funded Programme d'Appui au Développement Rural dans le Guéra (PADER-G) project was implemented with the main objective of supporting poor rural households and smallholder farmers in Guéra, Chad to improve their food security and livelihoods. One specific aim of PADER-G, designed to manage risks of food shortage, was to improve cereal storage among smallholder farmers through the construction of community cereal banks (banque de céréales). This main element of the project was complemented with the establishment of community committees (Comité de gestion des banques de soudure – COGES) which were trained on effective management of the cereal banks. This report documents results of an ex post impact assessment of the cereal banks element of PADER-G. The impact assessment was conducted between November 2017 and September 2018 and employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods.

    The combination of qualitative and quantitative methods allow measuring impacts through the support of a narrative that both helps understand the meaning of results and yet it guides a more focused and cognizant IA design. The analysis of quantitative data collected from 2198 households (1066 beneficiaries and 1132 nonbeneficiaries) from 94 villages in 11 sous prefectures of Guéra was conducted by using a number of different approaches and propensity score matching methods which proved to provide robust estimates on the impacts of the PADER-G cereal banks intervention on several outcomes of interest, including food insecurity, resilience to drought and security shocks, dietary diversity, grain production (harvest), grain storage, post-harvest losses, and grain sales (market participation). Other areas of potential impact analyzed included social cohesions and women empowerment

  495. The African Agriculture Fund (AAF) Technical Assistance Facility (TAF): Impact brief

    The objective of TAF’s projects was either to strengthen companies’ core operations by delivering consulting expertise to enable them to grow, and hence contribute to food security through increased production and food availability, or to facilitate the implementation of new business models that extend their reach to poor consumers, producers or employees through ‘inclusive business’ initiatives

  496. Climate Adaptation in Rural Development (CARD) Assessment Tool

    The Climate Adaptation in Rural Development – Assessment Tool (CARD) is a platform to explore the effects of climate change on the yield of major crops. It is intended to support the quantitative integration of climate-related risks in agricultural and rural development investments and strategies, including economic and financial analyses (EFA).This tool provides data for 17 major crops in nearly all African countries. It is currently available for North Africa, West and Central Africa, and East and Southern Africa. All IFAD regions will be available in the course of 2019. CARD has been developed with funding from IFAD's Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP2).

  497. Impact assessment: PAPAFPA and PAPAC

    The Participatory Smallholder Agriculture and Artisanal Fisheries Development Programme (PAPAFPA) and the Smallholder Commercial Agriculture Project (PAPAC) are complementary projects designed to improve the livelihoods of smallholders in Sao Tomé and Príncipe. PAPAFPA, which has now closed, created farmers’ cooperatives to improve the development of organic cacao, coffee, and pepper value chains through increased commercialization in domestic and niche export markets 


  498. Investing in rural people in Guinea

    This brief describes the activities carried out by the International Fund for Agricultural Development  in order to erradicate poverty in Guinea. Describes the projects that aims to enhance the economical development of the family farms in the country and the IFAD's strategy for reaching this goal

  499. Investing in rural people in Guinea-Bissau

    This brief describes the activities carried out by the International Fund for Agricultural Development  in order to erradicate poverty in Guinea-Bissau. Describes the projects that aims to enhance the economical development in the country and the IFAD's strategy for reaching this goal

  500. Investing in rural people in The Gambia

    This brief describes the activities carried out by the International Fund for Agricultural Development  in order to erradicate poverty in The Gambia. Describes the projects that aims to enhance the agricultural innovation in the country and the IFAD's strategy for reaching this goal

  501. Fighting poverty with bamboo

    This brief describes the activies carried out by the project: South-South knowledge transfer strategies for scaling up pro-poor bamboo livelihoods, income generation and employment creation, and environmental management in Africa. The project, funded by the European Union and IFAD and implemented by the International Bamboo and Rattan Organisation (INBAR), targeted three countries – Ethiopia, Madagascar and Tanzania. This project aims to Contributing to higher productivity and incomes, it fully conformed to the strategy of the EU-IFAD agriculture research for development programme (AR4D). It built on valuable lessons learned, provided a framework for a corporate portfolio of agricultural research projects and contributed to projects in other IFAD regional divisions

  502. Harnessing smallholder potential for wheat production in Africa – reducing wheat import bills

    This brief describe the impact and success stories of the project: Enhancing Smallholder Wheat Productivity through Sustainable Intensification in Wheat-Based Farming Systems of Rwanda and Zambia (SWPSI). This project aims to beneficiate and bring innovations to Smallholder farmers producing wheat and those with the potential to produce wheat under rainfed conditions; local traders, processors and consumers

  503. Creating Markets in Angola : Opportunities for Development Through the Private Sector

    This Country Private Sector Diagnostic (CPSD) identifies opportunities to stimulate sustainable economic growth and development by harnessing the power of the private sector in Angola. Applying a sectoral lens, it leverages the private sector’s knowledge and experience to accelerate transformational investment. It also puts forward operational recommendations highlighting strategic entry points for diversification and growth, while addressing key constraints to private sector engagement. The CPSD discusses implementation principles inspired by international good practices. It informs World Bank and IFC strategies, paving the way for joint programming to create markets and unlock private sector potential.

  504. Republic of Mozambique Agrarian Sector Transformation : A Strategy for Expanding the Role of the Private Sector

    The Government of Mozambique is seeking to achieve its strategic objectives and targets for socio-economic and political development by intensifying the implementation of its five-year government plan (PQG). It is also taking preparatory steps for the next phase of its PQG, which coincide with the new government period following the national elections taking place in 2019. While the Government has a stated policy of promoting an expanded role for the private sector in all sectors of the economy, it has not yet articulated a comprehensive and integrated private sector strategy for the country overall, nor for any of the major sectors/subsectors. The Government therefore has been looking to bring in international experience and expertise to help formulate, implement and track a coherent private sector strategy that is attuned to the evolving institutional roles and arrangements that are influencing the direction and pace of private sector development, both domestically and abroad. Given the dominant role of the agrarian sector in Mozambique’s economy, and in providing work for the majority of its labor force (about 80 percent), any efforts to expand the role of the private sector are likely to have their greatest impact when applied to Mozambique’s agrarian sector, which is the focus of this report. It also addresses the challenge of encouraging the private sector to expand its role in transforming Mozambique’s agrarian sector into a more productive and competitive sector. 

  505. Country Economic Memorandum for Sao Tome and Principe - Background Note 10 : What are the Obstacles to Agricultural Development in STP? A Review of Current Agriculture Production Structure and Potentia

    This note presents an analysis of the obstacles and opportunities for STP’s agriculture value chains, assesses the main sector risks, and provides a series of public sector recommendations for increased private sector investment. While the country will remain a net importer of food and agricultural products for the foreseeable future, a series of opportunities exist, some to increase import-substitution, others to expand exports. Given STP’s land constraints and climate variability, importing food will continue to occur in the near to medium-term future to satisfy local demand. However, import-substitution opportunities will continue to offer prospects centered on the feedstuff-livestock chain and the horticultural sector, as well as some additional expansion of the palm oil industry. Export opportunities lie primarily in cocoa products as well as in emerging non-traditional agricultural exports, some strategically linked to tourism, especially eco-tourism already embraced by the government and by high end tourist developments established in the past few years. Analysis of the competitiveness of existing and emerging rural supply chains in STP reveals a series of characteristics that allow to overcome the structural diseconomies of scale of a small island state. These characteristics include among others: (i) high value-to-weight products, (ii) agricultural products that can be taken with tourists, (iii) low perishability and products that can be stored, (iv) climate change resilience; and (v) explore the country’s uniqueness. Value chains that possess some of these key characteristics discerned from the analysis offer private sector opportunities, provided the enabling environment allows them to reach their potential

  506. Linking Smallholders to Markets : A Supplier Development Program for Vegetable Farmers in Lesotho

    The objectives of this study are to: (1) assess the demand for vegetables from formal buyers in Lesotho; (2) examine the current production and marketing strategies of commercial vegetable farmers; and (3) suggest the design of the pilot supplier development program (SDP) to improve formal market access for smallholder farmers. The focus of this study is on Maseru, as it is the main center of demand in the country. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Part 1 describes the demand for fresh produce and sourcing strategies of buyers in Maseru. Part 2 discusses the production and marketing practices of commercial vegetable farmers. Part 3 outlines the design of the pilot SDP.

  507. Status of Agricultural Innovations, Innovation Platforms and Innovations Investment in Zambia

    This report is divided in three studies about the Agricultural Innovations, Innovation Platforms and Innovation Investiment in Zambia.

    Study 1 is the “situation analysis of agricultural innovations in the country” and provides succinct background on the spate of agricultural innovation in the last 30 years. It provides useable data on the different government, international and private sector agricultural research and development interventions and collates information on commodities of interest and technologies generated over the years. It also conducted an assessment of the different interventions so as to highlight lessons learnt from such interventions, with regard to brilliant successes and failures.

    Study 2 concerns a “scoping studies of existing agricultural innovation platforms in the country”. It carried out an identification of all the existing Innovation Platforms (IP) in the country, including identification of commodity focus, system configuration, and partnership model. The study provides an innovation summary for each IP for use in the electronic IP monitor platform. It further synthesises the lessons learnt from the agricultural IPs established through different initiatives in the country in the last ten years.

    Study 3 was an “Assessment of the national and international investment in agricultural innovation”. It is an exhaustive assessment of investments in innovation for agricultural development, food and nutrition security in the country. It collates updated data on investment levels in the past and present, including a projection for the next decade requirement to assure food and nutritional security in the country.

  508. Process and Results of the Farmer Innovation Contest Organised in Cameroon During 2017 by the Programme of Accompanying Research for Agricultural Innovation

    This report aims at narrating on the FIC activity organised in Cameroon during 2017, as per planned in the 2017 annual work plans and budgets (AWPB) of both the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) and the Cameroon Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), within the framework of the Programme of Accompanying Research for Agricultural Innovation (PARI). Indeed, in their 2017 AWPB, FARA and IRAD jointly endorsed the responsibility to organise a Bottom-up or Farmer Innovation Contest in Cameroon, and to deliver to the PARI – 1) a list with description of eligible innovations; 2) detailed information on winning innovations; and 3) compiled data from application forms. This report compiles all the FIC deliverables as per organised in Cameroon. The following section recalls how one may understand bottom-up or farmer innovation contest and the reasons for its organisation in the context of the PARI programme

  509. Status of Agricultural Innovations, Innovation Platforms and Innovations Investment in Cameroon

    This report is divided in three studies about the Agricultural Innovations, Innovation Platforms and Innovation Investiment in Cameroon.

    Study 1 is the “situation analysis of agricultural innovations in the country” and provides succinct background on the spate of agricultural innovation in the last 30 years. It provides useable data on the different government, international and private sector agricultural research and development interventions and collates information on commodities of interest and technologies generated over the years. It also conducted an assessment of the different interventions so as to highlight lessons learnt from such interventions, with regard to brilliant successes and failures.

    Study 2 concerns a “scoping studies of existing agricultural innovation platforms in the country”. It carried out an identification of all the existing Innovation Platforms (IP) in the country, including identification of commodity focus, system configuration, and partnership model. The study provides an innovation summary for each IP for use in the electronic IP monitor platform. It further synthesises the lessons learnt from the agricultural IPs established through different initiatives in the country in the last ten years.

    Study 3 was an “Assessment of the national and international investment in agricultural innovation”. It is an exhaustive assessment of investments in innovation for agricultural development, food and nutrition security in the country. It collates updated data on investment levels in the past and present, including a projection for the next decade requirement to assure food and nutritional security in the country.

  510. Documentation of Ten most Outstanding Innovations in Zambia

    This report describes eight relevant innovation projects caried out in Zambia. The mentioned studies are: 1)“Promotion of Pro-vitamin A (Orange) Maize for Improved Nutrition”: Market-share under the Farmer Input Support Programme during the 2015/16 Agricultural Season; 2)“Use of Solar-powered Drying Machine for Cassava”: impact in Senanga & Gwembe Districts; 3)“Use of Energy-saving Stove for Cooking (impact in Gwembe & Senanga Districts)”; 3)“Production and use of High quality Cassava Flour”; 4) “Production and Supply of Disease-free Cassava Planting Materials”; 5) “Production and Promotion of Yellow-fleshed Cassava”; 5)“Processing of Groundnut Shells into Bricks for Cooking”; 6) “Cook stove using Gliricidia cuttings”; 7)“Production and Supply of Disease-free Cassava Planting Materials”'; 8)“Cook stove using Gliricidia cuttings”

  511. Revitalization of Innovation Platforms in Togo : Rice, Soya, Tomato

    This report aims to improve the productivity of priority crops (maize, rice, cassava, market gardening, legumes, poultry and small ruminants), five innovation platforms (IPs) have been set up, one per region including PI rice, PI soyaa and PI tomato. In the process of implementing the revitalization of the rice, soya and tomato innovation platforms, two stages were chosen: the first concerns the information and awareness of the actors and the second, the actual platforms animation

  512. Proceedings of the Workshops on the Formation of Over-Arching Agricultural Innovation Platforms in Bungoma, Nakuru and Kwale Counties

    The workshop objectives were to harmonize understanding of what innovation platforms (InP) are, why they are necessary, why stakeholders should promote formation of County InPs and development of a tentative action plan for each county. The workshop participants comprised diverse county agricultural sector stakeholders in Bungoma and Nakuru and in Kwale including representatives from three national level institutions. After a presentation of the workshop overview and objectives, presentations on linear to Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS), theory and practice of InP followed which comprised InP phases, management and sustainability and innovation platform experiences. The presentations were followed by a question and answer session where questions were asked, and clarifications sought. A group breakout session was then held where participants discussed formation, resource mobilization and publicity of InPs, In Kwale four break out groups were formed based on dairy, horticulture, industrial crops and fisheries value chains

  513. Status of Agricultural Innovations, Innovation Platforms and Innovations Investment in Ethiopia

    This report is divided in 3 studies that acess the status of the agricultural innovation in Ethiopia. 

    Study 1 is the “situation analysis of agricultural innovations in the country” and provides succinct background on the spate of agricultural innovation in the last 30 years. It provides useable data on the different government, international and private sector agricultural research and development interventions and collates information on commodities of interest and technologies generated over the years. It also conducted an assessment of the different interventions so as to highlight lessons learnt from such interventions, with regard to brilliant successes and failures.

    Study 2 concerns a “scoping studies of existing agricultural innovation platforms in the country”. It carried out an identification of all the existing Innovation Platforms (IP) in the country, including identification of commodity focus, system configuration, and partnership model. The study provides an innovation summary for each IP for use in the electronic IP monitor platform. It further synthesises the lessons learnt from the agricultural IPs established through different initiatives in the country in the last ten years.

    Study 3 was an “Assessment of the national and international investment in agricultural innovation”. It is an exhaustive assessment of investments in innovation for agricultural development, food and nutrition security in the country. It collates updated data on investment levels in the past and present, including a projection for the next decade requirement to assure food and nutritional security in the country.

  514. Status of Agricultural Innovations, Innovation Platforms and Innovations Investment in Kenya

    This report is divided in 3 studies that acess the status of the agricultural innovation in Kenya. 

    Study 1 is the “situation analysis of agricultural innovations in the country” and provides succinct background on the spate of agricultural innovation in the last 30 years. It provides useable data on the different government, international and private sector agricultural research and development interventions and collates information on commodities of interest and technologies generated over the years. It also conducted an assessment of the different interventions so as to highlight lessons learnt from such interventions, with regard to brilliant successes and failures.

    Study 2 concerns a “scoping studies of existing agricultural innovation platforms in the country”. It carried out an identification of all the existing Innovation Platforms (IP) in the country, including identification of commodity focus, system configuration, and partnership model. The study provides an innovation summary for each IP for use in the electronic IP monitor platform. It further synthesises the lessons learnt from the agricultural IPs established through different initiatives in the country in the last ten years.

    Study 3 was an “Assessment of the national and international investment in agricultural innovation”. It is an exhaustive assessment of investments in innovation for agricultural development, food and nutrition security in the country. It collates updated data on investment levels in the past and present, including a projection for the next decade requirement to assure food and nutritional security in the country.

  515. Status of Agricultural Innovations, Innovation Platforms and Innovations Investment in Malawi

    In Malawi, FARA involved the Department of Agricultural Research Services (DARS) that engaged an external consultant to undertake the following studies: 1. A situation analysis of agricultural innovations; 2 Programme for Accompanying Research in Innovations (PARI); 2. A scoping study of existing agricultural innovation platforms; 3. A study on National and international investment initiatives on innovation for agricultural development and food and nutrition security.

    This study tries to answer the following questions: 1. What has been happening with agricultural innovations in Malawi? 2. Have innovations reached the intended users – women farmers, rural smallholders, etc? 3. Has there been any deliberate investment or policies to promote agricultural innovations? If not, why and if yes, in what contexts and how has Malawian agriculture profited from such investments – why do we still have food shortages?

  516. Status of Agricultural Innovations, Innovation Platforms and Innovations Investment in Nigeria

    This report aims to amalyse the situational analysis of Agricultural Innovation in Nigeria. Specifically, the situation analysis entailed: (i) an inventory of existing functional and promising agricultural innovations;(ii) a scoping study of existing agricultural innovation platforms in the country;(iii) an assessment of the state of national investment in agricultural innovation system in the country

  517. Small Scale Irrigation in Mali: Constraints and Opportunities

    The study is conducted in Sikasso, Koulikoro and Mopti regions on small scale irrigation systems for providing information and proposing solutions to decision makers. The expected outputs/outcomes of the project include: (i) Documentation of water resources available in Mali, (ii) identification of small scale irrigation technologies available in Mali, (iii) selection of technologies suitable for different regions in the country, (iv) Assessment of social and economic profitability of selected technologies

  518. Research Notes on Current Issues in Cameroon Agriculture

    This report compiles about 15 thematic research that generated series of information towards the delivery of innovation in crops, livestock and fisheries in Cameroon. The research subjects include, 1. The effect of different storage materials against the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) damage on beans grains in North-West Cameroon (Agroecological Zone III); 2. The assessment of the use and acceptability of biochar in Fako and Meme Divisions of the South West Region – Cameroon; 3. A Socioeconomic Evaluation of Cocoa Processing and Commercialization Innovation Value Chain In The Centre And South Regions Of Cameroon (Agroecological Zone V); 4. Needs assessment for innovations in the processing of Cassava into gari in the South West Region of Cameroon; 5. The effect of different storage materials against Sitophilus zeamais (weevil) damage on maize grains in South-West Cameroon (Agroecological Zone IV); 6. Comparing the Performance of a Locally-Made Seed Crushing/Extraction Machine with Manual Method of Seed Crushing/Extraction; 7. Chemical properties of components of “Njorku” (a biofertilizer with insecticidal properties); 8. Conservation of Onions in the Extreme North Region Of Cameroon; 9. Needs Assessment For Proliferation In Fragments (PIF) Of Plantain In Agro-Ecological Zone IV; 10. Current Research and Training Needs in The Processing And Packaging Of Potato In The Western Highlands Of Cameroon; 11. Assessment on the use of small machines by smallholder farmers in Agroecological Zone IV of Cameroon; 12. Intensification of pelleted feed from local Feed resources/ Agro-industrial by products for efficient and sustainable poultry production in major production zones (West, Center, & Northwest Regions) of Cameroon, and 13. An assessment of poultry processing in local markets in the South West and Centre Regions of Cameroon

  519. Study of Mechanized Agricultural Services Needs in the Rural Communities of Béréba and Koumbia in the Cotton-Growing Region of Western Burkina Faso

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the demand for mechanized agricultural services in the cotton-growing area of western Burkina Faso. This study seeks to: Identify the needs for mechanized agricultural services (type, significance); Determine the willingness of farmers to pay for the services; Propose a mechanism for developing local farm mechanization services. As a result the study aims to assess: The need for mechanized agricultural services (type, significance);The willingness of farmers to pay for the services; In the end a mechanism for developing local farm mechanization services is proposed and validated

  520. Socio-Economic Impact of the Multi-Stakeholder Milk Innovation Platform on Actors in Banfora: Status and Prospects

    This study will answer the following questions: (i) What is the socio-economic impact of the Banfora Milk Platform on actors in the milk value chain? (ii) What investments are needed to maximize the impact of the Banfora Milk Platform? The answers to these questions will help Innovation Platform actors to measure the socio-economic impact of their innovation and also to take steps to correct shortcomings in order to substantially improve the income of beneficiaries. This report is built around four main points. The first two deal with the methodological approach of the study and the functional organisation of IP stakeholder groups respectively. The third point analyses the socio-economic impact of IP on the actors of the links involved while the fourth point seeks to identify the levers of investment for improved Innovation Platforms performance

  521. Development and Analysis of the Rice Value Chain for the Hohoe and Jasikan Districts of the Volta Region, Ghana

    To establish an effective monitoring and evaluation system that would effectively measure progress towards achieving the project objectives and targets, different data collection methods including surveys, focus group discussions and participatory workshops were conducted. Data were collected to have an in-depth understanding of the constraints in the rice value chain and to identify intervention strategies for addressing the constraints through the value chain analysis approach. The study was conducted in the Volta Region because of several factors including promoting pro-poor marketing opportunities for enhancing income, productivity and livelihoods of the resource-poor value chain actors.
    The objectives of the study were to: a) provide baseline information that would justify the formation of Innovation Platforms (IPs) in the districts, provide the entry point for the IPs and information against which performance of the IPs could be evaluated; b) identify and understand the production and postharvest processes including marketing constraints and hindrances in the rice value chain; c) identify innovation opportunities along the value chain for research and investments to generate socio-economic benefits; d) conduct a value chain analysis to recognise which activities are the most valuable and which ones could be improved to provide competitive advantage; and e) provide a basis for comparison among the different rice-growing areas of Ghana as a means for advising policy makers in the provision of incentives and assistance to the actors in different areas

  522. Status, Challenges, and Prospects of Agricultural Mechanisation in Kenya: The Case of Rice and Banana Value Chains

    The study was conducted in Kirinyaga County on rice and bananas and in Kisumu County on rice. Was used qualitative and quantitative methods and interviewed 247 farmers comprising 182 rice and 60 banana farmers respectively. Ten key informant interviews were conducted in Ahero and nine in Mwea Rice Schemes and the surrounding areas. One focus group discussion was held with Mwea Jua Kali/Valley bottom farmers. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency analysis and cross tabulations. Descriptive and frequency analysis involved use of the sample mean, frequency, percentages and figures on demographic variables. Cross tabulations were used to compare the relationships between the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and mechanisation levels among different groups within each site and between different sites

  523. Factors Influencing Scaling-up of Agricultural Innovations: Lessons from Ghana

    This study aims at exploring scaling up factors that determine the successful up scaling or otherwise of agriculture innovations in Ghana. This is done through a case study approach by analysing selected agricultural innovations to determine the strategies used to scale up as well as factors that account for successes or failures of the scaling up. Findings from this study will provide useful inputs for researchers, governments, the private sector, donors, and other stakeholders to improve scaling up processes for innovations so as to maximise their socio-economic impacts on the wider population

  524. Impact of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies on Farm Yields and Income in Benin

    The objective of this study was to analyse the economic and environmental impacts of the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies on farm management in Benin. The data were collected from 371 producers. Descriptive statistics, pie charts and histograms were used to represent and characterise the different adaptation strategies depending on the climatic risks experienced on the farms surveyed. The flora analysis tool EX-ACT developed by FAO allowed to evaluate greenhouse gas at farm level depending on the adaptation strategies used. The econometric approach based on the calculation of the Marginal Treatment Effect (MTE) and the Ricardian approach were used to quantify the impact of using adaptation strategies on the revenues and the yields of the farms

  525. A Situational Analysis of Regional Investments, Policies, Legislation and Advocacy Efforts on Food-based Approaches to Combating Micronutrient Deficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa: Focus on Biofortification

    This situation analysis report provides a snapshot of the regional and subregional policies and frameworks that support biofortification and the organizations implementing various nutrition- sensitive initiatives. The report identifies some ongoing initiatives that are relevant to the The Building Nutritious Food Baskets (BNFB) Project mandate and that can be aligned to its activities to facilitate its starting up and scaling up. The report recommends the key actions necessary to facilitate increased investment in and scaling up of biofortified crops in sub-Saharan Africa. It also provides guidance on the broad strategic areas that could form the focus in the development of a regional advocacy strategy for the BNFB Project, and serve as the basis of a plan of work for biofortification advocacy champions for stimulating sustainable investments in the production and consumption of biofortified crops.

  526. Pathways for Improved Nutrition in Zambia: Lessons from Pro-Vitamin A rich Maize Innovation Platform

    This paper discusses the key components of the technical and institutional innovations developed to address this food and nutrition security concern in Zambia using locally bred varieties registered with the Seed Control and Certification Institute (SCCI). The institutional collaborations arising from this Innovation Platform has brought together various organizations/institutions in the innovation process and led to the capture of up to 5% of the market share. With Zambia being the only Country among its neighbours and other nearby countries in the Region, recording bumper maize harvest in subsequent Agricultural Season, surplus orange maize would be expected to disseminate further in the region

  527. Impact of the Integrated Agricultural Research for Development Guidelines on Smallholders’ Livelihoods in SSA CP Innovation Platforms

    The present study was commissioned to carry out an update of the “Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D)” with a view to evaluating the quantitative and qualitative impact of the several outcomes on stakeholders in the The sub-Saharan Africa Challenge Program (SSA CP). The present study is also to validate the hypotheses that the IAR4D (i) works (ii) delivers more benefits than the conventional R&D method and (iii) can be scaled out and up beyond the current area of operation. To achieve this validation, the study in general collected, analyzed and documented recent updates on SSA CP impact building on the 2012 proof of concept documentation.

  528. Innovation Opportunities in Organic Pineapple Production in Uganda

    This report aims to analyse the value chain of Organic Pinneaples in Uganda and to identify innovation opportunities in order to increase the market share of the product

  529. Innovation Opportunities in Sorghum Production in Uganda

    This report make an analysis of Sorghum value chain in Uganda. Based on that, innovation opportunities in Uganda that can influence expansion of sorghum Value Chain and enhance socio-economic gains of all the actors are identified. Some of the identified opportunities among others include increasing farm level production through enacting supportive policy and providing support to organizations in seed production and distribution, introduction of small scale sorghum processing, and increasing their capacity as well as that of the existing processing entities

  530. Innovation Opportunities in Milk Production in Rwanda

    The overall objective of this research was to undertake a rapid milk value chain analysis toward identifying innovation opportunitiesto boost the milk production in Rwanda. The identified opportunities include boosting milk production through improved cattle breeds and animal nutrition, introduction of small and medium scale processors, development of business hub models around MCCs, consumer sensitization and school programs to boost milk demand

  531. Documentation of Selected Outstanding Innovations in Nigeria

    This document ains to update the inventory of existing functional promising agricultural innovations in Nigeria. The salient results from this study are as follows: 116 technologies were identified nationally during the review period (2006-2014). The strongest or most frequent triggers of innovation include yield improvement, resistance to pests and diseases, wide ecological adaptation, high quality cassava flour, HQCF, shorter time to maturity, drought resistance, seed or grain colour, malting quality and grain weight or size. In general, some triggers are cross-cutting while several others are commodity specific

  532. Impact of Agricultural Innovation Platforms on Smallholder livelihoods in Eastern and Western Kenya

    The current study sought to analyse the livelihood impact of innovation platforms on small holders in the study areas based on the previous studies that identified successful Innovation Platforms in Eastern and Western Kenya. The study concentrated on four successful innovation platforms that were identified in a previous study In that study, fifteen innovation platforms were ranked based on a given criterion out of which the four innovation platforms were purposively chosen. The IPs included: Kakamega Focal Area Development Committee (FADC); Bungoma South Farmers Innovation Platform SIMLESA (BUSOFIPS); Nyeri Embaringo Commercial Village; and Embu QPM Innovation Platform

  533. Socio-Economic Analysis of Promising Innovations in Benin

    This document has as objectives characterizing the promising technological innovations developed for rice, soybean, small ruminant and poultry sectors.
    Specifically, this study made it possible to: Establish profiles of potential users of hopeful technologies; Produce the socio-economic characteristics needed by a potential user to decide whether or not to adopt technological innovation; Produce a technical and economic information of each technological innovation and produce a global report. It will make available to stakeholders in agricultural sector in general and those of extension in particular, a compilation of hopeful technological innovations for large-scale dissemination

  534. Marketing and Promotional Plan for Local Rice Based on Drivers of Traders and Consumers Preferences

    The study responds to the request by farmers in the Hohoe and Jasikan Rice Innovation Platforms, to identify traders and consumers’ rice preferences to enable them produce rice varieties that meet users’ demands. The study provided strategic guidelines for the development of a marketing and promotional plan for locally produced rice in Ghana. The report is structured as follows: Chapter one introduces the study including the study objectives, design and methodology. Chapter two presents findings of the market study with a focus on rice traders in Accra and Hohoe while Chapter three provides the findings of the consumer studies carried
    out in Accra and Hohoe. Chapter four presents the proposed marketing and promotional plan for locally produced rice as well as recommendations for improving the local rice value chain

  535. Agricultural Extension Service and Technology Adoption for Food and Nutrition Security: Evidence from Ethiopia

    The objective of this paper is twofold. First, using a three rounds panel data of 7110 households, was investigate the adoption decisions and the complementarities among the four labor-intensive technologies (agricultural extension service, irrigation, soil conservation and planting seeds in a row) and a comprehensive use of four modern inputs (improved seed variates, inorganic fertilizer, pesticides, organic fertilizer) which have been frequently adopted by smallholder farmers. Second, controlling for the dynamic effects of wealth, previous technology adoptions and other cofounders, were estimated the impact of agricultural extension services and other multiple technology adoptions on food and nutrition security of the smallholder farmers in Ethiopia

  536. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Innovative Technologies by Livestock Farmers in Arid Area of Tunisia

    The objectives of this study twofold (i) First to assess farmer's perceptions of IT and secondly (ii) to determine the major factors influencing farmer's adoption decisions. This study offers for policy makers important considerations that could stimulate and sustain adoption of these IT in Tunisian arid agricultural areas. The present study is based on the hypothesis that the farm adoption decision of farmers has no relationship with the type of technology

  537. Adoption of Technologies and Crop Productivity in Ethiopia: The Role of Agricultural Information

    The study is an attempt to identify the type and channels of acquiring agricultural information by farmers; and whether this information helps them in their decisions to adopt new and improved technologies, which can then be translated into higher yield.  A unique two-period panel data sets that come from surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 by the Central Statistical Agency in collaboration with Ethiopian Strategic Support Program were used to evaluate Agricultural Growth Program (AGP)

  538. Engagement of Policy Makers in Agricultural Innovation in Tunisia: Stories of Success and Failures

    The expected results of this report are the full understanding and identification of the frame that answers the following questions: To what level policymakers in Tunisia are committed? On what exact base the agricultural decisions, whether to support an innovation or not, are made? To answer these questions, interviews were made with key partners from public institutions on each success/failure case to identify the major strengths and weaknesses related to each agricultural innovation

  539. Engagement of Policy Makers in Agricultural Innovation Processes in Ghana: Cases of Fisheries and Livestock Commodities

    This study aims at inspiring the success of further agricultural innovation policies. Findings fromthis study will provide useful inputs for researchers, governments, the private sector, donors, and other stakeholders to improve policy-maker engagement processes for innovations to ensure appropriate development and dissemination of innovation and maximise their socioeconomic impacts on the wider population. The study focus in  the main topics: Improved soybean variety;Improved Technology for Tilapia;Formulated feed for growing tilapia in Ponds; Combined starter and finished diet for broilers of chicken

  540. A Comparative Study on the Determinants of the Level of Mechanization in Kenya: The Case of Rice and Banana Value Chains

    This report aims to o estimate the current use of machinery in rice and bananas value chains; To establish determinants of mechanization in rice and bananas along the entire value chains; and estimate the effects of the determinants on mechanization levels. This study therefore seeks to identify factors that influence
    mechanization levels for rice and bananas value chains. The findings from this study will help provide technical and policy recommendations for the improvement of not only the rice and banana value chains but the entire agriculture sector

  541. ICT in Agriculture: The Case of Senekela in Mali

    This study presents detailed examples of how repeat Sénékéla users have changed their farming and marketing practices, and the reasons underpinning these changes. Data was collected through a series of semi structured interviews with repeat Sénékéla users. The findings of the case study serve to complement quantitative data about customer behavior change that was collected through a structured survey with 50 customers from Mali

  542. Report on Rice Innovation Platform in Mali

    This report aims to analyse the rice innovation platform in Mali. Starts showing the most recent data about production, area, importation and exportation. Discuss about the importance of the rice in the Malian economy, describe the main frameworks of the rice sector including changes in policies and perform a deep analysis in the rice food chain of the country

  543. Assessment of the Tunisian olive oil value chain in the international markets: Constraints and Opportunities.

    The objective of the research is to put forth the main problems that need to be solved before Tunisian olive oil can effectively use designation of origin and geographical indication (GI) to go to international markets. These constraints will be established based on information gathered through a survey of olive oil exporters and producers. Policies that focus on quantity will need to be complemented by specific measures based on quality at all levels of the industry in order to lead exports of this key product to reach its full potential

  544. Innovation Opportunities for Wheat and Faba Bean Value Chains in Ethiopia

    This study identifies, characterizes, evaluates, and validates promising agricultural innovations on wheat and faba bean crops along their value chains. It particularly addresses the following four research questions: ▪What constrains are likely to adversely influence efficiency, productivity, marketability, and market performance of wheat and faba bean in Ethiopia? What is the level and sources of efficiency and productivity of smallholder wheat and faba bean producers? Which innovations are promising to enhance productivity and profitability of wheat and faba bean along the value chains? How do innovations on wheat and faba bean accelerate technical progress to improve market supply, performance, governance, and sustainability of the value chains? Which market and policy interventions are relevant? 

  545. Iar4D Integrated Agricultural Research For Development: Revisiting Concepts, Practice, And Up-Scaling

    The term 'Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D),' first coined in 2003, acknowledges the complexity of the agricultural system and the need to bring together not only different related research disciplines but also multiple actors (private sector, public sector, producer organisation and policymakers) to find joint solutions to the challenges of agricultural innovation. The book is produced in response traces the evolution of the concept back to its roots in an impressive range of theories and approaches from diverse disciplines, such as constructivism, participatory action research, stakeholder analysis, agricultural knowledge and information systems, systems thinking and multi-stakeholder processes, adult and experiential learning theory, knowledge management, farmer field schools, value chain analysis, social equity and gender frameworks and new institutional economics, among others

  546. Innovation Opportunities in Mango production in Mali

    The book contains seven chapters that exhaustively covers the Innovation Opportunities in Mango production in Mali and make a smart proposition on the plausible pathway to ensure that agricultural technologies delivers a vibrant and economically sustainable agrarian sector. This book make an analysis about the mango food chain in Mali and discuss about the constraints regarding the production, productivity, and profitability

  547. Innovation Opportunities in Plantain Production in Nigeria

    This publication contains the compilation of different innovations generated on the plantain commodities from various Innovation Platforms. Its gives a succinct description of the commodity, its agronomy, production techniques, production trends, the role of the commodity in food chain and other traditional uses. The uses of the commodities and data on nutritional content etc. it also explicate the production processing and marketing constraints that could be manipulated to ensure increase in productivity and income. The book provides a creative description of different forms of innovations that can generates socio economic benefits along the value chain of the commodity

  548. Innovation Opportunities in the Small Ruminants livestock sector in Benin

    This book attempt to analyses the small ruminant livestock production and marketing systems in Benin Republic, to identify the constraints, source solutions and explicate the innovation opportunities within the industry. The book explicated both the technological, institutional or infrastructural modification including market, policies, social interactions that could be manipulated to yield improved productivity and profitability. It further explored both qualitative and quantitative value chain analysis of gains from the adjustments of the interventions of different actors. This is expected to provide the needed knowledge material that could be used by the different actors around the small ruminant’s value chain actors to foster productivity and profitability

  549. Mainstreaming gender into agricultural innovation platforms

    These toolkit aims to enhance stakeholders' understanding of the need to integrate gender in an Innovation Platform, the rationale for doing so and how to do. This toolkit is a guide for mainstreaming gender issues and develop and innovative platform in order to discuss and overcome this issues in an agricultural context.

  550. Botswana Report on 2012 National Agricultural Innovation System Assessment

    This document discuss in a brief way the assesment of the Botswana's National Agricultural System for the year of 2012. Start with a National Agriculture Profile, bring some comments about organizations and institutional arrangements, make an analysis of responses and give some recomendations

  551. ZAMBIA Report on 2012 National Agricultural Innovation System Assessment

    This document discuss in a brief way the assesment of the National Agricultural System in Zambia in 2012. Start with a National Agriculture Profile, bring some comments about institutional arrangements, make an analysis of responses and give some recomendations

  552. Spreading the gains of Agricultural Innovations in Africa: Strategies for scaling-up and scaling-out the IAR4D concept

    This book is addressing this lack of adequate knowledge on the framework and strategies for scaling up and scaling out an agricultural research and development concept. The book contains a rich synthesis of available information on the scaling strategies in agriculture. It documents the lessons learnt from the different strategies used in the past and develops a workable framework for scaling up and scaling out an agricultural research and development concept such as IAR4D. Its production entailed the drawing of lessons and knowledge from a series of consultations, discussions and stakeholder analysis sessions. It also involved rich literature work to draw existing knowledge on scaling concept. This Book is a guide tool for scaling the IAR4D concept and a reference material for the evolution of methodologies for scaling agricultural research and development

  553. Strategies For Scaling Agricultural Technologies in Africa

    The book contains seven chapters that exhaustively covers the Strategies For Scaling Agricultural Technologies in Africa and make a smart proposition on the plausible pathway to ensure that agricultural technologies delivers a vibrant and economically sustainable agrarian sector

  554. Putting the private sector at the centre of climate-smart agriculture

    This brief draws on three cases to show how the private sector contributes to the conceptualisation, design, delivery and evaluation of climate-smart agricultural interventions and can help bring them to scale. Engaging the private sector in CSA interventions enhances the applicability – and thus the sustainability of interventions, increases uptake and delivers a triple win for donors, beneficiaries and the private sector. They emphasise that private-sector players will be more likely to engage in scaling-up of CSA when they can see a compelling business case to justify their investments.

  555. Manioc 21: Releasing the potential of cassava

    This brochure describes the project MANIOC21: releasing  the potential of cassava. The aim is to fine-tune and accelerate innovative and new business models that create market linkages across cassava value chains and promote added-value activities to be scaled-up at the regional level

  556. Cash usage behaviour and its implication for digital payments: A case of Ghana and Nigeria's smallholder cassava value chain

    This study considers what lessons might be learned from the cassava value chain in the context of CTA’s interest in the potentials of: digital financial services for agriculture, such as mobile payments for farmers’ products; other payment streams for financial inclusion of farmer; index based insurance services;  digital services to support access to loans and credits. This research provides a comprehensive market study of cash usage behavioural practices and financial literacy among cassava farmers in Ghana and Nigeria. Specifically, this study: analyses the demographic profile of targeted farmers in Ghana and Nigeria within the cassava growing regions ; maps the production and marketing of cash payment flows; analyses the current usage of mobile money among targeted farmers; analyses the experience of targeted farmers with mobile money and its potential for adoption. This study also provides a common framework and approach for how cash usage behaviour (CUBeR) that can be assessed for farmers not only in cassava, but also for other crops and products

  557. Enhancing next-generation ACP agribusiness through digitalisation

    This is one of the briefs produced by 30 digital agribusiness practitioners from CTA, its networks and partners to document and assess ways that digital solutions improve the performance, competitiveness and profitability of agribusinesses in ACP countries. Drawing on experiences and cases shared by participants during the workshop zoomed in on real cases to draw out critical insights and lessons – actionable knowledge – that can be used more widely ‘digital solutions improve the performance, competitiveness and profitability of agribusinesses in ACP countries

  558. Pejeriz: Rice, entrepreneurship and jobs in West Africa

    This document is a brief description of the project "Pejeriz: Rice, entrepreneurship and jobs in West Africa". The project aims to building and strengthening entrepreneurial capacities of rural youth, creating market linkages and promoting value-adding activities for rural youth in the rice value chains of Mali and Senegal. The capacity-building efforts will develop a pool of young professionals with the competence and skills to engage in sustainable business along the rice value chain

  559. Innovative Partnerships to Scale Up Climate-Smart Agriculture for Smallholder Farmers in Southern Africa

    The objective of this chapter is to describe the processes and experiences of forming country project teams, partnership models and approaches to reach farmers in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. This will improve understanding of methods of setting up sustainable partnerships that exist beyond donor-funded projects

  560. CTA 2018 - A year in review: Accelerating Agricultural Transformation

    This report brings a review about the CTA activities in 2018 based on three intervention areas. One is promoting youth entrepreneurship and creating employment for young people, particularly through the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The second, digitalisation, cuts across all intervention areas and focuses on the application of digital technologies to transform business models and provide new revenue throughout agricultural value chains. The third focuses on building farmers’ resilience to climate change through the promotion of climate-smart agricultural practices

  561. Spore 192: Digitalising agriculture - Bridging the gender gap

    This publication brings some sucessful experiencies in Digital Agriculture in African countries. In this issue of Spore, it is explored how digitalisation is providing women with better access to finance, information and markets, as well as opening up new opportunities for young entrepreneurs to develop apps and other digital services in agribusiness

  562. Enhancing the resilience of smallholder farmers to climate change: The Scaling-Up Project in Southern Africa

    This presentantion discuss about the project "Catalysing actionable knowledge to implement climate-smart solutions for next-generation ACP agriculture". The presentation starts talking about the challenged and possible solutions, after discuss about the project approach and framework, present the partners of the project and make a review about the outcomes and lessons learned in the last one year

  563. Engaging youth in policy processes on agriculture and agribusiness

    This brief argues that policy-makers in ACP countries must engage with young people to ensure that the policy environment reflects their interests and makes the sector attractive to them. Policies that work for and with youth are more likely to attract young people to the sector, injecting dynamism, growth and transformation. Key actions include: setting up platforms and mechanisms for youth to engage in policy-making and to access employment opportunities; extend and improve consultative processes in rural areas; review existing policies with youth; proactively strengthen participation of young women in rural organisations and institutions; and strengthen the capacities of youth organisations to make their voices heard

  564. Creating jobs for rural youth in agricultural value chains

    This brief argues that youth-inclusive investments to modernise the agricultural sector will unleash its huge potential, offer attractive employment opportunities and create a level playing field for rural girls and boys. It sets out several youth-inclusive approaches that will help agricultural value chain development programmes meet the needs of young people. These include different approaches for different classes of youth; helping young people understand and respond to markets; making youth aware of job opportunities in agriculture; building the capacities of young people; facilitating their access to finance and land; and building social capital and networks

  565. Women’s agribusiness access index

    This brief outlines why it is needed an index to measure and monitor women’s access to the services, markets, policies and other aspects constraining their ability to contribute to and benefit from opportunities in agriculture and agribusiness, especially in the developing world. This would allow policy-makers, women’s development advocates and development partners to better focus their efforts so they make agriculture work for women

  566. How can your organisation succeed this year and the upcoming years?

    The TOWS Matrix is derived from the SWOT Analysis model. The SWOT analysis is based on two factors; internal factors (Strengths and Weakness) and external factors (Opportunities and Threats). For an organisation to function at the best of its potential, these tools should be utilised at the beginning of the year. This article shows how important these tools are important in an organisation. 

  567. Tapping sweetpotato’s potential to improve farmer incomes and resilience in India

    Though Odisha is India’s top sweetpotato-producing state, most farmers grow low-yielding varieties of limited nutritional value. The Odisha Directorate of Horticulture and the International Potato Center (CIP) spent four years promoting improved varieties and good agricultural practices in four districts of Odisha, resulting in a 25 per cent growth in the area dedicated to the crop, a 17 per cent increase in farm productivity, and a 40 per cent increase in farmer incomes within the project areas; as well as the introduction of a nutritious, orange-fleshed sweetpotato variety. The project directly and indirectly benefited approximately 6,000 people, and developed a scalable approach that combines farmer capacity development with demand creation, which has potential for reducing hunger, malnutrition and poverty while boosting farmers’ resilience.

  568. Public Agricultural Research in an Era of Transformation: The Challenge of Agri-Food System Innovation - Resource Document I: Case studies

    This document is accompanyng the volume Public Agricultural Research in an Era of Transformation: The Challenge of Agri-Food System Innovation (available in TAPipedia here), which provides some of the groundwork in answering the question of how the CGIAR system and other public agricultural research organisations should adapt and respond to an era of transformation framed by the SDGs.

    The case studies presented in full in this accompanying document are based on secondary information (journal articles, grey literature, published evaluations). The emphasis in the case studies is the description of events and the presentation of evidence rather than interpretation through any particular conceptual perspective. The preparation of each case study was guided by an outline with the following sections: introduction, challenge or opportunity being tackled, description of the innovation, innovation pathway, impact evidence and consequences.


    Case studies:

    1. Australian Cotton Industry
    2. Environmental Management, Cotton Industry, Australia
    3. Barleymax™
    4. East African Dairy Development Project’s Dairy Hubs
    5. East Coast Fever Infection And Treatment Method
    6. Foot And Mouth Disease Eradication In The Philippines
    7. Forage In Indonesia
    8. Golden Rice
    9. Marine Stewardship Council
    10. Mass Marketing Of The Treadle Pump In Bangladesh
    11. Novacq™
    12. Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato In Sub-Saharan Africa
    13. Rural Water Use Efficiency, Queensland
    14. Salmon Production In Chile
    15. Sundrop Farms, Australia
    16. Thai Poultry Exports
  569. An institutional diagnostics of agricultural innovation; public-private partnerships and smallholder production in Uganda

    This paper presents and discusses a diagnostic framework to identify institutional processes in the creation of public-private partnerships (PPPs) for agricultural innovation. The diagnostic framework proposed here combines a conceptualisation of institutions with a conceptualisation of technology. We argue that a performative notion of institutions provides a better tool for institutional diagnostics than the common understanding of institutions as ‘rules of the game’. The paper furthermore proposes to conceptualise technology as affordance, in contrast to a more common understanding of technology as an input. We explore the value of our diagnostic framework by analysing the literature on PPPs for agricultural innovation and unpublished data from a PPP initiative for smallholder sorghum production, based on an agreement between Uganda’s National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO) and Nile Breweries Limited (NBL). In the discussion and conclusion section we evaluate the benefits of our diagnostic framework and discuss how the empirical issues it brings forward create important lessons for analysis of innovation for African smallholder farming and institutional diagnostics more generally.

  570. Stories of change: Building competence and confidence in agricultural innovation

    This book collects 24 stories of change from the EU-funded CDAIS project. Launched in 2015, the overall objective of CDAIS is to make agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. The stories are about the eight pilot countries - in Africa, Asia and Latin America - in which CDAIS operates. Countries and title of the 24 stories are provided below, with date of last update for each story.


    01) From farm to agri-business (February 2018)

    02) From knowing needs to sowing seeds (March 2018)

    03) Growing hope from a new crop (April 2018)


    04) From green to silver (December 2017)

    05) New markets for mangos (November 2017)

    06) Pineapples – putting plans into action (September 2018)

    Burkina Faso:

    07) A marketplace of innovative ideas (September 2018)

    08) Organic certification takes root (January 2018)

    09) Women lead the way in rural enterprises (June 2018)


    10) Feed Safety – change through learning (September 2017)

    11) The need for seed – subtle changes (December 2017)

    12) Innovating with chickpea cluster farming (September 2018)


    13) Better beans mean better nutrition (April 2018)

    14) Avocados – from annual to tree crops (June 2018)

    15) Moving to modern beekeeping (August 2018)


    16) From potato pests to policy processes (April 2018)

    17) Improving coffee by collaboration (June 2018)

    18) New markets for cacao producers (June 2018)


    19) Seeds of an organic future (December 2017)

    20) Pig farmers building bridges to success (June 2018)

    21) Cattle producers blazing new trails (June 2018)


    22) Cooperation in cassava production (September 2018)

    23) Challenges in the milk chain (September 2018)

    24) Resolving conflicts in water use (September 2018)

  571. Rwanda: Stories of change. Challenges in the milk chain

    In November 2016, a CDAIS capacity needs assessment of a community milk processing centre started a process that has seen clear changes in less than a year. The Burera dairy was selected as one of the country’s ‘innovation niche partnerships’, and the assessment, workshop and associated training allowed participants to better understand the value chain, the issues, problems, and possible solutions. Now, Burera dairy is moving forward, and quickly…. But much of the thanks are due to CDAIS training at different levels, and the role played by the national innovation facilitators has played an important role.

    This story of change from Rwanda is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS  brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

  572. Rwanda: Stories of change. Cooperation in the cassava production

    Cassava is an important crop especially in the south of Rwanda. A processing factory was constructed, but it was unable to source enough roots to make it profitable. Since CDAIS became involved, however, actors got together, saw the problems and agreed ways forward. Now a few years later business is booming for all involved, from farmers with a secure market, producers of improved planting material, and the factory itself that produces much more cassava flour and now employs 230 people.

    This story of change from Rwanda is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS  brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

  573. Rwanda: Stories of change. Resolving conflicts in water use

    Centred on a reservoir and irrigation scheme for livestock keepers and crop producers, the core objective of CDAIS Rwangingo catchment was to promote fair, effective and efficient use of water, as well asconflict management through collaboration among users. It stimulated a partnership framework among water users, service providers (including extensionists, input suppliers and water users organisations ) and supporters (Agri projects, enablers). In less than two years, the multi-stakeholder partnership is gradually implementing effective resource management, eradicating conflicts and improving animal and crop productivity.

    This story of change from Rwanda is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS  brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

  574. Rwanda: A story of change on dairy. Meaningful meetings mean more milk

    “Burera dairy opened in September 2015 but immediately had problems in sourcing milk as there was no organized supply chain” explains Managing Director Emmanuel Mahoro. “But things improved when everyone involved began to meet.” Beginning in November 2016 with a capacity needs assessment workshop, CDAIS has helped to bring different actors and interests together, followed by more meetings and coaching sessions. And in September 2018, a first reflection meeting assessed the achievements and remaining challenges, but also identified that benefits went far beyond just the dairy…

    This story of change from Rwanda is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS  brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

  575. Burkina Faso: A story of change. "It was a marketplace of innovative ideas, with a cocktail of partners"

    The CDAIS ‘marketplace’ to promote agricultural innovations in Burkina Faso took place on July 6th 2017 in Ouagadougou. It was a rich event involving more than 80 people who are working directly with, or interested in working with, different partnerships. The marketplace allowed stakeholders in the six selected niches to get to know and develop relationships with suppliers of agricultural support services. It also provided an opportunity for service suppliers and other participants to show their interests in accompanying the niches on their respective journeys…

    This story of change from Burkina Faso is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

  576. Burkina Faso: A story of change. “Quality is what we need – and the quality of our new relationships helps us with the quality of our cereals”

    For many years, rural women have been creating their own agri-food processing companies, that promote local agriculture by bringing to the market original foods in products that are accessible to urban populations. The aim of CDAIS is to support their development by strengthening their capacities to experiment and learn together, as well as to negotiate and make contracts with suppliers and traders. And Dakoupa in Bobo Dioulasso is one of many small family businesses supported by CDAIS through the women-led agri-food processing microenterprise innovation partnership.


    This story of change from Burkina Faso is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

  577. Ethiopia: A story of change. “We can achieve change only by promoting innovative ways to learn, reflect, and work together”

    “I see mindset shifts being promoted by CDAIS says Gemechu Nemie, director of the Ethiopian Animal Feed Industry Association (EAFIA) and a key member of the livestock feed safety and quality innovation niche. And this is the sort of change that the CDAIS project is beginning to engender, as partners start to implement approaches that better promote innovation in agriculture, by inspiring small and simple personal revolutions… Ethiopia is one of eight CDAIS pilot countries, and within each, several ‘niches’ or ‘innovation partnerships’ have been selected. Here we see how one small step in one country is already making waves.


    This story of change from Ethiopia is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia

  578. Ethiopia: A story of change. The ‘need for seed’ improves agricultural yield, but requires more than just improved technologies

    To ensure food security, farmers must have access to quality seed, in adequate quantities. The government of Ethiopia acknowledges this, and has responded by investing in improving the seed sector. However, as this example shows, not all challenges can be overcome by technical training and new technologies alone. A large seed cooperative union was faced with a problem that seriously affected their very existence. And the solution was not technical. CDAIS became engaged, and now they are making concrete steps towards resolving the issue – and which will have much broader knock-on benefits for all farmers in the region.

    This story of change from Ethiopia is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia

  579. Ethiopia: A story of change. Innovating with chickpea cluster farming – listening and learning together

    Chickpea is an important crop in Ethiopia, but yields and grain quality remain poor. To help unlock the full potential, CDAIS has supported the value chain around the northern city of Gondar since 2016, in partnership with the N2Africa project. As a result of new platforms, experience sharing and developing a combination of new organisational skills and behavioural change, research and extension support services stopped telling and started listening, and joined forces in innovating together with farmers.

    This story of change from Ethiopia is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia

  580. Angola: Story of change. “Of course we have problems, but we have learnt to see them as positive problems“

    “When I first heard about the CDAIS project two years ago, I knew immediately that it was just what our group of farmers was looking for” explains Edgar Somacumbi. “We have land, seeds, tractors and all the equipment we want, and a processing plant. But moving from being farmer to agro-entrepreneurs is a complex process and requires new skills. And this is where we needed help.” CDAIS is now supporting a group of farmers to improve how they organise themselves and to help them find solutions to their problems.

    This story of change from Angola is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

  581. Angola: A story of change. From knowing needs to sowing seeds

    "CDAIS is interesting for us because it is improving how we operate”, explains Francisco Venda, president of the Sementes do Planalto seed cooperative based in Bailundo. “We work with many partners, and the new skills have proved invaluable.” Since 2016, CDAIS has been working with this group, helping them to identify and agree their priority needs, and take steps to overcoming them. But much is yet to be done, though the high levels of energy and enthusiasm will ensure that progress will continue long after the project has ended.


    This story of change from  Angola is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS  brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia. 

  582. Angola: A story of change. Growing hope, from new knowledge on a new crop

    Rice is produced in other parts of Angola, but not in the area around Bailundo, though conditions are favourable and there is much local demand. Building on the provision of technical expertise from other organisations, CDAIS is adding capacity development of another sort, of the ‘soft skills’ required to collaborate, learn, engage and adapt. “Now we will grow rice forever” says Marcos Satuala. “This innovation has given us a great thing – a new crop for us. And with CDAIS we can learn more, and grow more, for our families and to sell.”

    This story of change from Angola is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS  brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia. 

  583. Systems thinking and ARD partnerships

    The nature of the issues around which Agricultural Research for Development (ARD) partnerships are formed requires a different way of conceptualizing and thinking to that commonly found in many agricultural professionals. This brief clarifies the components of a system of interest to an ARD partnership.

  584. Burkina Faso: Story of change. Organic certification takes root, thanks to everyone working together

    “Thanks to the money I earn from producing organic vegetables, this helps with the costs of schooling my children. I also feed my family with healthy food, and don’t buy any vegetables at the market anymore” says Clarisse Ilboudo, a farmer in the Koubri women’s group, Kadiogo province, Burkina Faso. The Koubri women group is supported through ‘Bio SPG’, a national organic agriculture label based on a participatory guarantee system approach, supported by the CDAIS project as one its innovation niche partnership.

    This story of change from Burkina Faso is part of a series of stories occurred under the EU-funded CDAIS project, aimed at making agricultural innovation systems more efficient and sustainable in meeting the demands of farmers, agri-business and consumers. CDAIS  brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

  585. Burkina Faso: A story of change on small family business

    For many years, rural women have been creating their own agri-food processing companies, that promote local agriculture by bringing to the market original foods in products that are accessible to urban populations. The aim of CDAIS is to support their development by strengthening their capacities to experiment and learn together, as well as to negotiate and make contracts with suppliers and traders. And Dakoupa in Bobo Dioulasso is one of many small family businesses supported by CDAIS through the women-led agri-food processing microenterprise innovation partnership.

  586. Public-private partnership experienced by PAEPARD

    Despite efforts over recent years to improve the status of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa, little change has been noted, due partially to the fact that efforts have come from individual entities, which had short-term funding or lacked the necessary expertise to scale up research outputs. Disconnect between researchers and end-users has further hindered the success of such efforts. The Platform for Africa-Europe Partnership on Agricultural Research for Development (PAEPARD), therefore designed a multi-stakeholder partnership approach to overcome existing shortcomings in agricultural research for development (ARD). Through a variety of brokerage mechanisms, PAEPARD has supported the formation of consortia made up of multi-stakeholder partners from the public and private sectors, which are intended to address priority research issues and respond to user needs. The public sector can be represented by government ministries, such as the Ministry of Agriculture or Ministry of Industry and Trade; regional and locallevel government representative offices; state banks involved in financing rural development; state-owned enterprises, such as seed companies and agroprocessing facilities; and publicly funded research institutions, marketing boards and universities. On the other hand, the private sector encompasses all for-profit businesses that are not owned or operated by the government, as well as independent non-profit organizations, such as non-governmental organizations (NGO) and charities. The private partners involved in PAEPARD consortia include farmer organizations, agro-processing enterprises, input supply companies and NGO.

  587. Strengthening Capacity for Agricultural Research for Development: Collaboration for Results

    The paper takes a critical look at two key interventions identified to deliver the PAEPARD capacity strengthening strategy. Firstly, the training of a pool of agricultural innovation facilitators (AIF) to broker relations between relevant stakeholders for the consolidation of effective consortia. PAEPARD envisaged the role of AIF as to support both the face-to-face and virtual (via skype, email or social media) engagement of partners in capacity strengthening processes. The second key capacity strengthening intervention examined in this paper, is the instrument of “writeshop” to support consortia to produce “bankable” proposals in response to identified funding opportunities.

  588. Appraising the participation of European partners in the PAEPARD Users-Led Process

    In 2011, the Platform for African European Partnership on Agricultural Research for Development (PAEPARD) launched the Users-led Process (ULP) to better articulate users’ needs in a multi-stakeholder research and innovation (R&I) partnership. The ULP comprises six critical steps: (1) Identification of a federating theme; (2) Desk review; (3) Introduction workshop; (4) Multi-stakeholder research question inception workshop; (5) Concept note development; (6) Full proposal development. In this study, we reviewed the evolution of the ULP as implemented by five organisations (EAFF1 , PROPAC2 , ROPPA3 , COLEACP4 , FANRPAN5 ), identified the ULP stage at which European partners become engaged, and evaluated their contribution. The assessment involved the analysis of both secondary and primary data obtained through literature reviews, interviews and online questionnaires, as well as social network analysis. The following is a summary of the lessons learned.

  589. Findings from the sector and multi-stakeholder consultations conducted in the framework of PAEPARD between 2010 and 2012

    The organisation of sector and multi-stakeholder consultations was an integral part of the first phase of the PAEPARD II programme, covering the period 2009–2013. These consultations contributed to the overall objective of the programme, the reorientation of scientific and technical collaboration between Africa and Europe in the area of agricultural research for development (ARD), in order to promote thecreation of multi-stakeholder partnerships that are demand-oriented and mutually beneficial. These consultations aimed in particular to guide the PAEPARD programme by drawing up recommendations for the establishment of partnerships that would be innovative, balanced and demand-driven.

  590. Strengthening capacity for agricultural research for development

    Wthin the context of ARD, capacity strengthening is seen as a process of continual development, as opposed to one-off training. It enhances interaction, builds trust and creates synergy between research institutions and public and private sector actors, smallholder farmers and development organizations. Strengthening the capacities of these different actors for collaboration enables them to address a whole range of activities, investments and policies, and take advantage of opportunities to make change happen. The process of building strong stakeholder relations based on commitment and trust is often as important as the specific solutions developed to address research and development challenges.

  591. Funding agricultural research for development: Lessons from PAEPARD

    Most agencies supporting agricultural research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) provide funds for discrete projects over specific periods of time, usually a maximum of three years. Research topics identified for calls for proposals are not always well aligned with users’ needs. In particular, research topics may not reflect the priorities of organizations - such as farmer organizations and private agribusinesses, with interests in the research outcomes; they are not generally supported to play a significant role as project partners. The failure to include relevant stakeholders inproject decision making, among other factors, impacts the quality of research and severely limits the uptake of research outputs, thereby reducing the potential development impact. The Platform for an Africa-Europe Partnership in Agricultural Research for Development (PAEPARD) has sought to overcome these shortcomings by mobilizing and supporting multi-stakeholder research consortia to address priority research issues that respond to users’ needs. In implementing this user-led approach, some key lessons have been learned about funding agricultural research for development (ARD).

  592. Capitalizing on PAEPARD experience of multi-stakeholder partnerships in agricultural research for development

    The lessons and recommendations outlined in this paper were captured at a PAEPARD Capitalization Workshop with all partners, held in Cotonou, Benin, on 2-6 October 2017. The workshop was key to the overall evaluation of PAEPARD II, as it encouraged participants to analyse and reflect on their experiences of the AfricanEuropean MSP for ARD processes facilitated by PAEPARD over the last 7 years. During discussions, the partners reflected on the way forward for PAEPARD activities and the sustainability of its achievements, with recommendations for a potential ‘new era’ and promoting the MSP structure at both policy and ground levels. The main objective of the workshop was to draw specific lessons (both successes and failures) from the ULP, CRF-IF and consortia, which are outlined below.

  593. The journey from an information platform to a knowledge management system

    As the PAEPARD project is complex and multi-faceted, ensuring that appropriate information is made available to users in a timely manner and in a form that can be easily understood and used has been a major challenge.

  594. Inclusive, balanced, demand-led partnerships for ARD: A consultative process

    This document presents a summary of the main findings of sector and multi-stakeholder consultations conducted by the Platform for African European Partnership on Agricultural Research for Development (PAEPARD) during 2010-2012. It provides recommendations for the sustainable establishment of partnerships in agricultural research for development (ARD), between African and European partners in particular, to be innovative, balanced and demand-driven. From the consultations all PAEPARD partners agreed that, while the cultures and interests of each sector are often different, points of view need to converge and expertise be put at the disposal of all partners if a multi-stakeholder partnership in ARD is to be successful.

  595. Policy brief n°1 : The role of multi-stakeholder partnerships between Africa and Europe exemplified by the issue of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed

    PAEPARD supports/facilitates three aflatoxin-related research consortia: (a) Stemming aflatoxin pre- and post-harvest waste in the groundnut value chain in Malawi and Zambia; (b) Developing strategies to reduce fungal toxins contamination for improved food sufficiency, nutrition and incomes along the maize value chain in the arid and semi-arid lands of Eastern Kenya; and (c) Developing feed management protocols for dairy farmers in high rainfall areas in Kenya.

  596. Facilitating innovation in agricultural research for development: Brokerage as the vital link

    This paper highlights lessons learned from the development of PAEPARD-supported consortia, which illustrate various impacts of brokerage. The preliminary conclusions and recommendations may appear obvious at first sight, but will be useful for informing the implementation of brokerage activities until PAEPARD activities come to an end in December 2017.

  597. How collaboration can help grow and transform agriculture in Africa

    This article gives insights about collaboration and how this process can help agricultural innovation in Africa.

  598. Innovation Opportunities in Potato Production in Rwanda - Volume 2 No 16

    Whereas Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major staple food in many countries, it is one of the priority value chain crops under the Rwanda’s Crop Intensification Program (CIP). The crop is more important in the northern and northwestern than other parts of Rwanda. After plantain and cassava, potato is the third most important staple cultivated by 52.9% of the households in Rwanda. With potato yields at 12mt/ha comparatively favored by rich volcanic soils and high altitudes, Rwanda is the second largest producer of potatoes in the East African Community (EAC) after Kenya and third largest in Sub-Saharan Africa. This research is aimed at highlighting the potential innovation opportunities for increased potato production in Rwanda. Irish potato has short growth cycles and can easily be integrated into existing agricultural systems, and stored relatively easily. It has excellent nutritional content and is a good source of dietary energy and micronutrients. Notwithstanding, potato production in Rwanda is faced with various constraints among which pests and diseases, limited land sizes, and high production costs (for pesticides and seeds) are major. Potato Value Chain Analysis (VCA) conducted at the Gataraga Potato Innovation Platform (IP) indicated that small-holder farmers were the main players in producing Irish potatoes and marketed by retailers in local markets and urban areas including Kigali. In spite of potato production seemingly looking attractive in Rwanda, innovation opportunities exist that can uplift and expand the VC for enhanced socio-economic benefits of the VC actors. These opportunities include but not limited to increasing farm level productivity, introducing processing of potatoes, and stabilizing farm prices through establishing appropriate business models. The expected new business model would builds on existing farmer institutional frameworks such as the IP cooperative society and IP potato company with the RAB engagements, and potential credit institutions, extension service providers, buyers and processors. Such an arrangement is likely to ease constraints of high production costs and unsecured markets, while improving farm-level productivity.

  599. Volume 2 No: 13 (2018): Impact of the Integrated Agricultural Research for Development Guidelines on Smallholders’ Livelihoods in SSA CP Innovation Platforms. Revised Edition

    The proof efficacy of the Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D) was carried out in 2010, using the household income as the principal measure of impact on poverty reduction. This assessment did not take into consideration other variables that could affect livelihood outcomes. Such variables included the level of household dietary diversity, poverty intensity, income and revenues from other sources like livestock and livestock products, asset accumulation (including household and agricultural assets), Therefore, the present study was commissioned with a view to evaluate the impact of other outcomes’ variables on the smallholder crop and livestock farming households. The present study also validates the hypotheses that the IAR4D: 1. Works; 2. It delivers more benefits than the conventional R&D method and 3. It can be scaled out and up for wider impact on the continent.

  600. An analysis of the capacity strengthening process and short term outcomes in the SCARDA project: The case of Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) Sudan

    This paper is a case study of capacity strengthening activities carried out at the Agricultural Research Corporation in Sudan between July 2008 and March 2011. These activities were undertaken through the project ‘Strengthening Capacity for Agricultural Research and Development (SCARDA)’ which was implemented in the East and Central Africa region by the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in East and Central Africa. The paper describes the identification of capacity needs and the design and implementation of interventions aimed at enhancing the performance of ARC and strengthening its links with partner organizations. A combination of training workshops, mentoring, short courses, long-term postgraduate training and work-based experiential learning was used to address a set of priority needs. The training was placed in an organizational change context and guided by a learning framework. The hypothesis was that the acquisition by key staff of a set of core competencies would lead to a change of mindset among staff which would begin to enhance organizational performance. An analysis of the short term outcomes of the capacity strengthening process, based largely on discussions with ARC staff, shows that beneficial change in the organization has started. Managers and senior researchers have introduced new methods, including the use of management tools such as feedback, into their working practices. Improved communication and team work has resulted from project activities and staff have begun to focus more on strategic issues affecting the organization. New multi-stakeholder partnerships have been formed, largely through a set of ‘peer learning groups’ that were established with the support of the project. These partnerships had the additional advantage of drawing in new sources of funding at a time when the organization’s budget was under severe pressure. The analysis also revealed that these early beneficial outcomes are fragile and may not be sustainable unless ARC takes further action to institutionalize the improved working practices within the organization. The challenge for ARC is to find a way to mainstream capacity strengthening within its core activities, and at the same time allocate scarce resources to other priority programmes. 

  601. Analysis of the Dynamics and Obstacles to the Adoption of Technological Innovations: the Case of Rice Farming in Togo

    This report deals with the adoption of technological innovations in the case of rice farming in Togo.

    The following is a summary that introduces the report.

    Technological innovations have been developed to help boost agriculture and contribute to food security in developing countries. In Togo, emphasis has been placed on the development of technologies and the introduction of those generated in the area shared by Togo with the other countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). In order to analyze the dynamics and obstacles of adoption of technological inovations in the real environment the ‘’ Program of Accompaning Research for Agricultural Innovation (PARI) under the sponsorship of Agricultural Forum for African Research (FARA) funded this study. To do this, information was collected from a sample of rice farmers through a formal survey and focus groups. The formal survey was conducted with six hundred and fifty two (652) rice farmers in four (04) regions and focus groups with 45 rice farmers in the Central Region.The study thus looked at the case of Togolese rice farmers in order to enlighten the decision-makers and to better guide them in the decision-making for the actions to come and to formulate proposals of solutions. These technologies mainly concern the use of improved rice varieties and technologies related to good cultural practices and post-harvest. From these surveys it follows that innovative technologies introduced in rice-growing areas are variously appreciated. If some introduced improved varieties are adopted by most of the producers, it is not the same for the case of good agricultural practices Technology : Fertilizer application techniques, nursery practice, number of recommended plowing before planting, deep placement of urea, burial of crop residues, intensive rice system, transplanting to one (01) or two ( 02) strands,participatory learning action research on integrated soil fertility management (APRA-GIFS), participatory learning research action on integrated pest management (l’APRA-GIR) which are less practiced by farmers. This is also the case for post-harvest technologies. The analysis of this low adoption rate, shows that the lack of equipment, the high cost of technologies, the lack of manpower, the harshness of the producers' implementation of the technologies and the lack of information on the performance of the technologies being disseminated are the main reasons. Thus, the actions to be taken to improve the probability of adoption of these technologies must take these elements into account. 

  602. Documentation of Selected Outstanding Innovations in Nigeria - Volume 2 No 4

    This report deals with selected innovations in Nigeria. 

    The following is a summary that introduces the report.

    The GIC promotes four crops, namely Rice, in Nasarawa and Benue, Cassava in Ogun and Osun, Irish Potato in Plateau and Maize in Kaduna and Kano, respectively. The second round of PARI studies in 2016 were expected to find common ground with the GIC crops. This was implemented against the already documented results from Nigeria’s 2015 PARI study 1 “An inventory of existing functional promising agricultural innovations in Nigeria”. The salient results from this study are as follows: 116 technologies were identified nationally during the review period (2006-2014); the top 4 commodities associated with the highest number of proven beneficial technologies are Cassava (32; 27.4%) , maize (20; 17.1%), sorghum (11; 9.4%) and rice (10; 8.5%); at least 45 items were found to trigger the 116 agricultural technologies assembled. The strongest or most frequent triggers of innovation include yield improvement, resistance to pests and diseases, wide ecological adaptation, high quality cassava flour, HQCF, shorter time to maturity, drought resistance, seed or grain colour, malting quality and grain weight or size. In general, some triggers are cross-cutting while several others are commodity specific. The foregoing highlights substantially guided the conduct of the supplementary PARI 2016 studies, at least the choice of commodities. 

  603. Innovation Opportunities in the Rice Value Chain in Nigeria - Volume 2 No 3

    This report deals with innovation opportunities in the Rice Value Chain.

    The following is a summary that introduces the report.

    As a cereal grain, Rice is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world’s human population. To the average Nigerian, rice needs no introduction because it has become one of the most important foods in the country, consumed by both the wealthy and the poor. Massive importation of the commodity from countries like India, China, and Thailand therefore, occur largely because of the estimated amount of rice milled locally is placed at 1.8 million tons.

    Most rice farmers in Nigeria are smallholders (90 percent of total), applying a low-input strategy to agriculture, with minimum input requirements and low output. Nigeria rice productivity is among the lowest within neighbouring countries, with average yields of 1.51 tonne/ha. Nigeria is the largest rice producing country in West Africa but is also the second largest importer of rice in the World. Rice is cultivated on about 3.7 million hectares of land in Nigeria, representing approximately 10.6 percent of the 35 million hectares of land under cultivation, out of a total arable land area of 70 million hectares in Nigeria Out of the 3,7million hectares under rice cultivation, 77 percent of the farmed area is rain-fed rice, of which 47 percent is lowland and 30 percent upland. Rice is the third most important cereal grown and consumed globally after wheat and maize. In Nigeria, rice is cultivated in almost all ecological belts available in the country as they all provide favourable environments to support the crops.

    Cultivated rice is generally considered a semi-aquatic annual grass, although in the tropics it can survive as perennial, producing new tillers from nodes after harvest (ratooning). At maturity, the rice plant has a main stem and several tillers. Each productive tiller bears a terminal flowering head or panicle. Rice is cultivated in virtually all the agro-ecological zones in Nigeria, therefore successful cultivation of rice starts with choice of right rice variety suitable for the site. Because fields differ in their soil quality, the risk of flooding, or the risk of drought, a suitable variety must be selected for each field. Using suitable varieties minimizes the risk of crop loss or failure and ensures good yields. A suitable variety should give good yields, taste good, have a high market price, and many things more.

    Paddy fields can be prepared under either dry or wetland conditions; the choice depends on time of operation, soil properties and implements to be used. In either case, the field should be disc ploughed immediately after harvest in November/December to expose the rhizomes of perennial weeds to scorching action of the sun. For direct seeded rice, the field is harrowed just before the first rain, and the crop is seeded. For wet or transplanted rice, the field is flooded with the first rains. In the absence of ploughs, make heaps at the onset of first rains for weed control. Farmers’ yields range between 1,200 and 3,000kg ha-1 for swamp rice and 1,000 – 1,500kg ha-1 for upland rice. With improved practices yields of up to 5,000 – 6,000kg and 2,500 – 3,000kg ha-1 of paddy are possible for swamp and upland rice, respectively. Rice should be stored in cool, dry rodent-proof conditions. Infested paddy should be fumigated with phostoxin in air-tight containers at the rate of one tablet/jute bag (100 kg paddy) or 10–15 tablets/t paddy.


  604. Not by technology and money alone: The importance of functional capacity strengthening in agribusiness partnerships. Insights from 2SCALE

    This booklet contains fifteen short stories told by field staff of the 2SCALE project about their personal experiences on how their work impacted a particular person or group. The booklet results from a regional review and capitalisation workshop that was organised in Benin in March 2017 within the framework of the 2SCALE programme. 2SCALE (Towards Sustainable Clusters in Agribusiness through Learning in Entrepreneurship) is a major agribusiness incubator programme implemented since 2012, and is aimed at promoting inclusive agribusiness partnerships in nine African countries. The programme is implemented through an international consortium, led by the International Fertiliser Development Centre (IFDC) together with the Base-of-the-Pyramid Innovation Centre (BoPInc.), and ICRA, an international centre for developing facilitation skills in agriculture.

  605. VERCON: the Virtual Extension and Research Information and Communication Network

    This brochure is on the Virtual Extension and Research Information and Communication Network (VERCON), a conceptual model that any country can use and adapt to improve access to agricultural information and knowledge sharing and to strengthen the linkages between rural institutions and individuals, using information and communication technologies.

  606. Feed the Future: Building Capacity for African Agricultural Transformation (Africa Lead II) Quarterly Report October-December 2015

    Africa Lead II is a program dedicated to supporting and advancing agricultural transformation in Africa as proposed by the African Union Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program. Simultaneously, it contributes to USAID’s Feed the Future goals of reduced hunger and poverty by building the capacity of Champions—defined as men and women leaders in agriculture—to develop, lead, and manage the policies, structures, and processes needed for the transformation process. 

    This report covers the program’s major accomplishments and outputs from October through December 2015. It covers the support and training that Africa Lead provides partners to improve institutional capacity to manage agricultural development and promote the effective, inclusive participation of non-state actors in the policy process, and the co-facilitation, logistical support and research that Africa Lead provides our partners to strengthen their capacity to manage and implement the policy change and alignment process. Activities and methods that involve consultation and coordination with food security organizations that contribute to evaluating impact and sharing learning are also included.

  607. Feed the Future: Building Capacity for African Agricultural Transformation (Africa Lead II) Quarterly Report January-March 2016

    Africa Lead—Feed the Future’s Building Capacity for African Agricultural Transformation Program—supports the advancement of agricultural transformation in Africa as proposed by the African Union Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP). Simultaneously, Africa Lead contributes to the Feed the Future goals of reduced hunger and poverty by building the capacity of Champions—defined as men and women leaders in agriculture—and the institutions in which they operate to develop, lead, and manage the policies, structures and processes needed for the transformation process. 

    This report covers the program’s major accomplishments and outputs from January–March 2016 (Quarter 2 of PY2016). It highlights the support, facilitation, and training that Africa Lead provides partners to improve institutional capacity and architecture to manage agricultural transformation as well to promote the effective, inclusive participation of non-state actors in the policy process. Africa Lead activities are also designed to promote and sustain a culture of learning and to continue to build a process by which evidence can take a greater role in determining policy directions and programs in agriculture. Sections 2–4 of the report summarize Africa Lead’s project-wide progress during Q2 in the three cluster areas of capacity development, policy support, and knowledge sharing to align organizations, policies, and systems around CAADP. Section 5 includes mission-level dashboards, which provide a snapshot view of the activities and performance indicators during Q2 for each of the project’s buy-ins. 

  608. Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program: Quarterly Report for July-September 2012

    The Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program (Africa Lead), aims to support the capacity building program of the US Government’s Feed the Future Initiative, which aligns U.S. Government development assistance with Africa-owned agriculture development plans that are, in turn, aligned with the African Union’s Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program.

    Africa Lead provides leadership training, capacity assessments, logistical support for training and innovative short courses and internships/twinning arrangements prioritized in consultation with missions and partner countries and institutions, and a database of training offerings on the continent that can be matched to the leadership training and capacity building needs.

    This report is the eighth quarterly performance report of the program, 24 months from program start up, and focuses on progress towards deliverables identified in the Africa Lead Year 2 Work Plan. The implementation was characterized by a degree of uncertainty about the future of the project. On the program side, the quarter was distinguished by the Lessons Learned field research work, from which the insights will inform subsequent approaches to training in the program and project leadership and management skills needed for improved performance in the agriculture sector.


  609. Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program: Quarterly Report for April-June 2012

    The Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program (Africa Lead) aims to support the capacity building program of the US Government’s Feed the Future Initiative, which aligns U.S. Government development assistance with Africa-owned agriculture development plans that are, in turn, aligned with the African Union’s Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program. 

    Africa Lead provides leadership training, capacity assessments, logistical support for training and innovative short courses and internships/twinning arrangements prioritized in consultation with missions and partner countries and institutions, and a database of training offerings on the continent that can be matched to the leadership training and capacity building needs.

    This report is the seventh quarterly performance report of the program, 21 months into program start up and implementation, and focuses on progress towards deliverables identified in the Africa Lead Year 2 Work Plan. The implementation was characterized by maturation in a number of key capacity building areas of the program, including the Agribusiness Leadership Program, Module 2 training in West Africa, capacity building “bridge” programs with West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development and Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel, development of the Sokoine University of Agriculture internship program, Module 1 training in Zimbabwe and Zambia, and, for deepening learning from program implementation, launching of the Lessons Learned research exercise.

  610. Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program Quarterly Report for January – March 2013

    Africa Lead, the Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program, provides leadership training, capacity assessments, logistical support for training and innovative short courses and internships/twinning arrangements prioritized in consultation with missions and partner countries and institutions, and a database of training offerings on the continent that can be matched to the leadership training and capacity building needs.

    This report is the tenth quarterly performance report of the program, 30 months from program start up, and focuses on progress towards deliverables identified in the Africa Lead Year 3 Work Plan. The implementation during this quarter was characterized by a continuing shift of focus from Task 1 (Leadership training and Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program sensitization) to a focus on Task 2 (Third party training and internships) and Task 3 (Capacity needs assessments). 

  611. Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program: Quarterly Report for April-June 2011

    The Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program (Africa Lead), aims to support the capacity building program of the US Government’s Feed the Future Initiative, which aligns US Government assistance with Africa-owned agriculture development plans that are, in turn, aligned with the African Union’s Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP). 

    Africa Lead provides leadership training, capacity assessments, logistical support for training and innovative short courses and internships/twinning arrangements prioritized in consultation with missions and partner countries and institutions, and a database of training offerings on the continent that can be matched to the leadership training and capacity building needs.

    This report is the third quarterly performance report of the program, nine months into program start up and implementation, and focuses on progress towards deliverables identified in the Africa Lead Year 1 Work Plan. The implementation was characterized by significant progress in capacity needs assessments, near completion of the seminal Module 1 of the CAADP Champions for Change leadership training for agriculture leaders across the continent, maturation in development of the innovative partnerships and arrangements for technical training, and completion and initial population of the Africa Lead database on short courses offered by African universities and training institutions as well as select, relevant courses outside the continent.

  612. Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program: Quarterly Report for January-March 2012

    The Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program (Africa Lead) aims to support the capacity building program of the US Government’s Feed the Future Initiative, which aligns US Government development assistance with Africa-owned agriculture development plans that are, in turn, aligned with the African Union’s Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program. 

    Africa Lead provides leadership training, capacity assessments, logistical support for training and innovative short courses and internships/twinning arrangements prioritized in consultation with missions and partner countries and institutions, and a database of training offerings on the continent that can be matched to the leadership training and capacity building needs.

    This report is the sixth quarterly performance report of the program, 18 months into program start up and implementation, and focuses on progress towards deliverables identified in the Africa Lead Year 2 Work Plan. A key development of this quarter, upon which this overview will focus, was the placement of two key private sector senior agribusiness professionals into 3 – 8 week experiential learning “internships” focused on marketed approaches to understanding and managing commodity price risks in agribusinesses. 

  613. Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program: Quarterly Report for October-December 2011

    The Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program (Africa Lead), aims to support the capacity building program of the US Government’s Feed the Future Initiative, which aligns US Government development assistance with Africa-owned agriculture development plans that are, in turn, aligned with the African Union’s Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program. 

    Africa Lead provides leadership training, capacity assessments, logistical support for training and innovative short courses and internships/twinning arrangements prioritized in consultation with missions and partner countries and institutions, and a database of training offerings on the continent that can be matched to the leadership training and capacity building needs.

    This report is the fifth quarterly performance report of the program, 15 months into program start up and implementation, and focuses on progress towards deliverables identified in the Africa Lead Year 2 Work Plan. During this quarter, the program supported three high profile workshops and provided organizational, financial, logistical and facilitation support to 8 workshops aimed at helping non-government stakeholders in agriculture development investments. In addition, the first Task 1 Module 2 training took place and the Year 2 work plan for the program was developed this quarter.

  614. Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program: Quarterly Report for July-September 2011

    The Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program (Africa Lead), aims to support the capacity building program of the US Government’s Feed the Future Initiative, which aligns US Government assistance with Africa-owned agriculture development plans that are, in turn, aligned with the African Union’s Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program. 

    Africa Lead provides leadership training, capacity assessments, logistical support for training and innovative short courses and internships/twinning arrangements prioritized in consultation with missions and partner countries and institutions, and a database of training offerings on the continent that can be matched to the leadership training and capacity building needs.

    This report is the fourth quarterly performance report of the program, 12 months into program start up and implementation, and focuses on progress towards deliverables identified in the Africa Lead Year 1 Work Plan. 

  615. Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program Quarterly Report for April - June 2013

    The Africa Leadership Training and Capacity Building Program (Africa Lead), aims to support the capacity building program of the US Government’s Feed the Future Initiative, which aligns U.S. Government development assistance with Africa-owned agriculture development plans that are, in turn, aligned with the African Union’s Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program

    Africa Lead provides leadership training, capacity assessments, logistical support for training and innovative short courses and internships/twinning arrangements prioritized in consultation with missions and partner countries and institutions, and a database of training offerings on the continent that can be matched to the leadership training and capacity building needs.

    This report is the eleventh quarterly (April - June 2013)  performance report of the program, and focuses on progress towards deliverables identified in the Africa Lead Year 3 Work Plan. The implementation was characterized by a juxtaposition of regional office close-out activities, especially for the Nairobi office, and continuation of an intense work load, responding to the request that the momentum be sustained. 

  616. External evaluation team report on the Feed the Future innovation lab for collaborative research on grain legumes

    The Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Collaborative Research on Grain Legumes (Legume Innovation Lab; LIL), supports ten multi-disciplinary collaborative research and institutional capacity strengthening subcontracted projects working in 13 Feed the Future countries in Africa and Central America and the Caribbean involving scientists at 10 US universities, 3 USDA/ARS research centers, and 23 developing country national agriculture research systems and universities.

    This evaluation, conducted February-July 2016, follows a USAID-approved evaluation plan. It involved a review of background literature and project documents; a week-long series of interviews with more than 75 project stakeholders at the 2016 Pan-African Grain Legume and World Cowpea Conference in Zambia; site visits to the Management Office (MO) and LIL projects in Guatemala and Uganda; and remote interviews with various stakeholders. The evaluation focuses on the ten projects comprising the LIL research portfolio, the performance of the MO, and USAID Mission supported Associate Awards managed by the LIL MO. Four targets of interest were identified: achievements in research; program structure and management; institutional capacity and collaborations; and the program future.

  617. Africa Lead Year Two Annual Report October 2014-September 2015

    Africa Lead II is a program dedicated to supporting and advancing agricultural transformation in Africa as proposed by the African Union Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program. It will also contribute to the Feed the Future goals of reduced hunger and poverty by building the capacity of Champions—defined as men and women leaders in agriculture—to develop, lead, and manage the policies, structures and processes needed for the transformation process.

    This Year Two summary covers the Program’s major accomplishments and outputs from October 2014 through September 2015. Activities with governmental and nongovernmental partners cluster along three service areas. “Capacity Development Services,” are the support and training that improve institutional capacity to manage agricultural development and promote the effective, inclusive participation of non-state actors in the policy process. The second activity cluster, “Policy Process Services,” includes the co-facilitation, logistical support and research that strengthen parters' capacity to manage and implement the policy change and alignment process. The third cluster is “Knowledge Sharing Services”; it captures activities and methods that involve consultation and coordination with food security organizations that contribute to evaluating impact and sharing learning that benefits all partners.

  618. Feed the Future: Building Capacity for African Agricultural Transformation (Africa Lead II) Quarterly Report April - June 2016

    Africa Lead — Feed the Future’s Building Capacity for African Agricultural Transformation Program — supports the advancement of agricultural transformation in Africa as proposed by the African Union Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP). Africa Lead also contributes to the Feed the Future goals of reduced hunger and poverty by building the capacity of Champions — i.e., men and women leaders in agriculture — and the institutions in which they operate to develop, lead, and manage the policies, structures, and processes needed for transformation. 

    This report covers the program’s major accomplishments and outputs from April – June 2016, which is Quarter 3 of the Africa Lead’s third year of implementation. It highlights the support, facilitation, and training that Africa Lead provides partners to improve institutional capacity and broader systems and institutional architecture to manage agricultural transformation as well to promote the effective, inclusive participation of non-state actors in policy processes. Africa Lead activities also promote and sustain a culture of learning and continue to build a process by which evidence can play a greater role in determining policy directions and programs in agriculture. Sections 2-4 of this report summarize project-wide progress during Quarter 3 (Q3) in the three cluster areas of capacity development, policy support, and knowledge sharing to align organizations, policies, and systems around CAADP. Section 5 includes mission-level dashboards, which provide a snapshot view of Q3 activities and performance indicators for each of the project’s buy-ins.

  619. Feed the Future: Building Capacity for African Agricultural Transformation (Africa Lead II) Quarterly Report October – December 2016

    This report covers the program’s major accomplishments and outputs from October -December 2016, which is Quarter 1 of the Africa Lead’s fourth year of implementation. It highlights the support, facilitation, and training that Africa Lead provides partners to improve institutional capacity and broader systems, and institutional architecture to manage agricultural transformation as well to promote the effective, inclusive participation of non-state actors in policy processes.

    Africa Lead activities are demand-driven, and the project serves as a flexible mechanism to support various USAID initiatives at the mission and continental level. To illustrate the program’s complex network of activities, Sections 2-4 of this report summarize progress during Quarter 1 (Q1) in the three cluster areas of capacity development, policy support, and knowledge sharing to align organizations, policies, and systems around Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme. Section 5 includes mission-level dashboards, which provide a snapshot view of Q1 activities and performance indicators for each of the project’s buy-ins.

  620. Feed the Future: Building Capacity for African Agricultural Transformation (Africa Lead II) Quarterly Report April - June 2015

    Africa Lead II—the Feed the Future: Building Capacity for African Agricultural Transformation Program—aims to support and advance agricultural transformation in Africa as proposed by the African Union Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program. It will also contribute to the Feed the Future goals of reduced hunger and poverty by building the capacity of Champions—defined as men and women leaders in agriculture—to develop, lead, and manage the policies, structures and processes needed for the transformation process.

    The scope of Africa Lead II is divided into three components: improving institutional capacity to manage agricultural development; strengthening capacity to manage and implement the policy change and alignment process; promoting the effective, inclusive participation of non-state actors in the policy process. The quarterly report covers in detail the activities and outputs of the components (or strategic areas of program intervention) that make up the Africa Lead II program. It begins and ends with overall program support tasks and in between highlights program activities that Africa Lead has undertaken during this quarter.


  621. African institutions innovation mechanism (AIIM)-assist: final report

    This report outlines AIIM-Assist activities performed under four components (management of the annual program statement process, building the capacity of AIIM grantees and finalists, technical assistance to other USAID missions in Feed the Future focus countries, technical support to African regional partners outside of AIIM), and highlights qualitative and quantitatvie achievements  between August 6, 2012 and November 4, 2016.

  622. Support to Agricultural Research for Development of Strategic Crops in Africa

    The following contents were included in this newsletter (April–June 2014): the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) held a two-day workshop on Engagement of Youth Entrepreneurship for Agricultural Transformation in Africa, from 28-30 May at IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria; cassava processing factory was established at the IITA Kalambo station in DR. Congo; project coordinator visits sites to evaluate project activities in Tanzania; stories on cassava, rice, wheat and maize were detailed. 

  623. Impact of integrated agricultural research and development on adoption of soil fertility management technologies among smallholder farmers of Southern Africa

    This paper sets out to determine the impact of Integrated Agricultural Research for Development in three selected countries of Southern Africa. Agricultural productivity in Southern Africa faces several challenges, of which poor soil fertility strikes out as the priority problem inhibiting increased productivity in farmers’ fields. While several soil fertility management technologies are being promoted in the region, their uptake by smallholder farmers remains very low. In order to mitigate the challenges that African countries are facing in agricultural production, Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) through Sub Saharan Africa Challenge Programme (SSA CP) introduced Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D) as an institutional innovation designed to promote agricultural productivity through the adoption of appropriate technologies. Two data sets collected through questionnaire survey at the beginning of the SSA CP project and at the end of the project are used in this paper. Local average treatment effect is used to measure the impact of IAR4D on adoption of integrated soil fertility management technologies. Study findings show that after two years of implementing IAR4D, adoption of soil fertility technologies improved in one of the projects being implemented. Otherwise, IAR4D had an insignificant impact on adoption of soil fertility management technologies in all the three participating countries. Local average response functions shows that socioeconomic factors are more important in influencing adoption than participating in research.

  624. Sustainable agriculture practices and livelihoods in pro-poor smallholder farming systems in southern Africa

    Climate variability and change threaten and impact negatively on biodiversity, agricultural sustainability, ecosystems, and economic and social structures – factors that are all vital for human resilience and wellbeing. To cope with these challenges, embracing sustainability in food production is therefore essential. Practising sustainable agriculture is one way of ensuring sustainability in pro-poor farming communities in low-income countries. Sustainable agricultural practices are those practices enabling farmers to meet current and future societal needs for food, fibre, ecosystem services and healthy lives. This study evaluates the dynamics of farm-level adoption of sustainable agriculture practices and their effects on maize productivity, crop income and food adequacy, using data from the Chinyanja Triangle in southern Africa. The authors apply joint estimation techniques to estimate consistently the impact of sustainable agriculture practices on maize productivity, crop income and food adequacy. They established that the uptake of sustainable agriculture practices significantly improves productivity, income and food adequacy. The systematic targeting of reducing gender-related imbalances, enhancing ties to boost access to social capital, diversifying revenue sources to improve wealth and facilitating access to other strategic resources can conclusively enhance the uptake of sustainable agriculture practices, thus improving livelihoods. The authors recommend the integration of sustainable agriculture practices into rural development policy frameworks in southern Africa.

  625. Building capacity in participatory monitoring and evaluation in NARES

    Members of the Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance were working to improve their capacity in planning and management through the introduction of participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) systems to national agricultural research and extension institutes (NARES) and their partners in Eastern and Southern Africa. The national bean programmes within NARES in six countries had been successful in institutionalising PM&E and in encouraging partners involved in the dissemination of bean technologies to incorporate PM&E systems in their projects. PM&E systems provided NARES and their diverse partners with ways of: simplifying complex implementation plans, dealing with multiple agendas, and assessing long term impacts. It introduced a learning culture into the organisation and provided a means of assessing the progress of programmes against regionally and nationally-defined milestones, generating useful information for evaluation in the process.

  626. Innovation in smallholder farming in Africa: recent advances and recommendations: proceedings of the international workshop on agricultural innovation systems in Africa (AISA), Nairobi, Kenya, 29-31 May 2013

    The international workshop on Agricultural Innovation Systems in Africa (AISA) was held in Nairobi, Kenya, on 29–31 May 2013. Its main objectives were to learn jointly about agricultural innovation processes and systems in Africa, identify policy implications and develop policy messages, and explore perspectives for collaborative action research on smallholder agricultural innovation.The workshop focused on sharing experiences in trying to understand and strengthen multi-stakeholder innovation processes and the role of smallholders in innovation, and identifying and discussing priorities and recommendations for research, practice and policy. Oral presentations were purposefully kept to a minimum. Presentations of lesson-focused posters allowed for extensive and wide-ranging facilitated discussions and intensive social learning among participants. 

  627. Participatory monitoring and evaluation for institutional learning and change

    The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) implements participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) systems as a means of strengthening learning, self-reflection and facilitating institutional learning and change (ILAC) processes within Research and Development (R&D) institutions and local communities in Africa. PM&E provides a continuous process of learning and adjustment that is central to ILAC processes and that allows institutions to better engage with their partners and beneficiaries in decision making and collective learning processes throughout the project cycle. The objectives of CIAT’s work in PM&E is to develop an iterative process for supporting institutional learning and to understand the role of PM&E systems in improving project performance and the costs and benefits of PM&E to institutions. The PM&E approach can be described as an action-oriented process that leads to critical learning and corrective action by involving all levels of stakeholders, and building their capacity and commitment to reflect, analyze, and take responsibility for corrective actions.

  628. Seven lessons learned to catalyze African innovation through engagement platforms

    Engagement platforms are variously known as multi-stakeholder platforms or innovation platforms. In general terms, an engagement platform is an opportunity for individuals and people representing organizations with different backgrounds and interests to come together to diagnose problems, identify opportunities and implement solutions. They may engage in design and implementation as a platform, in smaller groups, or individually. Over the past ten years, the CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF) has used engagement platforms across a wide range of scales to address an equally wide range of challenges. Based on this experience, the report offers seven lessons as well as three case studies.

  629. Institutionalisation and sustainability of innovation platforms

    The chapter is a part of the book Integrated Agricultural Research for Development: from Concept to Practice. It introduces a new paradigm called integrated agricultural research for development (IAR4D), how the IAR4D approach is critical in the institutionalisation process, why institutionalise innovation platforms (IPs), what the drivers of IP institutionalisation are, what constitutes an ‘enabling policy environment’ for IPs, how to institutionalise the IPs, what the low-lying fruits are in the institutionalisation and sustainability of IPs, what the current and potential obstacles to institutionalising and sustaining the IPs are, and successful progress towards institutionalisation of IPs.  

  630. Sustainable agricultural intensification research and learning in Africa

    The sustainable agricultural intensification research and learning in Africa (SAIRLA) project is a five-year program (2015–2020) funded by the UK Department of International Development. The project seeks to generate new evidence and design tools to enable governments, investors and other key actors to deliver more effective policies and investments in sustainable agricultural intensification (SAI) that strengthen the capacity of poorer farmers’, especially women and young people, to access and benefit from SAI. SAIRLA has commissioned research and will facilitate multi-scale learning to understand different ways of achieving SAI and its developmental implications.

  631. Developing a knowledge management approach for an agricultural innovation system: the case of the Southern African Bean Research Network (SABRN)

    This paper is a case study of a network that combined participatory approaches to propose best suited knowledge management (KM) interventions for its member countries. A five-step exercise used existing elements of the alliance’s strategy, a KM survey and a face-to-face participatory validation of the analysis, to identify gaps in current KM approaches and to collectively point to immediate opportunities for improvement. The KM survey, also referred to as a scan, provided a neutral space for reflection. Its conclusions through the workshop process were crucial in confirming the network's strengths and weaknesses specific to KM. Feeding back the results into existing work plans provided concrete opportunities for country members to implement ideas that had been discussed. The approach to and the outputs of this exercise were extrapolated to formulate a theory of change on KM for the alliance

  632. Stakeholders' participation in innovation platform in West Africa: implications on livelihood outcomes

    This study analysed the effects of the participation of farmers to innovation platforms on their livelihood in Humidtropics West Africa Flagship. Results showed that higher livelihood asset capital was found among the participants than non-participants. The study thus revealed further investment should be made in the establishment and strengthening of innovation platforms that enable the development, effective dissemination and adoption of agricultural innovations, thus fostering improved livelihood, alleviate poverty and reduce food insecurity. 

  633. Motivation and participation in multi-stakeholder innovation platforms in the Great Lakes Region of Africa

    The relationship between motivation and participation in five agricultural research and development innovation platforms (IPs) in Africa’s Great Lakes Region is examined. We analyze data from surveys and in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Although farmers prioritized new knowledge and skills, these were not sufficient to consistently foster active participation. Anticipated economic (markets, income, and credit) and material (agricultural inputs) livelihood benefits did encourage active farmer participation. Few actors mentioned social incentives (network connections and status) as motivating factors. Participation of local policy makers and the private business sector was limited. Overall, participation was curtailed by unfulfilled expectations of tangible immediate benefits, limited understanding of the IP concept, lack of resources, and prior commitments.

  634. Communicating complexity: integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development

    African farming systems are highly heterogeneous: between agroecological and socioeconomic environments, in the wide variability in farmers’ resource endowments and in farm management. This means that single solutions (or ‘silver bullets’) for improving farm productivity do not exist. Yet to date few approaches to understand constraints and explore options for change have tackled the bewildering complexity of African farming systems. In this paper we describe the Nutrient Use in Animal and Cropping systems – Efficiencies and Scales (NUANCES) framework. NUANCES offers a structured approach to unravel and understand the complexity of African farming to identify what we term ‘best-fit’ technologies – technologies targeted to specific types of farmers and to specific niches within their farms. The NUANCES framework is not ‘just another computer model’! We combine the tools of systems analysis and experimentation, detailed field observations and surveys, incorporate expert knowledge (local knowledge and results of research), generate databases, and apply simulation models to analyse performance of farms, and the impacts of introducing new technologies. We have analysed and described complexity of farming systems, their external drivers and some of the mechanisms that result in (in)efficient use of scarce resources. Studying sites across sub-Saharan Africa has provided insights in the trajectories of change in farming systems in response to population growth, economic conditions and climate variability (cycles of drier and wetter years) and climate change. In regions where human population is dense and land scarce, farm typologies have proven useful to target technologies between farmers of different production objectives and resource endowment (notably in terms of land, labour and capacity for investment). In such regions we could categorise types of fields on the basis of their responsiveness to soil improving technologies along soil fertility gradients, relying on local indicators to differentiate those that may be managed through ‘maintenance fertilization’ from fields that are highly-responsive to fertilizers and fields that require rehabilitation before yields can improved. Where human population pressure on the land is less intense, farm and field types are harder to discern, without clear patterns. Nutrient cycling through livestock is in principle not efficient for increasing food production due to increased nutrient losses, but is attractive for farmers due to the multiple functions of livestock. We identified trade-offs between income generation, soil conservation and community agreements through optimising concurrent objectives at farm and village levels. These examples show that future analyses must focus at farm and farming system level and not at the level of individual fields to achieve appropriate targeting of technologies – both between locations and between farms at any given location. The approach for integrated assessment described here can be used ex ante to explore the potential of best-fit technologies and the ways they can be best combined at farm level. The dynamic and integrated nature of the framework allows the impact of changes in external drivers such as climate change or development policy to be analysed. Fundamental questions for integrated analysis relate to the site-specific knowledge and the simplification of processes required to integrate and move from one level to the next.

  635. Linking action at different levels through innovation platforms

    Vertical linkages occur among innovation platforms organized at different levels: community, district and national. Horizontal linkages occur among platforms situated at the same level (e.g. in multiple districts) to strengthen their bargaining position or for learning. This brief discusses ways to facilitate learning and problem solving across innovation platforms at different levels (vertical linkages) and between initiatives located at the same level (horizontal linkages). It is available in Chinese, English, Hindi, Thai and Vietnamese.

  636. Monitoring innovation platforms

    Innovation platforms can be complex and challenging so effective monitoring is critical to ensure that they function effectively and achieve their intended purposes. A monitoring system is a collection of methods and tools to track and measure innovation activities, processes among partners, and the results of these processes. This brief describes what a monitoring system does, who is involved, how it works, and what to do with the findings. It is available in Chinese, English, Hindi, Thai and Vietnamese.

  637. Botswana: Systematic Country Diagnostic

    Botswana has been one of the worlds fastest growing economies over the past 50 years, allowing the country to move from being among the poorest to upper middle income status - this has had the effect of pulling the majority of the population out of poverty. While Botswana is rightly praised for its management of resource wealth, it is apparent that the high levels of investment by government (in health, education, and infrastructure) are not delivering quality outcomes, making it increasingly difficult to meet the objectives of growth, diversification, and poverty elimination. Indeed, some of the foundations which drove the development success of Botswana over the past half century are being eroded or face risks. In this context, this systematic country diagnostic (SCD) is intended to assess the priorities for Botswana to make rapid progress in achieving the objectives of: (i) elimination of extreme poverty on a sustainable basis; and (ii) ensuring shared prosperity by improving the welfare of the less-well-off in the country. It includes individual chapters analyzing the opportunities and challenges to meeting these objectives with respect to: growth; inclusiveness; and sustainability. The SCD concludes with a prioritization of the key challenges.

  638. Kenya : Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    Despite myriad challenges, Kenya has emerged in recent years as one of Africa’s frontier economies, with headline growth in the most recent decade propelling the country toward middle-income status. Less well understood is how risk dynamics associated with production, markets, and policy adversely impact sector performance, in terms of both influencing ex ante decision making among farmers, traders, and other sector stakeholders and causing ex post losses to crops, livestock, and incomes - destabilizing livelihoods and jeopardizing the country’s food security. The present study was commissioned in part to bridge this knowledge gap. It is the first step in a multiphase process designed to integrate a stronger risk focus into sector planning and development programs. It seeks to learn from and build on a range of broad initiatives by the Government of Kenya (GoK) and its development partners purposed to enhance Kenya’s resilience and response to natural disasters. The ultimate objective is implementation of a holistic and systematic risk management system that will reduce the vulnerability and strengthen the resiliency of Kenya’s agricultural supply chains, and the livelihoods that depend on them. This sector risk assessment is the primary output of phase one. The study’s main objective is to identify, assess, and prioritize principal risks facing Kenya’s agriculture sector by analyzing their impacts via quantitative and qualitative measures. The study’s main findings highlight an agriculture sector increasingly vulnerable to extreme weather variability. Chapter one gives introduction. Chapter two provides an overview of Kenya’s agriculture sector and a discussion of key growth constraints. Chapter three assesses the main agricultural risks (production, market, and enabling environment). Chapter four analyzes the frequency and severity of the major risks identified and assesses their impact. Chapter five presents some stakeholder perceptions of these risks and the potential to improve their management. Chapter six concludes with an assessment of priorities for risk management and a broad discussion of possible risk management measures that can help to strengthen the resiliency of agricultural supply chains and the livelihoods they support.

  639. The Political Economy of Seed Reform in Uganda : Promoting a Regional Seed Trade Market

    This report provides a short summary of the recent history of the seed industry. Although the informal seed system still accounts for an estimated 85 percent of planted seed, the formal sector has been transformed in 20 years from control by a monopoly parastatal to competition among 23 registered companies, with at least 5 or 6 being serious players. Significantly, the relief seed industry that dominated and distorted the formal seed trade during the Northern Uganda conflict has withered away, leaving room for a sustainable, market-driven seed industry to develop. Fundamentally, however, the key institutions in the sector and the legal framework are not fit for purpose and are a significant drag on the industry. This report sketches the roles and contribution of stakeholder organizations such as the Uganda Seed Trade Association, the Uganda National Farmers Federation, and the Uganda National Agrolnput Dealers Association. It outlines the support provided by major donors, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Danish International Development Agency (Danida), the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), the Netherlands Embassy, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the East Africa Community (EAC) Secretariat, over 15 years. After spelling out the issues in the sector, the report looks at the political economy literature for insights to help explain the near paralysis in the regulatory institutions. The dominant role of the National Resistance Movement (NRM) in decision making is described, as is the regime's use of inflationary patronage.

  640. Uganda Water Assistance Strategy

    Over the past 25 years, Uganda has experienced sustained economic growth, supported by a prudent macroeconomic framework and propelled by consistent policy reforms. Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth averaged 7.4 percent in the 2000s, compared with 6.5 in the 1990s. Economic growth has enabled substantial poverty reduction, with the proportion of people living in poverty more than halving from 56 percent in the 1992 to 23.3 percent in 2009. However, welfare improvements have not been shared equally; there is increasing urban rural inequality and inequality between regions. Revitalizing economic growth and tackling persistent poverty will require addressing a number of challenges. These include alleviating infrastructure bottlenecks; increasing agricultural productivity; managing land, water and other natural resources; addressing demographic challenges; and confronting governance issues. The development and management of water resources is intimately linked to Uganda's continued development ambitions. Water can be both a positive force-providing productive input to agriculture, industry, energy and tourism, and sustaining human and environmental health-as well as a destructive one-to which the devastating consequences of floods and droughts can attest. The National Water Resources Assessment (NWRA) estimates that Uganda's total renewable water resources are about 43 million cubic meters (MCM), less than was estimated in the Ministry of Water and Environment's (MWE's) Sector Investment Plan (SIP) in 2009. About 13 percent of this is sustainable groundwater (5.67 MCM) and the balance is surface water (37.41 MCM). About one half of all districts in Uganda experience annual rainfall deficits-the difference between evapotranspiration and rainfall-ranging from slightly above zero to 400 mm. The frequency of rainfall anomalies below normal (or long-term annual average) is significantly greater than the frequency of rainfall anomalies higher than normal. The Uganda water Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) aims to assist the Government of Uganda (GoU) in identifying priority actions for building on successful outcomes, tackling remaining challenges, and exploiting opportunities in Uganda's water sector. The objective of the water CAS is to define the World Bank's strategic role in supporting GoU to better manage and develop its water resources. The recommendations of the water CAS are complementary to the World Bank Uganda Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) 2011-15 priorities for Uganda and consistent with the country's development objectives as defined in the National Development Plan (NDP) and water and related sector plans and strategies, which form the foundation of the World Bank Uganda CAS.

  641. Making the Grade : Smallholder Farmers, Emerging Standards, and Development Assistance Programs in Africa - A Research Program Synthesis

    Market access has been identified as one of the foremost factors influencing the performance of small-scale producers in developing countries, and in particular least-developed countries. Smallholder access to markets for higher-value or differentiated agricultural and food products (hereafter HVAF) is recognized as a vital opportunity to enhance and diversify the livelihoods of lower-income farm households and reduce rural poverty more generally (World Bank 2007a). Smallholder participation in HVAF markets is typically constrained by inadequate farm-level resources, farm-to-market logistical bottlenecks, and more general transaction costs in matching and aggregating dispersed supplies to meet buyer and consumer demand. These traditional constraints have been amplified and, in some cases, surpassed by a new set of challenges associated with compliance with product and process standards, set and enforced by governments as well as private supply-chain leaders. In the face of emerging challenges and opportunities associated with standards and serving HVAF markets, many development agencies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), government agencies, and private companies have implemented measures to level the playing field, strengthen specific technical or institutional capacities, or otherwise act to facilitate smallholder compliance with standards and continued or increased participation in HVAF supply chains. Such investment, cost-sharing, capacity-building, or capacity-bridging activities have expanded considerably in recent years, especially in SSA. These initiatives have taken varied forms and involved various entry points. Many initiatives have been bottom-up, focusing on smallholder (group) capacities for production, collective action, standards compliance, and so forth; others have been top-down, seeking to better link farmers to remunerative markets through the efforts and enhanced capacities of lead firms; and others have opted for intermediary models, with donors and NGOs assuming critical supply-chain functions. Still other interventions have focused outside of specific value chains, seeking to strengthen the overall enabling environment and support services for HVAF more generally. Relatively little of this expanding field of development assistance has been formally evaluated to consider its cost-effectiveness and impacts. Nevertheless, there are evident signs of learning and adjustment within the development community regarding the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of various approaches and, relatively recently, some efforts to begin to share these lessons and to better coordinate development assistance in this field.

  642. Opening Up the Markets for Seed Trade in Africa

    Despite its vast agriculture potential, Africa is increasingly dependent on food imports from the rest of the world to satisfy its consumption needs. Food output has not kept pace with population growth, and more than 80 percent of production gains since 1980 have come from the expansion of cropped areas rather than from greater productivity of areas already cultivated. This paper looks at the current requirements for seed trade in Africa, the obstacles, status of ongoing plans for regional harmonization, challenges of harmonization, and opportunities for near-term improvement. With Africa increasingly dependent on food imports, regional economic communities have been discussing harmonized seed policies for many years. While agreement on key regulations pertaining to variety release, seed certification, and phytosanitary control is now falling into place, improved farmer access to quality seeds are many years away due to capacity limitations and legal obstacles. Without relying on complex rules, experience elsewhere shows there are many simple options for improved seed trade that African governments can implement directly while continuing to work towards full harmonization.

  643. Ethiopia - Accelerating Equitable Growth : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 1. Overview

    This report presents an update on the economic challenges facing Ethiopia with a focus on the shared goal of accelerating equitable growth. The starting point is the Government's own Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP), which is in the process of finalization, and is designed to cover the period 2005-2010. This report proposes that the growth strategy should more explicitly adopt a "two-legged" approach that would both (a) consolidate and deepen an essentially balanced, broad-based and inclusive growth strategy and (b) adopt a more selective approach to speed up growth, allowing for identification and support for dynamic new activities, based on private and public sector discoveries, innovations, and partnerships. This report suggests ways forward to complement and strengthen the PASDEP. It brings together recent analysis and thinking from a range of sources, to put forth a storyline and key elements of the strategy in Part I. The second part provides a series of chapters on key themes - viz. recent and longer term economic developments, rural development, the private sector, the infrastructure challenge, and the institutions and governance. The report seeks to provide adequate coverage of the major challenges facing Ethiopia in its efforts to accelerate equitable growth, drawing on work across a range of themes including the Institutional and Governance Review.

  644. Zambia : Smallholder Agricultural Commercialization Strategy

    This report focuses on the potential and opportunities for smallholder commercialization in Zambia. The paper discusses the framework for Zambia's smallholder commercialization strategy, the current state of smallholder agriculture in Zambia, key issues, support from agribusiness to smallholders, and development of potential and opportunities for smallholder commercialization. The paper concludes with three strategy areas: how to strengthen existing market mechanisms, reform of sectoral policies, and investments in public infrastructure.

  645. Nigeria - Agriculture Public Expenditure Review

    This report summarizes the findings of the Nigeria Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (NAGPER). The NAGPER was undertaken to achieve four main objectives: (i) establish a robust data base on public expenditure in the agricultural sector; (ii) diagnose the level and composition of agricultural spending in the recent past; (iii) understand the budget processes that determine resource allocation in the sector; and (iv) draw preliminary policy recommendations for agriculture. These objectives are admittedly modest. At a minimum, most public expenditure reviews (PER) seek to understand the basic pattern of public spending in a sector, as well as the processes that influence spending decisions. To better contribute to policy making, many PERs also extend the analysis to examine not only the quantity of spending, but also its efficiency and impact. The scope of the NAGPER was restricted because preliminary investigations revealed that assembling and validating core expenditure data represented a major challenge in and of itself. Therefore it seemed prudent not to set out an overly ambitious set of objectives, the realization of which might be compromised by lack of data.

  646. Cameroon - Agricultural Value Chain : Competitiveness Study

    This study, competitiveness of the value chain of the agricultural sector in Cameroon, aims to help the Government achieve its objectives for the rural sector. The main objective of this study was to provide information on the potentials, investment and growth policies of commercial agriculture in Cameroon. It gives an overview of the constraints and analyzes the national, regional or international competitiveness of six value chains of the agricultural sector. This paper examines family and large agro-industrial farms from different regions of Cameroon. The six aspects studied are: cassava, cotton, maize, palm oil, plantain and poultry. The primary purpose of this study of competitiveness is to identify products and operating systems already competitive or having the ability to become competitive on the domestic, regional or global market. The Government has explicitly asked the Bank to support new projects of its agricultural program. This economic and sectoral work will serve as a basis for a new loan to the agricultural sector of Cameroon.

  647. Rural Finance in Nigeria : Integrating New Approaches

    The rural space is home to 53 percent of Nigeria's population and more than 70 percent of its poor. While it is well understood in Nigeria that financial exclusion of the rural population stunts development, still fewer than 2 percent of rural households have access to any sort of institutional finance. Access to financial services is a key ingredient to rural development: it increases incomes through productive investment, helps create employment opportunities, facilitates investments in health and education, and reduces the vulnerability of the poor by helping them to smooth their income patterns over time. A lack of rural access to financial services not only retards rural economic growth, but also increases poverty and inequality. While Nigeria's own long history with rural finance shows a clear appreciation for the importance of rural access, the persistent absence of sustainable access yields important lessons for the future.

  648. Country Partnership Framework for Tunisia for the Period FY 2016-2020

    This Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for Tunisia, prepared jointly by International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Finance Corporation (IFC) and Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) covers the period Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 through FY 2020. The CPF is anchored in the Government of Tunisia’s September 2015 Note d’Orientation Stratégique and the WBG’s October 2015 Strategy for the Middle East and North Africa Region. It builds on extensive discussions with a wide range of stakeholders, and is underpinned by WBG analytics, including the June 2015 Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD). The Government’s “Note d’Orientation Stratégique” outlines Tunisia’s development vision for the next five years. Its main premise is that Tunisia will maintain its strong partnerships with the international community; rely on the private sector to lead economic growth and job creation; and promote a vibrant civil society. Technical ministries and regions are in the process of preparing their five-year sectorial plans based on this vision, for which financing will be sought during an international donor conference in late 2016.

  649. Mali Financial Sector Assessment: Development Module

    Mali is a vast, land-locked country in West Africa with a population of approximately 14.9 million, and a GDP per capita of USD480. The economy is largely rural, with over two-thirds of the population living off agriculture, notably cotton. Gold is the country’s largest export, though production has been declining and the industry faces an uncertain future as proven reserves are limited. The service sector, which represents 40 percent of GDP, is dominated by trade and commerce. Mali’s dependence on crops and gold makes it vulnerable to terms of trade shocks. Industry, which employs just 3 percent of the active population, consists largely of small-scale food processing and textile plants. The overwhelming majority of the population (over 90 percent) works in the informal sector. The FSAP Development Module focused on: i) the banking sector and legal framework (credit to the economy); ii) microfinance; iii) agricultural finance; iv) insurance; and v) housing finance2. The mission carried out in-depth assessments on each topic and provided recommendations aiming at mitigating financial vulnerabilities and supporting the development of the financial sector (i.e. development the credit to the economy while insuring financial stability). 

    A World Bank team visited Mali from March 2-13, 2015, to complete the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Development module. This report summarizes the main findings of the mission, identifies key financial sector vulnerabilities, and provides policy recommendations.

  650. Rural Transport : Improving its Contribution to Growth and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Poverty reduction is a long-standing development objective of many developing countries and their aid donors, including the World Bank. To achieve this goal, these countries and organizations have sought to improve smallholder agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as part of a broader rural development agenda aimed at providing a minimal basket of goods and services in rural areas to satisfy basic human needs. These goods and services include not only food, health care, and education, but also infrastructure. As a result, rural transport remains a constraint to increasing agricultural productivity, achieving rural growth, and thus alleviating rural poverty. The first major finding of the review of rural transport theory and practice is that many of the approaches needed to improve the impact of rural transport interventions on poverty reduction are known, particularly from the work of the Rural Travel and Transport Program (RTTP) of Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP). Unfortunately, many of the recommended approaches remain untested within Sub-Saharan Africa beyond the pilot scale, notwithstanding their influence on rural transport policy and project design in other operational regions of the Bank. For SSA, these are missed opportunities. Even where SSA countries have applied these approaches, institutional and financial sustainability and scaling up local successes remain significant challenges for both their agriculture and transport sectors. The second key finding is that rural households are rarely the point of focus in the design of rural transport interventions in SSA, even though a methodology to allow this focus has been developed and successfully tested in several pilot projects since the 1980s, the result is that the transport needs of rural households continue to be analyzed and understood by means of an indirect assessment of those needs, which means that most projects have a less than desirable impact on improving the rural access and mobility situation of such households.

  651. Agriculture as a Sector of Opportunity for Young People in Africa

    This paper sheds light on how to harvest the "youth dividend" in Sub-Saharan Africa by creating jobs in agriculture. The agriculture that attracts the youth will have to be profitable, competitive, and dynamic. These are the same characteristics needed for agriculture to deliver growth, to improve food security, and to preserve a fragile natural environment. With higher priority accorded to implementation of well-designed public investments in agriculture, continued progress on regulatory and policy reform, and attention to assure inclusion of young people in Africa's agricultural renaissance, the sector's handsome youth dividend can be collected and widely shared.

  652. More Than Just Hot Air: Carbon Market Access and Climate-Smart Agriculture for Smallholder Farmers

    The Kenya agricultural carbon project is breaking new ground in designing and implementing climate finance projects in the agricultural sector. The project is regarded as an innovative example for climate-smart agriculture within and outside the World Bank. For the first time, while increasing productivity and enhancing resilience to climate change, smallholder farmers in Africa will receive payments for greenhouse gas mitigation based on sustainable agricultural land management. Quantification of carbon sequestration is monitored based on a newly developed carbon accounting methodology. This smart lesson describes the key factors to take into consideration when facilitating the adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices and access to carbon markets for smallholder farmers.

  653. Uganda - Promoting Inclusive Growth : Transforming Farms, Human Capital, and Economic Geography, Synthesis Report

    At an average above 6.0 percent per year over the past two decades, Uganda' s growth rate was impressive by all standards. In parallel, poverty declined significantly, not only in urban areas, but also to some extent within the rural areas. This combination was possible because the key drivers of growth were labor-intensive services sectors, some of which are agriculture based. In fact, Uganda's growth process has reduced overall poverty faster than what has been observed in many other developing countries. This report addresses the issue from a double perspective: sectoral and geographical. From a sectoral perspective, it concludes that the agricultural sector needs transformation because it remains the primary employer; it is the country's main comparative advantage and bedrock for industrialization. More broadly, identifying sectors with potential will be important for employment opportunities, which in turn will be largely dependent on productivity levels and thus on the level of education and skills of the labor force. From a geographical perspective, transformation generally yields a concentration of economic activities that leaves some locations lagging in prosperity. This unbalanced growth needs to be supported with appropriate economic integration policies that have been analyzed in the report.

  654. Kingdom of Lesotho: Country Partnership Framework 2016-2020

    Lesotho is one of the poorest countries in Southern Africa, and has one of the highest income inequality in the world. Home to about 2 million people, Lesotho is surrounded by South Africa, the second largest and most industrialized economy in Africa. Lesotho generates income mainly by exporting textiles, water, and diamonds, and is a member of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Common Monetary Area (CMA). The national currency, the loti, is pegged to the South African rand. Lesotho's main trading partners are South Africa and the United States. The CPF will seek to mitigate four substantial risks to the implementation of the WBG program: (a) political and governance; (b) macroeconomic; (c) climate change and climate- induced disasters; and (d) operating risks (capacity and fiduciary). The lessons from the Country Assistance Strategy Completion and Learning Report (CPS CLR) will play an important role in addressing these risks. The CPF will give high importance to quality and risks at entry for new operations, and continue strong monitoring and supervision. These mitigation factors are essential for achieving sustainable results.

  655. Maize revolutions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    There have been numerous episodes of widespread adoption of improved seed and long-term achievements in the development of the maize seed industry in Sub-Saharan Africa. This summary takes a circumspect view of technical change in maize production. Adoption of improved seed has continued to rise gradually, now representing an estimated 44 percent of maize area in Eastern and Southern Africa (outside South Africa), and 60 percent of maize area in West and Central Africa. Use of fertilizer and restorative crop management practices remains relatively low and inefficient. An array of extension models has been tested and a combination of approaches will be needed to reach maize producers in heterogeneous agricultural environments. Yield growth overall has been 1 percent over the past half-century, although this figure masks the high variability in maize yields, as well as improvements in resistance to disease and abiotic pressures that would have caused yield decline in the absence of maize breeding progress. The authors argue that conducive policies are equally, if not more, important for maize productivity in the region than the development of new technology and techniques. Currently popular, voucher-based subsidies can "crowd out" the private sector and could be fiscally unsustainable.

  656. Liberia: Gender-Aware Programs and Women's Roles in Agricultural Value Chains

    This Policy Memorandum provides policy advice to the government of Liberia (GOL) in an effort to mainstream gender issues in policies, programs, and projects supporting agricultural production and value-chain development. It is organized as follows. Section I reviews women's roles in Liberian agriculture and agricultural value chains, drawing on a variety of data sources, including the 2007 Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire Survey (CWIQ) and the two rounds of the Comprehensive Food Security and Nutrition Survey (CFSNS, 2006 and 2008). It also gives an overview of the agricultural sector in Liberia. Section II uses the same sources to analyze key constraints faced by women as agricultural producers and in value-adding activities, as well as key crop-specific issues in cassava, rice, and tree crops. Section III reviews the engagement of the GOL in gender-aware agriculture programs and recommends some key general principles to support gender-aware interventions, and specific recommendations aimed at supporting women as agricultural producers and increasing access to, and better efficiency in, value addition. Section IV discusses the institutional issues that need to be considered to support the design, implementation and monitoring of interventions. Finally, Section V discusses the availability and the role of appropriate gender aware data as the basis for policy programming and monitoring of interventions.

  657. Supporting Women's Agro-Enterprises in Africa with ICT: A Feasibility Study in Zambia and Kenya

    A new generation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is finding a small foothold among poor, small-scale farmers in developing countries. Even so, many barriers still prevent poor rural people from accessing, using, and benefiting from new ICT tools and platforms, and those barriers are arguably higher for rural women. The relationship between gender and agriculture has been studied intensively over the years, and many agricultural interventions now include gender as a crosscutting issue or mainstream gender throughout their operations. Studies of the relationship between gender and the use of ICTs in agriculture have started to appear only quite recently, however. The Africa Region of the World Bank views ICTs as potentially transformative technology for rural development and seeks to incorporate the use of ICTs throughout its portfolio of projects. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of integrating ICTs into two large investment programs: the Irrigation Development and Support Project (IDSP) in Zambia and the Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Project (KAPAP). The specifi c goal was to examine how ICT-based interventions might be designed to strengthen women s participation in commodity value chains under the two projects.

  658. Linking Gender, Environment, and Poverty for Sustainable Development : A Synthesis Report on Ethiopia and Ghana

    Poverty, environment, social development, and gender are important cross-cutting themes of the World Bank and government investment programs, especially within the Sustainable Development Network (SDN). For developing sectoral strategies and programs, economic, environment and social assessments are undertaken, however, these are usually done separately, and most often gender issues are not included. This is a missed opportunity, because joint assessments can map the links between gender, environment, and poverty and help identify approaches that can accelerate the positive synergy and better social/gender, environment, and poverty outcomes; otherwise, the existing negative relationships may slow the development process, and can even lead to unintended results. A joint analysis will also reduce cost of project preparation. This study was undertaken to analyze the links between gender, environment, and poverty; identify approaches; and provide practical suggestions for fostering positive synergies for better outcomes. The analytical framework for this study draws on the World Bank's three pillars of sustainable development: social inclusion, economic growth and environmental sustainability, and from political ecology literature, which highlights how decision-making processes, power relationships, and social conditions influence environmental policies and development outcomes. The following four propositions derived from political ecology literature guide the analysis: i) socioeconomic marginalization and natural resource degradation are mutually reinforcing processes; ii) protected area conservation and external control of natural resources can disrupt household and community production and social organization; iii) competing environmental interests shape environmental change; and iv) collective action and resilience can help mitigate negative impacts. The study is based on in-depth analysis of two sub-Saharan African countries Ethiopia and Ghana. The research methodology was qualitative, and included a series of interrelated analyses: a political ecology literature review, country-specific reviews of literature and data sets, good-practice project case studies in both countries, and participatory appraisals of grassroots perceptions of gender-poverty-environment links. Study sites were selected to include the major agro ecological zones and rural livelihood systems in each country. National and sub regional participatory forums were conducted to 'ground truth' the findings and elicit policy and project recommendations. A seven-week online discussion explored the broader applicability of the framework and study findings.

  659. Awakening Africa's Sleeping Giant : Prospects for Commercial Agriculture in the Guinea Savannah Zone and Beyond

    This report summarizes the findings of the study on Competitive Commercial Agriculture for Africa (CCAA). The objective of the CCAA study was to explore the feasibility of restoring international competitiveness and growth in African agriculture through the identification of products and production systems that can underpin rapid development of a competitive commercial agriculture. The CCAA study focused on the agricultural potential of Africa's Guinea Savannah zone, which covers about 600 million hectares in Africa, of which about 400 million hectares can be used for agriculture, and of which less than 10 percent are cropped. The African Guinea Savannah is one of the largest underused agricultural land reserves in the world. In terms of its agro climatic features, the land is similar to that found in the Cerrado region of Brazil and in the Northeast Region of Thailand, with medium-to-high agricultural potential but also significant constraints in the form of infertile soils and variable rainfall. Based on a careful examination of the factors that contributed to the successes achieved in Brazil and Thailand, as well as comparative analysis of evidence obtained through detailed case studies of three African (Mozambique, Nigeria, and Zambia) countries. This report argues that opportunities abound for farmers in Africa to regain international competitiveness, especially in light of projected stronger demand in world markets for agricultural commodities over the long term.

  660. Investment in Agricultural Water for Poverty Reduction and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa : Synthesis Report

    The report analyses the contribution to date of agricultural water management to poverty reduction and growth in the in sub-Saharan Africa region, the reasons for its slow expansion and apparently poor track record, as well as the ways in which increased investment in agricultural water management could make a sustainable contribution to further poverty reduction and growth. The first chapter places agricultural water management in the context of the millennium development goals and paths to poverty reduction through agricultural growth. The second to fifth chapters contain a regional diagnostic that looks at the role of agricultural water management in sub-Saharan Africa, examines the contribution that investment projects have made, reviews the changing institutional context, and assesses the potential for further development. The sixth and the final chapter then summarizes the lessons and recommendations for increasing the contribution of agricultural water management to poverty reduction and growth in the region.

  661. Tanzania: Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    This study aims to achieve a better understanding of the agricultural risk and risk management situation in Tanzania with a view to identifying key solutions to reduce current gross domestic product (GDP) growth volatility. For the purpose of this assessment, risk is defined as the probability that an uncertain event will occur that can potentially produce losses to participants along the supply chain. Persistence of unmanaged risks in agriculture is a cause of great economic losses for farmers and other actors along the supply chains (for example, traders, processors, and exporters), affecting export earnings and food security. The agricultural sector risk assessment is a straightforward methodology based on a three-phase sequential process. Phase analyzes the chronological occurrence of inter-seasonal agricultural risks with a view to identify and prioritize the risks that are the drivers of agricultural GDP volatility. This report contains the findings and recommendations of the first phase and includes the identification, analysis, and prioritization of major risks facing the agricultural sector in Tanzania, as well as recommendations regarding key solutions. Chapter one gives introduction and context. Chapter two contains an overview of the agricultural sector and its performance, as well as a discussion of key agro-climatic, weather, and policy restrictions and opportunities. Chapter three includes an assessment of major risks (that is, production, market, and enabling environment risks) facing key export and food crops. Chapter four presents an estimate of historical losses due to realized production risks and a correlation of such losses with production volatility. Chapter five provides insights into the exposure to risks by different stakeholders and their actual capacities, vulnerabilities, and potential to manage agricultural risks. Chapter six presents a risk prioritization by different supply chains and discusses the possible solutions, as well as specific recommendations for the agricultural sector development program (ASDP).

  662. Nutrition Policy and Programs in Ghana. The limitation of a single sector approach

    Although Sub-Saharan Africa has some of the worst nutrition indicators in the world, nutrition remains a low priority on the policy agendas of many African governments. This despite the fact that proven interventions are known and available and that investment in them is considered a cost-effective strategy for poverty reduction. This case study is one in a series seeking to understand (1) what keeps African governments from committing fully to reducing malnutrition, and (2) what is required for full commitment. It documents how the Ghanaian government has addressed the issue of malnutrition since Independence, examines what political and institutional factors have prevented full commitment, and identifies what conditions have moved the nutrition agenda forward at different points in time. The primary objective of this study as well as the series as a whole is to help African governments, development partners, and nutrition and health practitioners identify, understand and address the political and institutional obstacles preventing sustainable progress in nutrition.

  663. Rural Banking

    This case study describes the history and business model of the Rural and Community Bank (RCB) network in Ghana, analyzes its performance, identifies key issues, and makes recommendations on the way forward. The study analyzes the service delivery and financial performance of the RCBs. Before the establishment of RCBs in the late 1970s and the subsequent expansion of other service providers into rural areas, access to institutional credit for farm and nonfarm activities was scarce. The main sources of credit were moneylenders and traders that charged very high interest rates. In many rural communities, secure, safe, and convenient savings and payment facilities hardly existed. The first RCB was established in a farming community in the central region of Ghana in 1976. Rural communities showed tremendous interested in the community ownership and management features of RCBs, and by 1984 the number of RCBs reached 106. The introduction of a check payment system for cocoa farmers also spurred the establishment of local banks in many communities. The financial performance of many RCBs started to decline, however, for several reasons, including a drought that affected the country in 1983, weak governing ability, conflicts within boards of directors, and ineffective management in many RCBs. By the end of 2008, 127 RCBs were in operation with a total 584 service outlets. RCBs are regulated by Ghana's central bank, the Bank of Ghana, and thereby form part of the country's regulated financial sector. RCBs are the largest providers of formal financial services in rural areas and represent about half of the total banking outlets in Ghana.

  664. Republic of South Sudan : The Rapid Water Sector Needs Assessment and a Way Forward

    The aim of the rapid assessment is to support the transition from emergency post conflict recovery to a development approach. The completion of the water, sanitation, and hygiene, or WASH strategic framework in 2011 was intended to mark the beginning of this transition in the water resources sector. Among other things, the transition involved the adjustment of policy and strategy and possibly a rethinking of approaches as the government shifts from primarily supply-driven emergency and recovery assistance to sustainable development. This assessment is based on a review of the typology of water uses in South Sudan (chapter three) including rain-fed and irrigated agriculture, livestock, fisheries, hydropower energy production, urban and rural domestic water supply and the environment; the government's water sector program priorities (chapter four); water sector institutional and policy environment (chapter five); and issues and lessons learned from the completed and ongoing activities since 2007. This assessment framework has provided useful insights and findings and outcomes that enabled the identification of programmatic priorities and related activities that the water sector agencies may undertake with the assistance from development partners in the short and medium term. Chapters six, seven, and eight present these findings in detail.

  665. Sub-Saharan Africa - Managing Land in a Changing Climate : An Operational Perspective for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Livelihoods, food security, and development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa are highly dependent on land management practices to generate natural ecosystem goods and services. Out of a total population of about 717 million people, almost 60 percent depend for their livelihood on agriculture, hunting, fishing, or forestry. However, unsustainable land management already is leading to large-scale land degradation trends, which pose a threat to food security and poverty alleviation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change threatens to exacerbate and add to the existing vulnerabilities. Evidence has shown that the number of people affected by climate variability, through floods and droughts, is already increasing. Much-needed increases in agricultural production have, as a result, been unrealized. These outcomes place smallholder farmers, who depend largely on rainfed agriculture, in highly vulnerable circumstances under climate-change predictions. The objective of this work is to improve practical knowledge resources for Sub-Saharan African countries, regional institutions, and development practitioners at the World Bank and other partner institutions to help them make informed decisions about: (i) the risks posed by climate variability and change to land-resource-dependent livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa; and (ii) Sustainable Land and Water Management (SLWM) approaches and practices that are best suited for meeting development objectives while also addressing the challenge posed by climate-change adaptation and mitigation.

  666. Ethiopia - Agriculture and Rural Development : Public Expenditure Review for 1997-98 and 2005-06

    Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification, shifting to a market based system, ensuring food security at the household level and strengthening emergency responses, building up the fragile livelihoods of pastoral communities, and increasing rural water supply coverage. The series of policies put in place in the 1990s included a more supportive macro-economic framework, liberalized markets for agricultural products, and an extension and credit-led push on seed and fertilizer. Following the drought of 2002/03, the government increased its focus on safety nets, and the 2006 Plan of Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) emphasizes rural-urban linkages and the promotion of rural non-farm enterprises, with continued efforts to tackle vulnerability and food security. Promoting gender equality is a key component of the strategy.

  667. Land Conflict, Migration, and Citizenship in West Africa

    Land and property rights, migration, and citizenship are complex issues that cut across all social, economic, and political spheres of West Africa. This paper provides an overarching scoping of the most pressing contemporary issues related to land, migration, and citizenship, including how they intersect in various contexts and locations in West Africa. The way issues are analytically framed captures structural challenges and sets them against the regional and global meta-trends of which policy makers and practitioners should be aware for conflict-sensitive planning. The paper points to some of the effective practices in managing and mitigating these issues and also raises several questions on areas for future research. Part one lays out the migratory context in West Africa. It points to the type, nature, and extent of mobility that characterizes the region. Part two sets out West Africa’s land tenure and management systems, including structural challenges, general management policies, and key issues related to land tenure and migrants. Part three frames the key land and migration meta-trends in the context of fragility. Part four concludes with an overall exploration of the paper’s results and puts forward a series of research questions that are necessary in order to discern the most effective and realistic operational approaches.

  668. The Agribusiness Innovation Initiative in Ethiopia : Enabling a Climate Smart, Competitive, and Sustainable Agribusiness Sector

    The Agribusiness Innovation Initiative (AII) seeks to contribute to advancing a climate-smart competitive agribusiness sector which will create more jobs and raise incomes for Ethiopians. The AII will contribute toward this objective by identifying innovative growth-oriented entrepreneurs who are pursuing business opportunities based on value addition of agricultural commodities and providing them with a holistic service offering that accelerates their growth and increases their sustainability. In the process of doing so, the AII will engage all stakeholders along the value chain, thus strengthening the innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystem affecting the start-up and growth of innovative agribusiness enterprises. Relatedly, the AII will strive to have a demonstration, or catalytic, effect, encouraging a new generation of entrepreneurs to enter, grow, and advance the industry. The AII will have two groups of beneficiaries. The direct beneficiaries include high growth potential agribusiness entrepreneurs and small businesses. This group includes a high percentage of women. The indirect beneficiaries are the small-holder farmers that supply the raw materials to the enterprises, and the tangential service providers, such as truckers, packaging providers, and others that will benefit from the increased demand generated.

  669. The Agribusiness Innovation Center of Tanzania : Scaling Value-Adding, Post-Harvest Processing Agribusinesses

    Tanzania has tremendous potential to support a thriving agribusiness sector. Agriculture is diverse and extensive, employing more than 80 percent of the population, and contributing about 28 percent of Gross Domestic Product, or GDP and 30 percent of export earnings. A wide range of agricultural commodities are produced in Tanzania, including fiber (sisal, cotton), beverages (coffee, tea), sugar, grains (a diverse range of cereals and legumes), horticulture (temperate and tropical fruits, vegetables and flowers) and edible oils. This document proposes a new model for promoting the growth of competitive value-added sunflower oil processing in Tanzania, and also seeks to identify potential growth enterprises in other value chains. The Agribusiness Innovation Center (AIC) will provide a set of financial and non-financial services to high-growth potential entrepreneurs, aiming to accelerate the growth of their enterprises and demonstrating product, process, and business model innovation across focal sectors. The AIC will complement existing efforts focused on farm-level improvements and foreign investment facilitation.

  670. Linking Smallholders to Livestock Markets in Tanzania : Combing Market and Household Survey Data

    Linking farmers to markets is widely viewed as a milestone towards promoting economic growth and poverty reduction. However, market and institutional imperfections along the supply chain thwart perfect vertical and spatial price transmission and prevent farmers and market actors from getting access to information, identifying business opportunities and allocating their resources efficiently. This acts as a barrier to market-led rural development and poverty reduction. This paper reviews and analyses household information, and the major livestock market and marketing data available in Tanzania, in relation to market-led development possibilities. Household-level data collected by the Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics and market data collected and disseminated by the Livestock Information and Knowledge System of the Tanzania Ministry of Industry and Trade are reviewed and utilized together. Both types of data help identify market opportunities for livestock producers, but only their joint use could provide policy makers with the information needed to design and implement policies that facilitate access to markets for livestock producers. Options to promote integration of household-level data and market data are discussed, which would facilitate the implementation of the Tanzania statistical master plan and contribute to the implementation of the global strategy to improve agricultural and rural statistics.

  671. The Nigeria Fadama National Development Series

    Over the last 20 years, poor rural farmers in Nigeria have seen the benefits of community organization as a tool for local economic development under the National Fadama Development Project series. They have witnessed improvements in rural areas that have embraced a more inclusive and participatory model of local economic decision making. Many communities have come together under the umbrella of new institutional arrangements for addressing local issues. These arrangements have visibly improved economic conditions, boosted agricultural incomes, and helped reduce rural poverty. This transformation has taken place in challenging environments, where basic agriculture remains the principal source of livelihoods and where rural stakeholders have not traditionally participated in cooperative local economic arrangements. This case study aims to show how learning and adaptation have been important to the success of the Fadama project, and how lessons learned can help inform new operations in agricultural reform and rural development more broadly. The case study explores the following question: How did the Fadama project learn and adapt to changing circumstances, including the social and political context, as it evolved from a pilot program to a successful national project? The chronological review looks at how the program’s success can be attributed to its capacity to build on existing knowledge of local conditions, to pilot and learn before scaling up, to incorporate and test global practices, and to build important new institutional structures at the local level. This case study also examines how the evolving institutional structure ultimately led to a change in the social contract among farmers, other stakeholders, and different levels of government, resulting in a cultural shift in the process of local development. This shift was prompted in part by a transfer of global knowledge and adaptation of prevailing global practices.

  672. Poverty Reduction Support Credits in Uganda : Results of a Stocktaking Study

    Uganda pioneered the use of budget support operations known as Poverty Reduction Support Credits (PRSCs) in the World Bank. PRSCs were designed to channel programmatic lending to support policy and institutional reforms in support of a country's Poverty Reduction Strategy, usually presented in the form of a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). In the case of Uganda the PRSCs were designed as a series of annual credits supporting a three year rolling program of reforms, based on Uganda's version of a PRSC, which is known as the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) . The World Bank credits are in the form of untied budget support, financing all government activities, in the same way as domestic tax revenues. The PRSCs have been significantly co-financed by other donors in the form of grants which, like the World Bank credits take the form of untied budget support. The focus of this report is to study what has worked, what has not worked, and what could be improved in the Uganda PRSC process in the future.

  673. Malawi Poverty and Vulnerability Assessment : Investing in Our Future, Synthesis Report

    This study builds a profile of the status of poverty and vulnerability in Malawi. Malawi is a small land-locked country, with one of the highest population densities in Sub-Saharan Africa, and one of the lowest per capita income levels in the world. Almost 90 percent of the population lives in rural areas, and is mostly engaged in smallholder, rain-fed agriculture. Most people are therefore highly vulnerable to annual rainfall volatility. The majority of households cultivate very small landholdings, largely for subsistence. As a result, poverty is pervasive and not merely the situation of the lowest economic groups. Therefore, while this report focuses on the least-well-off sections of the population, the analysis provides valuable information to accelerate wealth creation and economic growth for the whole of Malawi. This synthesis report presents the main findings and policy recommendations stemming from the analysis. Due to the length and detail of this study, the 'full report' presenting the detailed analysis and results underpinning these policy recommendations is available as a separate publication. This report highlights some of the key characteristics and causes of poverty in Malawi, and focuses on the main sources of risk affecting households, namely food insecurity and health shocks. Based on these findings, the report goes on to develop a set of policy recommendations for widely shared growth and poverty reduction, and for enabling the most vulnerable to make a living. Finally, the report also provides recommendations for strengthening the monitoring and evaluation systems of poverty reduction strategies, so that policy makers and Malawian society can better track the effectiveness of the policies pursued, and inform future policy choices.

  674. Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 4, Crosscutting Issues

    The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable, remunerative activities and employment are crucial to this process. This report is designed to assist in indicating and specifying the potential role of specified agricultural commodity value chains in achieving the priority objectives of the government by focusing on small holders, traditional farming, and food security and forms an input for the preparation of a strategic orientation framework to achieve sustainable food security, nutrition and agricultural development. This report reviews gender issues in Liberia's agriculture and rural sector with a special focus on rural women and how to improve their participation and contribution to rural development. The report reviews women's roles in agriculture and the rural economy; their access to key inputs and services which are essential to carry out their socio-economic role in rural areas; as well as gender-related social trends and problems that may have an impact on productivity and poverty reduction in rural areas. The assessment also reviews the institutional and policy framework for agriculture and rural development and identifies opportunities to improve the rural sector's capacity to address gender issues and support female farmers and rural entrepreneurs. The findings and recommendations will inform the reform of the sector, currently underway, and thereby support the GoL poverty reduction effort and the implementation of the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (IPRSP).

  675. Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 3, Sub-sector Reports, Part II

    The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable, remunerative activities and employment are crucial to this process. This report is designed to assist in indicating and specifying the potential role of specified agricultural commodity value chains in achieving the priority objectives of the government by focusing on small holders, traditional farming, and food security and forms an input for the preparation of a strategic orientation framework to achieve sustainable food security, nutrition and agricultural development. This report reviews gender issues in Liberia's agriculture and rural sector with a special focus on rural women and how to improve their participation and contribution to rural development. The report reviews women's roles in agriculture and the rural economy; their access to key inputs and services which are essential to carry out their socio-economic role in rural areas; as well as gender-related social trends and problems that may have an impact on productivity and poverty reduction in rural areas. The assessment also reviews the institutional and policy framework for agriculture and rural development and identifies opportunities to improve the rural sector's capacity to address gender issues and support female farmers and rural entrepreneurs. The findings and recommendations will inform the reform of the sector, currently underway, and thereby support the GoL poverty reduction effort and the implementation of the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (IPRSP).

  676. Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 2, Sub-sector Reports, Part I

    The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable, remunerative activities and employment are crucial to this process. This report is designed to assist in indicating and specifying the potential role of specified agricultural commodity value chains in achieving the priority objectives of the government by focusing on small holders, traditional farming, and food security and forms an input for the preparation of a strategic orientation framework to achieve sustainable food security, nutrition and agricultural development. This report reviews gender issues in Liberia's agriculture and rural sector with a special focus on rural women and how to improve their participation and contribution to rural development. The report reviews women's roles in agriculture and the rural economy; their access to key inputs and services which are essential to carry out their socio-economic role in rural areas; as well as gender-related social trends and problems that may have an impact on productivity and poverty reduction in rural areas. The assessment also reviews the institutional and policy framework for agriculture and rural development and identifies opportunities to improve the rural sector's capacity to address gender issues and support female farmers and rural entrepreneurs. The findings and recommendations will inform the reform of the sector, currently underway, and thereby support the GoL poverty reduction effort and the implementation of the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (IPRSP).

  677. Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 1, Synthesis Report

    The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable, remunerative activities and employment are crucial to this process. This report is designed to assist in indicating and specifying the potential role of specified agricultural commodity value chains in achieving the priority objectives of the government by focusing on small holders, traditional farming, and food security and forms an input for the preparation of a strategic orientation framework to achieve sustainable food security, nutrition and agricultural development. This report reviews gender issues in Liberia's agriculture and rural sector with a special focus on rural women and how to improve their participation and contribution to rural development. The report reviews women's roles in agriculture and the rural economy; their access to key inputs and services which are essential to carry out their socio-economic role in rural areas; as well as gender-related social trends and problems that may have an impact on productivity and poverty reduction in rural areas. The assessment also reviews the institutional and policy framework for agriculture and rural development and identifies opportunities to improve the rural sector's capacity to address gender issues and support female farmers and rural entrepreneurs. The findings and recommendations will inform the reform of the sector, currently underway, and thereby support the GoL poverty reduction effort and the implementation of the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (IPRSP).

  678. Growing Food, Products, and Businesses: Applying Business Incubation to Agribusiness SMEs

    This report is organized into nine chapters. Chapter one provides the introduction to the report. Chapter two presents alternative approaches to agribusiness development and chapter three discusses the role of agribusiness incubators. Chapter four discusses the challenges of agribusiness incubators and chapter five presents a typology of agribusiness incubators. Chapter six elaborates on the evolution of incubators over time. Chapter seven presents the analysis of impact and cost-benefits. Chapter eight summarizes good practices and lessons learned. Chapter nine presents the recommendations.

  679. Building Science, Technology, and Innovation Capacity in Rwanda : Developing Practical Solutions to Practical Problems

    The purpose of this report is to show how development issues and policy initiatives shaped the design and structure of the science, technology, and innovation (STI) capacity-building program that eventually emerged from the partnership between the Government of Rwanda and the World Bank. Too often, government STI capacity building programs do not closely link specific STI investments and the country's economic and social development objectives, almost as if investing in science and research and development (R&D) obviated the need to design detailed programmatic linkages and develop mission oriented capacity-building programs. These challenges fall into two broad categories: (a) improving the lives of the rural poor, reducing poverty, and achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and (b) generating wealth, diversifying the economy, and supporting private sector initiatives to produce and sell value-added natural resource (mostly agricultural) exports.

  680. CDAIS Rwanda: achievements and next steps

    Several posters have been created on the occasion of the 5th TAP Partners Assembly (Laos, 20-22 September 2017) to show recent activities and achievements in the eight pilot countries of the CDAIS project.

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This poster specifically describes the achievements and next steps in Rwanda. 

  681. CDAIS Rwanda: Innovation Niches

    Several posters have been created on the occasion of the 5th TAP Partners Assembly (Laos, 20-22 September 2017) to show recent activities and achievements in the eight pilot countries of the CDAIS project.

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This poster specifically describes the innovation niches in Rwanda.

  682. A story of change from Ethiopia - poster developed under the CDAIS project

    Several posters have been created on the occasion of the 5th TAP Partners Assembly (Laos,  20-22 September 2017) to show recent activities and achievements in the eight pilot countries of the CDAIS project.

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This poster specifically describes a story of change from the CDAIS pilot country Ethiopia. 

  683. CDAIS challenges and next steps: Ethiopia

    Several posters have been created on the occasion of the 5th TAP Partners Assembly (Laos,  20-22 September 2017) to show recent activities and achievements in the eight pilot countries of the CDAIS project.

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This poster specifically deals with the achievements and next steps in Ethiopia.

  684. Stories of Change from Burkina Faso and challenging issues for CDAIS project

    Several posters have been created on the occasion of the 5th TAP Partners Assembly (Laos,  20-22 September 2017) to show recent activities and achievements in the eight pilot countries of the CDAIS project.

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This poster specifically deals with CDAIS capacity development stories, key issues at niche level and challenges in Burkina Faso. 

  685. CDAIS Burkina Faso: Project Implementation Strategy at the niche and national levels

    Several posters have been created on the occasion of the 5th TAP Partners Assembly (Laos,  20-22 September 2017) to show recent activities and achievements in the eight pilot countries of the CDAIS project.

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This poster specifically deals with CDAIS Project Implementation Strategy at the niche and national levels in Burkina Faso.

  686. The 1st agricultural Innovation ‘Market Place’ in Burkina Faso

    Several posters have been created on the occasion of the 5th TAP Partners Assembly (Laos, 20-22 September 2017) to show recent activities and achievements in the eight pilot countries of the CDAIS project.

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This poster specifically describes the 1st Agricultural Innovation Marketplace in Burkina Faso, which was held in July 2017 at Ouagadougou. 

  687. CDAIS Burkina Faso: achievements and next steps

    Several posters have been created on the occasion of the 5th TAP Partners Assembly (Laos, 20-22 September 2017) to show recent activities and achievements in the eight pilot countries of the CDAIS project.

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This poster specifically covers achievements and next steps in Burkina Faso.

  688. CDAIS Country achievements and next steps: Angola

    Several posters have been created on the occasion of the 5th TAP Partners Assembly (Laos, 20-22 September 2017) to show recent activities and achievements in the eight pilot countries of the CDAIS project.

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This poster specifically covers CDAIS achievements and next steps in Angola. 


  689. CDAIS challenges and next steps: Angola

    Several posters have been created on the occasion of the 5th TAP Partners Assembly (Laos,  20-22 September 2017) to show recent activities and achievements in the eight pilot countries of the CDAIS project.

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This poster specifically covers CDAIS challenges and next steps in Angola.

  690. Strengthening capacity for agricultural innovation in Rwanda

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This flyer is intended as one of a series that will report the many and varied activities of CDAIS in each country, including, for example, policy dialogues, ‘marketplaces’, and specific outcomes.

    This flyer specifically covers the CDAIS experience in Rwanda, that involved the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources of Rwanda, the National Agricultural Export Development Board of Rwanda, the Workforce Development Authority (WDA), the University of Rwanda, the Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB), the Capacity Development and Employment Services Board (CESB) and the Natural Resources Institute (NRI) of the University of Greenwich. 

  691. Strengthening capacity for agricultural innovation in Ethiopia

    The CDAIS project, funded by the EU and jointly implemented by Agrinatura and FAO, enhances innovation in agriculture by improving the functional capacities of individuals, organizations and systems. It brings partners together and uses continuous learning cycles to address the challenges and opportunities in and around selected ‘innovation niche partnerships’ in eight pilot countries in Central America, Africa and Asia.

    This flyer is intended as one of a series that will report the many and varied activities of CDAIS in each country, including, for example, policy dialogues, ‘marketplaces’, and specific outcomes.

    This flyer specifically covers the CDAIS experience in Ethiopia, that involved the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) and the International Centre for development oriented Research in Agriculture (ICRA).

  692. Good seed for quality produce: indigenous vegetables boost farmer incomes and livelihoods in Tanzania

    African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) have the potential to increase food and nutritional security and contribute to improved livelihoods, but farmers’ capacity to meet the growing demand for them has been constrained by a lack of good quality seed and technical knowhow. The Good Seed Initiative (GSI), funded by Irish Aid and active in Tanzania from 2013 to 2015, targeted both seed and vegetable growers, linking them to markets through an innovation platform (IP) approach. Production and utilization of quality AIV seeds has increased in Arusha and Dodoma, and cultivation of AIVs (both seed and vegetables) has increased farmers’ incomes and improved food and nutritional security for their communities. Project approaches such as farmer-to-farmer training, IPs and entrepreneurship have helped achieve sustainable linkages and improved livelihoods. - This case study was produced as part of the activities of the project entitled “Good Seed Initiative”. The project was mainly financed by Irish Aid with a small contribution from CABI’s Development Fund. CABI was the lead institute and the project partners included: The World Vegetable Center – Eastern and Southern Africa (AVRDC-ESA); Horticultural Research and Training Institute Tengeru (HORTI Tengeru) and Inades-Formation Tanzania (IFTz) in Tanzania.

  693. Listening to the Silent Patient. Uganda’s Journey towards Institutionalizing Inclusive Plant Health Services

    Every year, farmers in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from unacceptable levels of crop loss as a result of plant health problems, threatening their food security, income and livelihoods. This working paper shares lessons from Plantwise, an initiative to improve smallholder farmers’ access to plant health services in Uganda so that they can improve their yields, increase their incomes and improve their food security and livelihoods. The working paper presents lessons from almost ten years of experiences in implementing plant clinics in Uganda. It includes case studies that describe, and put into perspective, the experiences of five plant clinics. 

  694. Enhancing Information and Knowledge Systems for Agricultural Research and Innovation in West Asia and North Africa

    Presentation for the AARINENA General Assembly. Damascus. 12-14 October 2008 on enhancing Information and Knowledge Systems for Agricultural Research and Innovation in West Asia and North Africa (WANA). In particular, the presentation outlines the need to enhance Information and Knowledge Systems in WANA, the priority areas for enhancing information and knowledge systems in WANA, the role of GFAR and its members in enhancing information and knowledge systems in WANA.

  695. 3rd Programme Committee Meeting. Beijing, China 28 -29 November 2007. Progress Report: PROLINNOVA

    This PROLINNOVA report to the 3rd GFAR Programme-Committee meeting is composed of two parts.
    The past 1 entitles ‘ PROLINNOVA genesis and growth’ describes historical background and
    PROLINOVA in general while the part 2 entitles ‘2007 accomplishments’ narrates specific
    accomplishments of PROLINNOVA during the period January-November 2007 . Further, the annex 1
    lists contact addresses.

  696. Lessons learnt in providing extension systems and advisory services in Egypt

    This presentation summarizes lessons learned as a result of developing Information and knowledge systems in Egypt in the last years.  The lessons are classified on the main topics discussed in International Consultation on Agricultural Research for Development and Innovation held in December 2009 in ICRISAT. Th

  697. DURAS Project: Innovative partnerships for sustainable development

    The DURAS Project, which ran from 2004 to 2008, established a truly pioneering means of integrating innovation from science with that from communities themselves. At the heart of DURAS has been its innovative competitive grants system. Following an original selection and evaluation process that placed a premium on multi-stakeholder partnerships, 12 projects were funded in Africa and Asia over a period of three years, each involving an array of disciplines and partners. These programmes allowed research institutions and civil society organizations to work as true partners, each bringing their own knowledge, understanding and ideas to the interface between science and society and breaking through institutionalized barriers to bring a new dimension of engagement and mutual understanding. Each article in this publication was written by the project participants. It is an attempt to capture, in a few pages, the complex, yet mutually enriching experience of partners across a wide range of development contexts. It also presents some key results and lessons learned along the way that will have value to many others working to create more integrated AR4D systems.

  698. Agricultural R&D in West Asia and North Africa: Recent Investment and Capacity Trends

    This report assesses trends in investments and human resource capacity in agricultural R&D in countries in West Asia and North Africa (WANA), focusing on developments during 2009–2012. The analysis is based on information from a set of country factsheets prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) program of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), using comprehensive datasets derived from primary surveys targeting over 300 agencies in 11 countries during 2013–2014. Accounting for about two-thirds of the region’s total agricultural gross domestic product (AgGDP), the 11 sample countries do not provide a complete overview of agricultural R&D expenditures and staffing in the region as a whole. Yet, these countries are representative of the region’s diversity in terms of income level, country size, and agroclimatic characteristics. As private-sector data were not available in all sample countries, the data presented in this report only include agricultural R&D performed by government and higher education agencies. Data on the contributions of international agricultural R&D agencies operating in the subregion, such as the centers of the CGIAR Consortium, have also been excluded.

  699. Capacity Building Material for the Realization of Farmers' Rights in Malawi

    This capacity building material is developed in response to requests made by small-scale farmers and
    relevant stakeholders in Malawi to support their capacity development for the implementation of Farmers’
    Rights in the country. This capacity building material is intended, mainly, for small-scale farmers, local leaders
    that live and depend directly on family farming; farmers’ organizations and decision makers, including the
    Ministry of Agriculture; the Malawi Plant Genetic Resource Centre; agricultural research institutes; and the
    Seed Certification Unit of Malawi as well as Civil Society Organizations.
    This capacity building material on Farmers’ Rights is framed within the Capacity Building Programme on
    the Implementation of Farmers’ Rights implemented by GFAR; and the Community Based Agro Biodiversity
    Management Programme of the Development Fund of Norway undertaken in Malawi supporting small-scale
    farmers to achieve and sustain food security, including through their empowerment and increased local capacity.
    The aims of the capacity building material include to increase the capacity development on Farmers’ Rights
    and their implementation at the national and local levels; increase awareness of Farmers’ Rights as crucial
    for food security among small-scale farmers, relevant sectors and decision makers; increase the awareness of
    the role women farmers’ play in agriculture and food security; provide policy direction and guidance for the
    development of policies and legal instruments implementing Farmers’ Rights, and the review and adjustment
    of national measures affecting those rights; promote the co-existence and mutual reinforcing of Farmers’
    Rights and breeders’ rights.

  700. Ensuring linkages across the value chain to enable sustainable business models, using the PABRA network and innovation platforms as an example

    This presentation focuses on the work of the Pan Africa Bean Research Alliance (PABRA), which is an initiative launched in 1996 by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT).  PABRA works with the whole range of actors involved in producing beans – one of the most actively traded commodities in Africa – to provide better beans for Africa.

  701. Achieving economies of scale in the Africa Smallholders System through innovation platforms

    This presentation for the Third Global Conference on Agricultural Research for Development (GCARD3,Johannesburg, South Africa, 5-8 April 2016) illustrates the topic of competitiveness in Africa smallholders system, focusing on the Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D) and Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) concepts and on the role of the innovation platforms. 

  702. Understanding innovation platform effectiveness through experiences from west and central Africa

    Innovation platforms (IPs) are a way of organizing multistakeholder interactions, marshalling ideas, people and resources to address challenges and opportunities embedded in complex settings. The approach has its roots in theories of complexity, the concept of innovation systems and practices of participatory action research. IPs have been widely adopted across Africa and beyond in recent years as a “must have” tool in a range of “for development” modes of agricultural research. The authors' experiences with establishing and facilitating nine IPs in local settings in west and central Africa contribute to understanding factors that impact on their effectiveness. The nine IPs were variously focused on developing dairy, crop and/or meat value chains by strengthening mixed crop-livestock production systems or seed systems. Using case study methods, the authors identified variables that contribute to explaining the performance of these IPs in relation to six domains of change in the agricultural system and the sustainability of changes. Thematic analysis was guided by a conceptual framework which grouped variables into four categories (context, structure, conduct, and process) that interact to influence IP performance.

  703. A Comprehensive Overview of Investments and Human Resource Capacity in African Agricultural Research

    This report assesses trends in investments, human resource capacity, and outputs in agricultural research in SSA, excluding the private (for-profit) sector. The analysis uses information collected by Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI)—led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) within the portfolio of the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM). The comprehensive datasets were derived from primary surveys, collected through a series of consecutive data collection rounds; a small number of secondary sources, where survey data were missing or of poor quality; and ASTI’s older investment and human resource datasets. This report highlights the cross-cutting trends and challenges that emerged from the country-level data, structuring it within four broad areas: funding capacity, human resource capacity, research outputs, and institutional conditions—all in terms of whether they support or impede the effective and efficient conduct of agricultural research. This report concludes with a set of policy recommendations for regional and national-level decision makers, and other stakeholders.

  704. Theory and application of Agricultural Innovation Platforms for improved irrigation scheme management in Southern Africa

    Many small-scale irrigation systems are characterized by low yields and deteriorating infrastructure. Interventions often erroneously focus on increasing yields and rehabilitating infrastructure. Small-scale irrigation systems have many of the characteristics of complex socio-ecological systems, with many different actors and numerous interconnected subsystems. However, the limited interaction between the different subsystems and their agents prevents learning and the emergence of more beneficial outcomes. This article reports on using Agricultural Innovation Platforms to create an environment in which irrigation scheme actors can engage, experiment, learn and build adaptive capacity to increase market-related offtake and move out of poverty.

  705. Training materials for local communities on rainwater harvesting irrigation management: Capacity building on the use of rainwater for off-season small-scale irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas of sub-saharan Africa.

    These training materials have been produced to foster the capacity of key members of local communities to practically implement RWHI systems in a cost-efficient manner. The specific target group of these capacity building materials are local community members who are directly involved in the replication and scale-up of RWHI technologies and practices, i.e. local artisans and small-scale enterpreneurs in the field of rural water supply management and offseason small-scale irrigation on one hand, and educated smallholder farmers with previous knowledge and experience in this field who are interested to replicate and scaleup RWHI systems. Whereas these training materials are specifically tailored to members of local communities, the know-how and language used in this manual may not be suitable for uneducated readers. Therefore, these training materials intend to provide a selection of key information and know-how that can be used to support proper planning, design and construction of cost-efficient RWHI technologies and practices in arid and semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Further, this manual also suggests other relevant technical manuals for local communities which specifically focus on each of the RWHI technologies and practices. It is strongly recommended that reference is also made to these materials with the help of experienced professionals in this field of knowledge.

  706. Advanced training materials on rainwater harvesting irrigation management in arid and semi-arid areas of sub-saharan Africa:Technical capacity building on the use of rainwater for off-season smallscale irrigation in Ethiopia,Kenya,Mozambique and Zimbabwe

    These advanced training materials have been produced to foster the capacity of practitioners from private, nongovernmental and public sectors on one hand, and academics and scientists on the other, to practically implement cost-efficient RWHI technologies and practices in arid and semi-arid areas. Therefore, these training materials intend to provide the required information to support proper planning, design and construction of cost-efficient RWHI technologies and practices, with special emphasis on the specific problems encountered in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. Further, this manual also suggests relevant technical manuals which specifically focus on each of the RWHI technologies and practices. It is strongly recommended that reference is also made on this additional materials with help from experienced professionals in this field of knowledge. The training materials are divided in 10 chapters which specifically address all relevant technologies and practices that can be used to collect, store and reuse rainwater for off-season small-scale irrigation. Therefore, other uses of rainwater to enhance rainfed agriculture, especially rainwater for supplemental irrigation, or among others, in-situ and micro-catchment RWH systems that are not specifically meant to be used for off-season small-scale irrigation, are not considered.

  707. Transnational policy and technology transfer recommendations on the use of rainwater for off-season small-scale irrigation in sub- Saharan Africa: Fostering innovation and replication of rainwater harvesting irrigation strategies in arid and semi-arid

    These recommendations are a compilation of 2 regional studies at sub-Saharan Africa level which focused on research and technology transfer in the field of rainwater harvesting irrigatio nmanagement on one hand (section 3), and effective policy recommendations on the use of rainwater for off-season small-scale irrigation on the other (section 4). The regional studies upon which this transnational study is based come from the analysis of national studies in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. All these materials can be found on the AFRHINET website at or the specific country sections of the AFRHINET virtual Technology Transfer Centres at The overall goal of the research and technology transfer strategy is to foster the replication, transfer and scaling up of innovative, cost-efficient and market-oriented RWHI technologies and practices in arid and semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, this report aims to discuss different technology transfer options in order to encourage uptake of innovative technologies and practices in this field of knowledge. The main goal of the policy recommendations is to foster the replication, scaling-up and market-uptake of RWHI technologies and practices, and the inclusion of RWHI management into regional, national and local agricultural, irrigation and rural water management policies. The focus area is sub-Saharan Africa with a special emphasis on Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. This is meant to support a market-oriented replication and scaling up of RWHI management in sub-Saharan Africa, and contribute to policy reforms that adequately recognise the role of rainwater harvesting for off-season small-scale irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas.

  708. Best practices on the use of rainwater for off-season small-scale irrigation: Fostering the replication and scaling-up of rainwater harvesting irrigation management in arid and semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa

    This study has been produced with the overall goal to document and analyse exisiting best practices in the field of RWHI management in sub-Saharan Africa, with a special focus on Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. This is meant to determine the suitability of RWHI management under multivariate biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. The best practices include specific information and know-how on the performance, cost-efficiency and impacts of RWHI technologies. This information and know-how intends to contribute on the capitalisation of successful and unsuccessful experiences in the field of RWHI management in order to identify best practices which can then be replicated, adapted, improved and scaled-up, leading to greater impacts and benefits on one hand, and effective policies and investments on the other. This study is divided in 3 sections which specifically focus on best practices on technologies that can be used to collect, store and reuse rainwater for off-season small-scale irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, other uses of rainwater to enhance rainfed agriculture, i.e. rainwater for supplemental irrigation and spate irrigation, or natural groundwater recharge, among others, are not considered.

  709. Fostering the Use of Rainwater for Small-Scale Irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa. A regional baseline study in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Zimbabwe

    This report is part of the AFRHINET project under the ACP-EU Cooperation Programme in Science and Technology (S&T II). The overall aims of the project are to enhance options for sustainable integration of rainwater harvesting for irrigation through understanding adoption constraints and developing networks for capacity building and technology transfer. The African partners are Addis Ababa University and WaterAid-Ethiopia in Ethiopia, University of Nairobi and ICRAF-Searnet in Kenya, Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique, and University of Zimbabwe and ICRISAT-Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe. Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (Germany) is the coordinator of the project. The report is a summary of the most relevant information which was compiled in the frame of the baseline studies in the 4 AFRHINET African countries. The main goal of the baseline study was to conduct a capacity and technology transfer assessment in the field of rainwater harvesting for irrigation management. The national baseline studies were conducted through an extensive literature review, in-depth key informant interviews with representatives of stakeholder institutions and experts in the field of rainwater harvesting management and small-scale irrigation. Relevant information was also collected in the field and during national multi-stakeholder workshops, where information and experiences of relevant stakeholders was shared.

  710. Compositional dynamics of multilevel innovation platforms in agricultural research for development

    Innovation platforms (IPs) form a popular vehicle in agricultural research for development (AR4D) to facilitate stakeholder interaction, agenda setting, and collective action toward sustainable agricultural development. In this article, the authors analyze multilevel stakeholder engagement in fulfilling seven key innovation system functions. Data are gathered from experiences with interlinked community and (sub)national IPs established under a global AR4D program aimed at stimulating sustainable agricultural development in Central Africa. The findings show that all innovation systems functions required multilevel action, but that fulfillment of specific functions demands for strategic involvement of specific stakeholders at specific levels. They observed that a research- and dissemination-oriented sequence in the functions was prioritized in AR4D IPs and argue that such a sequence may be different in other types of (business) IPs. 

  711. Innovation systems and innovation platforms

    This presentation on innovation systems and innovation platforms was presented at the Africa RISING Training Workshop on Innovation Platforms, Addis Ababa, 23-24 January 2014.The presentation explains the concepts of innovation, innovation systems and innovation platform (IP) and also defines roles and characteristics of the IPs.

  712. Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South

    Drawing on studies from Africa, Asia and South America, this book provides empirical evidence and conceptual explorations of the gendered dimensions of food security. It investigates how food security and gender inequity are conceptualized within interventions, assesses the impacts and outcomes of gender-responsive programs on food security and gender equity, and addresses diverse approaches to gender research and practice that range from descriptive and analytical to strategic and transformative. The chapters draw on diverse theoretical perspectives, including transformative learning, feminist theory, deliberative democracy and technology adoption. As a result, they add important conceptual and empirical material to a growing literature on the challenges of gender equity in food production. A unique feature of this book is the integration of both analytic and transformative approaches to understanding gender and food security. The analytic material shows how food security interventions enable women and men to meet the long-term nutritional needs of their households, and to enhance their economic position. The transformative chapters also document efforts to build durable and equitable relationships between men and women, addressing underlying social, cultural and economic causes of gender inequality. Taken together, these combined approaches enable women and men to reflect on gendered divisions of labour and resources related to food, and to reshape these divisions in ways which benefit families and communities.

  713. Brokering Food Security: connecting smallholder farmers to markets in Poland and Zambia

    Partnership brokering is needed to work out new ways of organising food systems that treat agricultural smallholders as a resource and opportunity rather than a problem or distraction. This is because food systems are demanding innovation in the way they are organised. This is a matter of transforming stakeholders into partners in order to reconfigure food systems to operate differently, rather than just operate more efficiently. Fundamental systemic changes are needed as our contemporary food system is failing to deliver the food we increasingly demand. From a partnership brokering point of view, reconfiguration of stakeholders and partners is the challenge. The key driver lies with urban consumers, especially in Europe and North America who are demanding food that is tasty, fresh, additive-free and most importantly of known (traceable) origin. Brokering new types of food systems as partnerships of individuals and organisations means disrupting the status quo or business-as-usual to connect producers and consumers as directly as possible in new ways. This article presents the insights and experiences of two partnership brokers using partnership brokering to engage smallholders in reconfiguring local food systems in their respective countries of Poland and Zambia.

  714. Renewing innovation systems in agriculture and food. How to go towards more sustainability?

    Present-day society asks more from agriculture than just the production of food. Agriculture is now required to be concerned with the quality of food, ecosystem services, inclusion of marginalized populations, revitalization of rural territories, energy production, etc. This opening up of the future of agriculture encourages rural actors to experiment with new farming systems, using imagination, creativity and determination to replace dominant models. At the same time, low-cost mass-production systems continue on their way, with promises of a future based on green technologies. In this discussion it is important to consider what kind of sustainable development societies really want. Which innovations will help in achieving these developments? What role can research and public policies play in supporting the emergence of these innovations? This book takes the debate beyond the purely technical options and considers social and institutional innovations as well. It demonstrates that innovation is the result of a confrontation between visions of actors who often have divergent interests. There is no single path towards sustainable development and we must find ways to encourage the emergence and co-existence of different types of agriculture and food systems. The success of transitions will not only depend on our capacity to rethink existing models, but especially on our willingness to embark on a creative learning process from which we will inevitably emerge transformed.

  715. Innovative practice in connecting small-scale producers with dynamic markets

    This paper synthesizes Component 2 of the Regoverning Markets Programme. It is based on 38 empirical case studies where small-scale farmers and businesses connected successfully to dynamic markets, doing business with agri-processors and supermarkets. The studies aimed to derive models, strategies and policy principles to guide public and private sector actors in promoting greater participation of small-scale producers in dynamic markets. This publication forms part of the Regoverning Markets project.

  716. Synthesis Report: Review of Successful Scaling of Agricultural Technologies

    This report provides summary findings and conclusions from a set of five case studies examining the scaling up of pro-poor agricultural innovations through commercial pathways in developing countries. The E3 Analytics and Evaluation Project conducted the studies and prepared this synthesis report on behalf of the United States Agency for International Development’s Bureau for Food Security (USAID/BFS), as part of the Bureau’s efforts to scale up the impact of the Feed the Future initiative. The study’s findings also draw on the results of a one-day workshop at which the Project team presented the case studies and preliminary findings to a group of agriculture and scaling experts. USAID/BFS commissioned this study to produce lessons and, ultimately, guidance for the Agency including its country Missions about what types of innovations and which country contexts are best suited for scaling up through commercial pathways, and to identify the activities, strategies, and support necessary to facilitate successful scaling.


    Case Studies:

    1. Hybrid (Drought-Tolerant) Maize in Southern Zambia 
    2. Irrigated Rice Production in Northern Senegal 
    3. Purdue Improved Crop Storage Bags in Kenya 
    4. Agricultural Machinery Services in Bangladesh 
    5. Kuroiler Chickens in Uganda
  717. 2017 Global Food Policy Report

    IFPRI’s flagship report reviews the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions of 2016, and highlights challenges and opportunities for 2017 at the global and regional levels. This year’s report looks at the impact of rapid urban growth on food security and nutrition, and considers how food systems can be reshaped to benefit both urban and rural populations. Drawing on recent research, IFPRI researchers and other distinguished food policy experts consider a range of timely questions:
    ■ What do we know about the impacts of urbanization on hunger and nutrition?
    ■ What are our greatest research and data needs for better policy making that will ensure food security and improve diets for growing
    urban populations?
    ■ How can we better connect rural smallholders to urban food consumers to ensure that smallholders benefit from expanding urban food markets?
    ■ Why do city environments drive a nutrition transition toward poorer diets, and what policies can improve the nutrition environment?
    ■ How are urban areas reshaping agricultural value chains for staple crops and benefiting small farmers?
    ■ What role do informal markets play in feeding cities, and how can they be better governed to increase urban food security?
    The 2017 Global Food Policy Report also presents data tables and visualizations for several key food policy indicators, including country-
    level data on hunger, agricultural spending and research investment, and projections for future agricultural production and consumption. In addition to illustrative figures, tables, and a timeline of food policy events in 2016, the report includes the results of a global opinion poll on urbanization and the current state of food policy.


  718. Social network analysis of multi-stakeholder platforms in agricultural research for development: Opportunities and constraints for innovation and scaling

    Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) are seen as a promising vehicle to achieve agricultural development impacts. By increasing collaboration, exchange of knowledge and influence mediation among farmers, researchers and other stakeholders, MSPs supposedly enhance their ‘capacity to innovate’ and contribute to the ‘scaling of innovations’. The objective of this paper is to explore the capacity to innovate and scaling potential of three MSPs in Burundi, Rwanda and the South Kivu province located in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In order to do this, the authors apply Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Modelling (ERGM) to investigate the structural properties of the collaborative, knowledge exchange and influence networks of these MSPs and compared them against value propositions derived from the innovation network literature.

  719. Value Chain Upgrading and the Inclusion of Smallholders in Markets: Reflections on Contributions of Multi-Stakeholder Processes in Dairy Development in Tanzania

    Increasingly, value chain approaches are integrated with multi-stakeholder processes to facilitate inclusive innovation and value chain upgrading of smallholders. This pathway to smallholder integration into agri-food markets has received limited analysis. This article analyses this integration through a case study of an ongoing smallholder dairy development programme in Tanzania. Value chain upgrading and innovation systems perspectives were combined in an analytical framework to interpret the findings, which show that multi-stakeholder processes enhance horizontal and vertical coordination but limit process and product upgrading. The main conclusion is that, although such processes may catalyze smallholder market inclusion, their effects are largely bounded by existing value chain structures (e.g. production system, fragmented markets), timeframe and how prevailing institutional constraints are addressed, which may constrain the intentions of such collaboration action. This calls attention to the starting points of value chain interventions and the socio-political dynamics that are part of multi-stakeholder processes.

  720. A comparative analysis of agricultural knowledge and innovation systems in Kenya and Ghana: sustainable agricultural intensification in the rural–urban interface

    This study aims to assess if AKIS are effectively disseminating integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) knowledge by comparing results from two sites in Kenya and Ghana, which differ in the uptake of ISFM. Social network measures and statistical methods were employed using data from key formal actors and farmers. Their results suggest that the presence of weak knowledge ties is important for the awareness of ISFM at both research sites. However, they explain, in Kenya AKIS are more effective as there is a network of knowledge ties crucial for not only dissemination but also learning of complex innovations. This is largely lacking in Ghana where integration of formal and informal agricultural knowledge systems may be enhanced by fostering the function of informal and formal innovation brokers.

  721. Systemic perspectives on scaling agricultural innovations. A review

    According to the authors of this paper, actual methods of scaling are rather empirical and based on the premise of ‘find out what works in one place and do more of the same, in another place’. These methods thus would not sufficiently take into account complex realities beyond the concepts of innovation transfer, dissemination, diffusion and adoption. As a consequence, scaling initiatives often do not produce the desired effect. They may produce undesirable effects in the form of negative spill-overs or unanticipated side effects such as environmental degradation, bad labour conditions of farm workers and loss of control of farming communities over access to genetic resources. Therefore the authors conceptualise scaling processes as an integral part of a systemic approach to innovation, to anticipate on the possible consequences of scaling efforts. The propose a method that connects the heuristic framework of the multi-level perspective on socio-technical transitions (MLP) to a philosophical ‘modal aspects’ framework, with the objective of elucidating the connectedness between technologies, processes and practices. The resultant framework, the PRactice-Oriented Multi-level perspective on Innovation and Scaling (PROMIS), can inform research and policymakers on the complex dynamics involved in scaling. This is illustrated in relation to three cases in which the framework was applied: scaling agro-ecological practices in Nicaragua, farmer field schools on cocoa cultivation in Cameroon and ‘green rubber’ cultivation in Southwest China.

  722. Improved wheat varieties: a solution to African import dependence

    The impressive performance of improved varieties of high-yielding, heat-tolerant wheat developed in Sudan has convinced Nigerian decision makers that a viable solution to their country’s growing dependence on wheat imports is domestic production – a policy shift that will protect Nigerians from the vagaries of global commodity markets and strengthen national food security. The brief describes this solution. 

  723. Transforming Wheat Production in Hot Environments in Africa: The Case of Sudan

    Heat-tolerant wheat varieties, developed by ICARDA and Sudan’s Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), are helping farmers adapt to the heat stress, however, bringing higher and more stable yields. Farmers across the wheatproducing regions of Sudan are now achieving up to six t/ha over successive growing seasons. 

  724. CTA Top 20 Innovations that Benefit Smallholder Farmers

    Over the years, CTA has contributed to building ACP capacity to understand innovation processes, strengthen the agricultural innovation system and embed innovation thinking in agricultural and rural development strategies. The CTA Top 20 Innovations project set out to prove that innovation is taking place in ACP agriculture and in the process has demonstrated that smallholder farmers are beneficiaries as well as partners in agricultural innovation. The CTA Top 20 Innovations that were selected from among the 251 submissions that had been received from 49 countries showcase the ingenuity of numerous stakeholders who are innovating and by their collective efforts are making a difference in the livelihoods of ACP smallholder farmers and their families.

  725. Innovative farming and forestry across the emerging world: the role of genetically modified crops and trees

    In this book, the authors assessed the role of biotechnology innovation for sustainable development in emerging and developing economies. This book compiles studies that each illustrate the potential, demonstrated value and challenges of biotechnology applications for sustainable agricultural innovation and/or industrial development in a national, regional and international context. This book was written in the frame of the International Industrial Biotechnology Network (IIBN), a joint initiative between UNIDO and IPBO (International Plant Biotechnology Outreach) supported by the Flemish government (EWI). IIBN coordinated by IPBO fosters the development of sustainable applications of agricultural and industrial biotechnology in developing and emerging economies through international cooperation. 

  726. Multi-stakeholder processes: key to effective capacity development

    When designing projects, it is important to engage local stakeholders as early as possible to ensure that capacity development (CD) activities are truly relevant to their needs. Multi-Stakeholder processes (MSPs) can also lead to greater ownership of project activities and outcomes. This case study gives an example from Sudan of successful MSPs for developing Food Security and Nutrition Information Systems (FSNIS) in four states. 

  727. An innovation learning platform for drought tolerant maize in Malawi: lessons learned and the way forward

    Innovation learning platforms have their roots in the agricultural innovation systems (AIS) approach. AIS emphasizes a systems view of agricultural innovations and conceptualizes an innovation system as all individuals and organizations that keep on interacting in producing and using knowledge and the institutional context of knowledge sharing and learning. Research creates knowledge and technology; but innovation process goes further to include putting that knowledge into use. The Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa (DTMA) project of CIMMYT aims to address the challenge of combating the impacts of drought on people’s livelihoods. For this to succeed, however, the initiative faces the challenge of how best to advocate and promote drought tolerant maize varieties (DTMVs). The initiative accordingly proposed to establish Innovation Learning Platforms (ILeP) in selected pilot countries (Malawi and Nigeria). This report focuses on presenting detailed account of the implementation of the approach, the lessons learned, analyzing whether there is enough experience to suggest (or not) extrapolation of the approach to other areas and communities, and the way forward. The report is based on data and information generated from participating farmers and key individuals from important institutional stakeholders.

  728. Up-scaling and out-scaling conservation agriculture technologies: The case of a local innovation platform in eastern Kenya

    This poster analyzes the status, challenges and opportunities of the Kyeni local innovation platform that was put up to sustainably evaluate, disseminate and hasten adoption of CA technologies involving maize/ legume cropping systems in eastern Kenya. Establishment and maintenance of IPs is one of the action oriented research approaches for technology transfer in the ACIAR funded Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume Cropping Systems for Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa (SIMLESA) project such as Kyeni Local Innovation Platform.  



  729. The Role of Social Capital in the Adoption and the Performance of Conservation Agriculture. The Practice of Likoti in Lesotho

    The citizens of Lesotho rely on a complex web of livelihood strategies made primarily of family kinships and strong community networks. Recently, community breakdowns have occurred because of extensive land degradation, soil erosion, widespread poverty, and HIV/AIDs. This thesis focuses on two aspects which are likely to help decrease the problems earlier stated. These aspects are to use conservation agriculture as an innovative set of sustainable agricultural practices and the appropriate inclusion of social capital aspects in development strategies which focus on innovation generation and diffusion.



  730. A critical review of the follow-the-innovation approach: Stakeholder collaboration and agricultural innovation development

    Technological innovations have driven economic development and improvement in living conditions throughout history. However, the majority of smallholder farmers in sub‐Saharan Africa have seldom adopted or used science‐based technological innovations. Consequently, several scholars have been persistently questioning the effectiveness of intervention models in smallholder agriculture. Following the agricultural innovation systems framework (AIS), this paper reviews a participatory framework known as the ‘Follow the Innovation’ (FTI) approach, which was developed in the research project ‘Economic and Ecological Restructuring of Land and Water Use in Khorezm’ (2001 ‐  2012) and employed in an ongoing BiomassWeb project ‘Improving food security in Africa through increased system productivity of biomass‐based value webs’ (2013 ‐ 2018). The FTI approach claims that multi‐stakeholder interactions and the adaptation of ‘innovation packages’ or ‘plausible promises’ are crucial for innovation development. While appreciating the crucial role such packages play in agricultural development, the review at hand calls for a shift from defining agricultural innovation as a package or new technology to the consensus that it is an outcome of the collaborative or collegiate participation of multi‐stakeholders in planning and implementation processes, by generating and combining scientific and local perspectives on technical and non‐ technical changes over time and in space, and the reconfiguration or adaptation of embedded informal and formal institutions.

  731. Strengthening Community Resilience to Change through Combining Local Innovation Capacity with Scientific Research (CLIC-SR) - Final External Evaluation Report

    This evaluation report discusses the findings, conclusions and recommendations on the project “Strengthening Community Resilience to Change: Combining Local Innovative Capacity with Scientific Research (CLIC-SR)” under the umbrella of the network Promoting Local Innovation in ecologically oriented agriculture and NRM (PROLINNOVA). This project was implemented in four Eastern African countries, namely Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. It was implemented by the Country Platform (CP) partners with coordination in the hands of one lead partner under the guidance of their respective National Steering Committees (NCSs). At international level, the project is governed by the PROLINNOVA Oversight Group (POG), managed and coordinated by the PROLINNOVA International Secretariat (IS) – hosted until June 2015 by ETC Foundation and thereafter by the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) in The Netherlands – with monitoring and evaluation (M&E) support from the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) – a member of the International Support Team (IST) - and funded by the Rockefeller Foundation (US$775,000). The project started in September 2012 and was originally scheduled to end in August 2015 but received a no-cost budget extension of one year, to August 2016. The evaluation took place within a period of three months and was completed and reported on in May 2016, three months before the end of the project. The findings of the evaluation were presented and discussed on 15 May 2016 in Senegal with all four CP partners.

  732. Compilation of cases of joint experimentation from Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

    The project “Strengthening Community Resilience to Change: Combining Local Innovative Capacity with Scientific Research” (CLIC–SR), supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, was completed on 31 August 2016. During the four years since 2012, the Prolinnova Country Platforms in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda made large strides in:

    • strengthening the innovative capacity of small-scale farmers and their communities,
    • strengthening the capacities of governmental and non-governmental organisations to support farmer-led innovation processes,
    • increasing insights and awareness of the relevance and effectiveness of a Participatory Innovation Development (PID) approach in agricultural research and rural development, and
    • mainstreaming PID in national policies and programmes through policy dialogue.

    A total of eight cases of farmer-led joint experimentation in agriculture or NRM – two from each of the four Country Platforms involved – were brought together in this publication.

  733. Small-scale farmer innovation. How agricultural research works together with farmers

    The articles in the dossier present different approaches to supporting farmer-led research, ranging from partnerships between small-scale farmer organisations and research institutions, to alliances of farmer groups, nongovernmental organisations and researchers, to constellations in which farmer organisations directly contract researchers. The articles highlight some innovations that have emerged from these processes and – more important still – show new ways of organising research so that it strengthens innovative capacities at grassroots level. All authors share a joint vision of agricultural research embedded in society, working with and through small-scale farmers who thus contribute to intensifying agriculture and alleviating poverty in a sustainable way.


  734. Tackling food losses. Outlook for postharvest research and innovation in Mozambique

    This brief puts the focus on the postharvest (PH) losses in Mozambique. According to the authors the glaring lack of data loss for major food commodities in Mozambique should move the government, development agencies, donors and research institutions to invest more on rigorous and systematic field-based studies to assess losses, and to identify matching loss mitigation innovations. The authors also assert that building local capacity and strengthening policy on PH will be of essence.

  735. Creating space for innovation: the case of cocoa production in the Suhum-Kraboa-Coalter District of Ghana

    Most cocoa farmers in Ghana do not adopt research recommendations because they cannot afford the cost, therefore, yields are low. Integrated pest management (IPM) technologies that rely on low external inputs were tried with a group of farmers. The technologies included using aqueous neem seed extracts to control capsids; removing diseased pods to reduce blackpod incidence; controlling mistletoes, epiphytes, weeds; and managing shade. Although yields increased significantly, adoption was constrained by technical, social and economic factors. The objective of this action research was to organize relevant social and technical arrangements necessary to overcome the constraints. The study concludes, that an IPM package which is labour-intensive and also requires some capital, can only be adopted by resource-poor farmers when the necessary economic, social, and organizational ‘space’ is enlarged to develop them into complete innovations. On the basis of the findings, it is suggested that regular innovations can be realized at farmers' level and may be disseminated through extension agents, while system innovations require co-designing with other stakeholders to suit network-specific circumstances. Therefore, the role of extension agents, which currently emphasize technology transfer, must be broadened to include facilitation of social and economic network building around such technological packages to address the constraints to adoption.

  736. Effectiveness of innovation grants to smallholder agricultural producers: An explorative systematic review

    Grants for agricultural innovation are common but grant funds specifically targeted to smallholder farmers remain relatively rare. Nevertheless, they are receiving increasing recognition as a promising venue for agricultural innovation. They stimulate smallholders to experiment with improved practices, to become proactive and to engage with research and extension providers. The systematic review covered three modalities of disbursing these grants to smallholder farmers and their organisations: vouchers, competitive grants and farmer-led innovation support funds. The synthesis covers, among others, innovation grant systems in Malawi (Agricultural Input Subsidy Programme), Latin America (several Challenge Funds for Farmer Groups), Uganda (National Agricultural Advisory Services ), and Colombia (Local Agricultural Research Committees - CIAL). This research was funded by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). The research was commissioned as part of a joint call for systematic reviews with the Department for International Development (DFID) and the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie). 

  737. Developing Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships on Agricultural Research for Development. Improving the availability of quality potato seeds: building an innovative consortium in Burundi

    This document aims at capitalizing lessons drawn from the training experience of a consortium made up of various stakeholders involved in the potato seed sector in Burundi. At the initial stages of its formation, this consortium was supported by the PAEPARD programme, as part of the tender process defined above. The experience related here should provide lessons on the factors which encourage the formation of multi-stakeholder partnerships which are balanced and suited to the demand of producers. The project developed by the consortium is entitled «Participatory Development of Potato GrowingTechnologies and Promotion of Gender and Environmentally-Friendly Innovations in Burundi ». It was formulated in the form of an action plan and structured in accordance with various objectives which are themselves structured in the form of various activities.


  738. Moving Innovation Forward. Case Studies: 10 Sustainable and Inclusive Business Models

    This paper illustrates already practiced models and strategies of high impact innovations around the world with particular respect to India. The shown examples of innovative businesses were selected based on four criteria reflecting their innovative character. Firstly, innovations need to fulfil a value for the life of people which exceeds the mere use of the product. Secondly, it requires good quality products or service for an affordable price even for lower income groups. Thirdly, resources need to be used in an efficient manner and lastly, innovations need to be scalable and easy to replicate in different local conditions. The paper is a collaboration between the CII-ITC Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Development and the MSME Umbrella Programme GIZ India.

  739. Innovation key to unlocking Africa’s agriculture potential

    This one-page brief summarizes the messages which have been highlighted during a two-day forum held in Nairobi in 2015 and organised by the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) and the German government.

  740. Innovation Systems for Agriculture and Climate in Benin: an Inventory

    To respond to threats of climate change, Benin has joined the international  community in the development and implementation of climate policies. Thus, policies have been developed and implemented at the national level to address the negative effects of  climate change, both inferred and projected, across all sectors.The objective of this report is to: • Present the institutional environment for management of climate change in Benin by  surveying the institutions,  policies  and  projects  implemented  by government, generally and specifically in the agricultural sector; • Briefly present the main organisations involved in agricultural advisory services, and  highlight those actions carried out by them that address the management of climate  change a mitigation or adaptation; • Identify case studies for inadepth study.

  741. Towards a holistic conceptualisation of adaptive capacity at the local level: insights from the Local Adaptive Capacity framework (LAC)

    Presented at the ‘Building Livelihoods Resilience in a Changing Climate’ conference, Kuala Lumpur, 3-5th March 2011, this paper focuses on the Local Adaptive Capacity framework (LAC), developed under the Africa Climate Change Alliance Project (ACCRA), as an innovative initiative that attempts to move towards a better understanding of its core features through isolating five characteristics of adaptive capacity. Demonstrated through findings from field research across three African countries (Ethiopia, Mozambique and Uganda), this paper argues that frameworks for understanding and supporting adaptive capacity at the local level need to move away from focusing only on what communities have that enable them to adapt- such as its various economic, social, human, natural and physical capitals- to a greater acknowledgement of what a community does that enables it to adapt- such as fostering innovation; promoting forward-looking flexible governance; and re-defining maladapative norms, behaviours and institutions. By departing from traditional asset-based frameworks for conceptualising local adaptive capacity, the study highlights the important role that various intangible and dynamic processes, such as flexibility, innovation, and entitlements play in supporting capacity at the community level. Lastly, this paper explores how the LAC can be used to assess the important role that interventions not necessarily associated with climate change can play in helping a community’s capacity to adaptive to climate variability and change. In doing so the paper makes a number of recommendations for researchers, policy makers and development practitioners alike, in helping to move towards a framework for understanding of adaptive capacity at the local level with aim the ultimate aim of supporting interventions that help to enhance it.

  742. Impact of Agricultural innovation on improved livelihood and productivity outcomes among smallholder farmers in Rural Nigeria

    Agricultural research programs that are driven by Agricultural Innovation System concepts usually target to change the way in which low income rural agrarian households in a nation like Nigeria communicate with the market and the decision making strategies pertaining to development of their agri-business and the scarce resources which are at their disposal. As a result there has been a shift in the research paradigm in many African countries like Nigeria; from top down research systems to nonlinear dynamic systems that aim to enhance end users capacity to obtain and utilize knowledge and research outputs. The aim of this paper was therefore to assess the extent to which the use of these innovative agricultural research interventions impact upon the livelihood and productivity outcomes of rural smallholder farmers in Nigeria using a case study from the South west region of Nigeria.

  743. The Tanga Dairy Platform: Fostering Innovations for more Efficient Dairy Chain Coordination in Tanzania

    The Tanga Dairy Platform, created in 2008, is an informal forum of different stakeholders involved in the dairy industry of Tanzania’s Northeastern Tanga region. The platform’s objective is to exchange knowledge and develop joint actions to common problems. Six years on, it is a sustainable example of a commodity association addressing the joint problems of the region’s dairy industry. The platform has achieved a common understanding among chain actors on dairy price structure; it has successfully lobbied policy makers to reduce value-added tax on dairy inputs and products, and to remove limitations on urban dairy farming in Tanga city.

  744. Characterising the diversity of smallholder farming systems and their constraints and opportunities for innovation: A case study from the Northern Region, Ghana

    This article explored patterns of farming system diversity through the classification of 70 smallholder farm households in two districts (Savelugu-Nanton and Tolon-Kumbungu) of Ghana’s Northern Region. Based on 2013 survey data, the typology was constructed using the multivariate statistical techniques of principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Results proposed six farm types, stratified on the basis of household, labour, land use, livestock and income variables, explaining the structural and functional differences between farming systems. This study aims at demonstrating that using the established typology as a practical framework allows identification of type-specific farm household opportunities and constraints for the targeting of agricultural interventions and innovations, which will be further analysed in the research-for-development project.



    A farm typology of the Northern Region of Ghana was constructed using multivariate statistics.

    Six farm types were identified according to their resource endowment and farming activities.

    A gradient of endowment was reflected in increasing ownership of land and large livestock.

    With increasing endowment the dependency of the livelihood on farming declined.

    Type-specific opportunities and constraints for agricultural innovation were reviewed.



    Typologies may be used as tools for dealing with farming system heterogeneity. This is achieved by classifying farms into groups that have common characteristics, i.e. farm types, which can support the implementation of a more tailored approach to agricultural development. This article explored patterns of farming system diversity through the classification of 70 smallholder farm households in two districts (Savelugu-Nanton and Tolon-Kumbungu) of Ghana’s Northern Region. Based on 2013 survey data, the typology was constructed using the multivariate statistical techniques of principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Results proposed six farm types, stratified on the basis of household, labour, land use, livestock and income variables, explaining the structural and functional differences between farming systems. Types 1 and 2 were characterized by relatively high levels of resource endowment and oriented towards non-farm activities and crop sales respectively. Types 3 and 4 were moderately resource-endowed with income derived primarily from on-farm activities. Types 5 and 6 were resource constrained, with production oriented towards subsistence. The most salient differences among farm types concerned herd size (largest for Type 1), degree of legume integration (largest for Types 2–4), household size and hired labour (smallest household size for Types 4 and 6, and largest proportion of hired labour for Type 4), degree of diversification into off/non-farm activities (highest for Type 1 and lowest for Type 5) and severity of resource constraints (Type 6 was most constrained with a small farm area and herd comprised mainly of poultry). It was found that livelihood strategies reflected the distinctive characteristics of farm households; with poorly-endowed types restricted to a ‘survival strategy’ and more affluent types free to pursue a ‘development strategy’. This study clearly demonstrates that using the established typology as a practical framework allows identification of type-specific farm household opportunities and constraints for the targeting of agricultural interventions and innovations, which will be further analysed in the research-for-development project. We conclude that a more flexible approach to typology construction, for example through the incorporation of farmer perspectives, might provide further context and insight into the causes, consequences and negotiation of farm diversity.


  745. Sustainable intensification of agricultural systems in the Central African Highlands: The need for institutional innovation

    This study identifies entry points for innovation for sustainable intensification of agricultural systems. An agricultural innovation systems approach is used to provide a holistic image of (relations between) constraints faced by different stakeholder groups, the dimensions and causes of these constraints, and intervention levels, timeframes and types of innovations needed. The authors aim at showing that constraints for sustainable intensification of agricultural systems are mainly of economic and institutional nature.

  746. Targeting, out-scaling and prioritising climate-smart interventions in agricultural systems: Lessons from applying a generic framework to the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa

    In this paper the authors provide climate smart agriculture (CSA) planners and implementers at all levels with a generic framework for evaluating and prioritising potential interventions. This entails an iterative process of mapping out recommendation domains, assessing adoption potential and estimating impacts. Through examples, related to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa, they demonstrate each of the steps and how they are interlinked. The framework is applicable in many different forms, scales and settings. It has a wide applicability beyond the examples presented and we hope to stimulate readers to integrate the concepts in the planning process for climate-smart agriculture, which invariably involves multi-stakeholder, multi-scale and multi-objective decision-making.

  747. An Assessment of National Agricultural Innovation Systems in Botswana, Ghana, Kenya and Zambia

    This report describes the 2012 NAIS Assessment was piloted in 4 countries: Botswana, Ghana, Kenya and Zambia. Data were collected through a survey questionnaire, open-ended interview questions, and data mining of secondary sources. A team led by a national coordinator took charge of data collection from various partner organizations in each country. 

  748. Ten years of promoting farmer-led innovation

    This report provides a synthesis of all findings and information generated through a “stocktaking” process that involved a desk study of Prolinnova documents and evaluation reports, a questionnaire to 40 staff members of international organizations in agricultural research and development (ARD), self-assessment by the Country Platforms (CPs) and backstopping visits to five CPs. In 2014, the Prolinnova network saw a need to re-strategise in a changing context, and started this process by reviewing the activities it had undertaken and assessing its own functioning. This process of “stocktaking” generated insights into the network’s accomplishments between 2003 and 2013, seen in relation to the financial resources that were available, at both international and country level. The exercise also helped the CPs to re-strategise their work and partnerships for the coming years and to formulate and share lessons, conclusions and recommendations for strengthening global multistakeholder partnerships in ARD within and beyond the network.

  749. Biotechnologies for agricultural development. Proceedings of the FAO international technical conference: "Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries" (ABCD-10), New Mexico, 2010

    This book represents the proceedings of the FAO international technical conference dedicated to Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10) that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico on 1-4 March 2010. A major objective of the conference was to take stock of the application of biotechnologies across the different food and agricultural sectors in developing countries, in order to learn from the past and to identify options for the future to face the challenges of food insecurity, climate change and natural resource degradation. The proceedings are organized in two main sections. The first section contains ten chapters with an extensive series of FAO background documents prepared before ABDC-10. They focus on the current status and options for biotechnologies in developing countries in crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries/aquaculture and food processing/safety, as well as on related policy issues and options, in particular about targeting agricultural biotechnologies to the poor; enabling research and development (R&D) for agricultural biotechnologies; and ensuring access to the benefits of R&D. The second section contains five chapters dedicated to the outcomes of ABDC-10, namely the reports from 27 parallel sessions of sectoral, cross-sectoral and regional interest, most of which were organized by different intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations and regional fora; keynote presentations; and the conference report adopted by delegates in Guadalajara on the final day.

  750. Building Networks for Market Access. Lessons Learned from The Rural Knowledge Network (RKN) Pilot Project for East Africa (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania)

    As the name suggests, the original aim of the Rural Knowledge Network (RKN) was to make more information available specifically about markets, to smallholder farmers. The core idea was to provide information to farmers and traders about current market prices in different markets around the country. This was done by building a network of entrepreneurs who regularly collected the price information and sent it to a central collecting Internet platform facility. By the end of the project in March 2010, the RKN project had given birth to a network comprising three National Marketing Companies (NMCs), i.e. AgriNet Uganda Ltd, in Uganda, AgriTrade Co. Ltd, in Kenya, and Rural Entrepreneurs Network Tanzania (RENTCO) in Tanzania. Each company operates a network of rural entrepreneurs covering several districts within a region. This report describes the RKN project and its main achievements. It also includes best practices and recommendations. 

  751. Positioning smallholder farmers in the dairy innovation system in Malawi: A perspective of actors and their roles

    This article applies a historical analysis of the progressive development and complexity of Malawi’s diary innovation system through phased emphasis on technological, organizational and institutional development to illustrate the centrality of smallholder dairy farmers in the innovation system. A social network analysis is applied to assess the influence of smallholder farmers on other actors. The existence and growth of the diary innovation system in Malawi is founded on the resilience of smallholder dairy farmers to produce milk. Whereas the smallholder farmers are the most connected in terms of interaction, they have the least influence on other actors in the innovation system. To take advantage of their central position to maximize benefits, smallholder farmers can only rely on their collective power to influence others. Organizing farmers in groups and associations is a step in the right direction but deliberate interventions by innovation brokers as intermediaries need to focus on empowering these groups.

  752. An innovation systems perspective on strengthening agricultural education and training in sub-Saharan Africa

    This paper examines the role of postsecondary agricultural education and training (AET) in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of the region’s agricultural innovation systems. Specifically, the paper looks at how AET in sub-Saharan Africa can contribute to agricultural development by strengthening innovative capacity, or the ability of individuals and organisations to introduce new products and processes that are socially or economically relevant, particularly with respect to smallholder farmers who represent the largest group of agricultural producers in the region. The paper argues that while AET is conventionally viewed in terms of its role in building human and scientific capital, its also has a vital role to play in building the capacity of organisations and individuals to transmit and adapt new applications of existing information, new products and processes, and new organisational cultures and behaviours. The paper emphasizes the importance of improving AET systems by strengthening the innovative capabilities of AET organisations and professionals; changing organisational cultures, behaviours, and incentives; and building innovation networks and linkages. Specific recommendations in support of this include aligning the mandates of AET organisations with national development aspirations by promoting new educational programs that are more strategically attuned to the different needs of society; inducing change in the cultures of AET organisations through the introduction of educational programs and linkages beyond the formal AET system; and strengthening individual and organisational capacity by improving the incentives to forge stronger linkages between AET and diverse user communities, knowledge sources, and private industry.


  753. Comparison of frameworks for studying grassroots innovation: Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) and Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems (AKIS)

    The history of agricultural research and development (R&D) has never been static. Its philosophies, concepts and principles continue to change and to impact on present-day practices. It is imperative to understand and draw lessons from the old and new perspectives, which inform agricultural R&D processes and policy formulation in developing countries. The interest of this paper is, therefore, to draw relevant lessons that can explain the dynamics,of the innovation systems at the grassroots in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. It analyzes the adequacy of two widely known,agricultural R&D perspectives and examines,how,those perspectivescould be applied to the grassroots innovation systems in sub-Saharan Africa, which are often characterized by subsistence agriculture, complex issues around the notion of poverty, environmental problems, and limited access to national and international markets. 

  754. Research prizes: a new kind of incentive for innovation in African agriculture

    This paper identifies market failures that limit agricultural R&D for Africa and other resource-poor environments, and proposes a way to complement existing institutions with cash prizes for the dissemination of successful new technologies adopted by low-income farmers. The proposed prize institution would use agronomic experiments and farm surveys to document the value of innovations after their initial diffusion, and offer payments in proportion to estimated social benefits in target regions. Such prizes would be a patent-like ‘pull mechanism’ that pays innovators for actual results rather than proposals, adapted to reward technologies such as improved genetics and agronomic techniques.

  755. Concepts and guidelines for diagnostic assessments of agricultural innovation capacity

    This paper takes the viewpoint of a social scientist and looks at agricultural scientists' pathways for science impact. Awareness of these pathways is increasingly becoming part and parcel of the professionalism of the agricultural scientist, now that the pressure is on to mobilize smallholders and their productive resources for (global) food security and for reducing persistent rural poverty. Significant new thinking about pathways is emerging and it is useful to present some of this, even if it is not cut-and-dried. This new thinking focuses on innovation, not as the end-of-pipe outcome of development and transfer (or ‘delivery’) of results of research to ‘ultimate users’, but as a process of technical and institutional change at farm and higher system levels that impacts on productivity, sustainability and poverty reduction. The paper reviews technology supply push; farmer-driven innovation; market-propelled or induced innovation based on the agricultural treadmill; participatory technology development; and innovation systems. The pathways reviewed all have their merits; the paper will assess them from the perspective of improving smallholder productivity and livelihoods.

  756. Role and interactions of agro-pastoral organizations and finance institutions in agricultural innovation: the study of Rahad Agriculture Scheme- Sudan

    The Establishment of the Rahad Scheme in Eastern Sudan in the 1970s established an agricultural innovation system where formal actors such as extension, research, finance institutions and informal actors such as agro pastoral organizations are networking to provide better livelihoods within the irrigated scheme area. This investigation focuses on the roles and interactions of agro pastoral organizations and finance institutions in relation to extension work in Rahad Scheme. The challenges that hinder interactions of agro pastoral organizations and finance institutions are also discussed, accordingly, suggestions to improve interactions of agro pastoral organizations and finance institutions are presented on this paper.

    The paper was presented at the 12th European IFSA Symposium (Workshop: "Developing agricultural advisory systems for innovation: Governance and innovative practices") in 2016.

  757. Dissemination and Implementation of Agricultural Innovations Using Video on Mobile Phones in Mali

    A challenge for researchers and other developers of new technologies in agriculture is to find ways of communicating their results and recommendations. This challenge is particularly acute in regions in which farmers have limited access to education and where illiteracy is widespread, such as in the rural areas of Mali. One approach that shows potential, yet remains largely unused by extension services, is the dissemination of educational video on mobile phones with video and Bluetooth technology, which are widespread in the region. This paper aims to explore the potential of video on mobile phones as a tool for farmer-to-farmer exchange and agricultural extension in Western Africa, starting from the experiment of three videos showing agricultural innovations which were shown and shared with 200 farmers in twelve villages in Mali. The paper was presented at the 12th European IFSA Symposium (Workshop: "ICT to help on participatory approaches for the agroecological transition of agriculture") in 2016.

  758. The New Harvest. Agricultural Innovation in Africa

    African agriculture is currently at a crossroads, at which persistent food shortages are compounded by threats from climate change. But, as this book argues, Africa can feed itself in a generation and help contribute to global food security. To achieve this Africa has to define agriculture as a force in economic growth by: advancing scientific and technological research; investing in infrastructure; fostering higher technical training; and creating regional markets. To govern the transformation Africa must foster the emergence of a new crop of entrepreneurial leaders dedicated to the continent's economic improvement. The book is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 examines the critical linkages between agriculture and economic growth. Chapter 2 reviews the implications of advances in science
    and technology for Africa’s agriculture.  Chapter 3 provides a conceptual framework for defining agricultural innovation in a systemic context. Chapter 4 outlines the critical linkages between infrastructure and agricultural innovation. The role of education in fostering agricultural innovation is the subject of Chapter 5. Chapter 6 presents the importance of entrepreneurship in agricultural innovation. The final chapter outlines regional approaches for fostering agricultural innovation.


  759. Case stories on capacity development and sustainable results

    LenCD has prepared a joint statement on results and capacity development (presented in this publication), which stresses that meaningful, sustainable results are premised on proper investments in capacity development and that these results materialize at different levels and at different times, along countries’ development trajectory. To provide evidence in support of this statement, LenCD launched a call for submission of stories. The 15 stories featured in this publication have been selected by a fourmember review panel, through a rigorous appraisal process of over 40 stories, received as a response to the LenCD call. The stories have been contributed by different countries and development partners and cover 14 countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Latin America. The stories showcase how endogenous investments in capacity development have led, over time, to produce short, medium and long-term sustainable results. 

  760. Innovation platforms to support natural resource management

    This brief discusses the benefits of innovation platforms in dealing with natural resource management issues.

    This brief is part of the series of ‘practice briefs’ intended to help guide agricultural research practitioners who seek to support and implement innovation platforms. A contribution to the CGIAR Humidtropics research program, the development of the briefs was led by the International Livestock Research Institute; they draw on experiences of the CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food, several CGIAR centres and partner organizations.

  761. Innovation system approach to agricultural development: Policy implications for agricultural extension delivery in Nigeria

    Innovation system approach offers an holistic, multidisciplinary and comprehensive framework for analyzing innovation process, the roles of science and technology actors and their interactions, emphazing on wider stakeholder participation, linkages and institutional context of innovation and processes. This paper was aimed to: 1. review the concept of innovation system; 2. appraise the application to agriculture and its relevance and 3. analyze the policy implications for agricultural extension delivery in Nigeria.

  762. Networks among agricultural stakeholders in the Southwestern Highlands of Uganda

    The aim of this study was to explore the interactions that exist among agricultural stakeholders in the southwestern highlands of Uganda as a way of identifying opportunities and gaps for operation of Innovation Platforms (IPs) under the proof of concept of Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D) research project. The specific objectives were to (i) characterize the agricultural stakeholders in the study sites (ii) determine the nature, diversity and relative importance of horizontal and vertical networks that exist among stakeholders in the Southwestern Highlands of Uganda. Data were collected from both stakeholder analysis and household interviews in Kabale and Kisoro Districts.

  763. Participatory technology development for agroforestry extension

    In order to facilitate Participatory Technology Development (PTD) in African agriculture, extensionists and scientists must collaborate with local innovators to optimise (where necessary) and disseminate their innovations. This literature review proposes a conceptual model for PTD in which technology is developed in the context of an adoption cycle. Building on an innovation-decision approach, the characteristics of innovations that achieve widespread uptake are identified. The link between these characteristics and livelihood constraints and strategies, capital assets and the role of communication is emphasised. Although the agroforestry innovation-decision process occurs in the absence of external intervention, by understanding the characteristics of adoptable innovations in the context of adoption behaviour, it may be possible to identify new roles for extensionists and scientists. They may be able to facilitate PTD through the identification of innovators and their innovations, optimise and adapt innovations with reference to the proposed model, and disseminate innovations to other smallholders who may benefit from them.

  764. Assessment of an outsourced agricultural extension service in the Mutasa district of Zimbabwe

    Zimbabwe has a pluralistic agricultural extension system. In addition to the public extension service, donors contract private service providers to deliver extension services in specific project areas. This study assesses the impact of an outsourced extension service on rural households in the Mutasa district of Zimbabwe’s Manicaland Province, and examines the financial cost and benefit of this service. The extension service was delivered by a local agribusiness firm and funded by USAID. The study analyses survey data gathered from 94 client and 90 non-client rural households.

  765. An analysis of power dynamics within innovation platforms for natural resource management

    One option for practically applying innovation systems thinking involves the establishment of innovation platforms (IPs). Such platforms are designed to bring together a variety of different stakeholders to exchange knowledge and resources and take action to solve common problems. Yet relatively little is known about how IPs operate in practice, particularly how power dynamics influence platform processes.This paper focuses on a research-for-development project in the Ethiopian highlands which established three IPs for improved natural resource management. The ‘power cube’ is used to retrospectively analyse the spaces, forms and levels of power within these platforms and the impact on platform processes and resulting interventions. The overall aim is to highlight the importance of power issues in order to better assess the strengths and limitations of IPs as a model for inclusive innovation.


  766. Adaptive management in agricultural innovation systems: The interactions between innovation networks and their environment

    The purpose of this article is to investigate effective reformism: strategies that innovation networks deploy to create changes in their environment in order to establish a more conducive context for the realization and durable embedding of their innovation projects. Using a case study approach, effective reformism efforts are analyzed in a technological innovation trajectory related to the implementation of a new poultry husbandry system and an organizational innovation trajectory concerning new ways of co-operation among individual farms to establish economies of scale.

  767. Diagnosing constraints to market participation of small ruminant producers in northern Ghana: An innovation systems analysis

    This paper assesses why participation in markets for small ruminants is relatively low in northern Ghana by analysing the technical and institutional constraints to innovation in smallholder small ruminant production and marketing in Lawra and Nadowli Districts.  It is argued in this paper that for the majority of smallholders, market production, which requires high levels of external inputs or intensification of resource use, is not a viable option. The main implications of the study are (1) that other institutional constraints than market access constraints should be addressed, (2) that commercial livestock production should not be idealized as the best or only option (as is being done in many contemporary interventions that aim at incorporating smallholders into commodity value chains), and (3) that different types of small ruminant system innovation pathways should be explored by making use of local positive deviants.

  768. Operationalizing inclusive innovation: lessons from innovation platforms in livestock value chains in India and Mozambique

    Various authors have identified the potential relevance of innovation system approaches for inclusive innovation, that is, the means by which new goods and services are developed for and by the poor. However, it is still a question how best to operationalize this. Innovation platforms (IPs) represent an example of putting an inclusive innovation system approach into practice by bringing different types of stakeholders together to address issues of mutual concern and interest with a specific focus on the marginalized poor. This paper explores the formation and functioning of IPs with the aim of providing lessons on the conditions and factors that play a role in making them effective. The study shows the importance of social organization, representation, and incentives to ensure a true participatory innovation process, which is based on demand and embedded in the context. Critical to this is a flexible planning process stimulating incremental change through so-called innovation bundles (i.e. combinations of technological, organizational, and institutional innovations) and reflexive learning (systematically challenging constraining factors). Furthermore, local institutions embedded in norms and values are crucial to understand people's decisions. Due to weak linkages between value chain actors, innovation brokers have a vital role in facilitating the innovation process. Overall, IPs are a promising model for inclusive innovation, but they require a careful assessment of and adjustment to the institutional context.

  769. Assessing the performance of innovation platforms in crop-livestock agro-ecosystems in the Volta basin

    To enhance integrated rainwater management in crop-livestock systems in the Volta basin of Burkina Faso, innovation platforms (IP) comprising of multiple stakeholders were established in the districts of Koubri and Ouahigouya. Quarterly IP meetings were organized to collectively identify and prioritize constraints and opportunities, and to design and implement strategies to address them. IP represents an example of putting the agricultural innovations systems’ perspective into practice. Several studies have evaluated the performance of IPs, but these are often based on external (mainly qualitative) assessments during mid-term and/or end evaluation. In this study the authors are interested in how key processes develop over time and how this is perceived by participants themselves, since this determines the participation and commitment of stakeholders and hence the success of the IP. To ensure adequate documentation of IP processes and activities, several monitoring and evaluation tools were developed. This paper focuses on the assessment of the IP performance in terms of consistency of participation across meetings and stakeholder groups, relevance of identified issues, information exchange, conflict resolution, participation in decision making, facilitation, and perceived benefits.

  770. Promoting effective multi-stakeholder partnership for policy development for smallholder farming systems

    Agricultural policy formulation in Sub Saharan Africa has been dominated by research initiatives that alienated other farmers and stakeholders. The Sub Saharan Africa Challenge Programme (SSA CP) seeks to use multi-stakeholder partnerships as an institutional innovation for agricultural policy formulation and development. This paper uses some experiences from the SSA CP to discuss the design principles for an effective partnership that can deliver relevant agricultural policies. It argues that consultation, negotiation, having a shared understanding of key relationships and interdependence between partners are important principles in multi stakeholder partners. Government’s role should be streamlined to be a participant, provider of a conducive environment for policy formulation and provider of public goods.  

  771. Capacity development for agricultural biotechnology in developing countries: an innovation systems view of what it is and how to develop it

    There are divergent views on what capacity development might mean in relation to agricultural biotechnology. The core of this debate is whether this should involve the development of human capital and research infrastructure, or whether it should encompass a wider range of activities which also include developing the capacity to use knowledge productively. This paper uses the innovation systems concept to shed light on this discussion, arguing that it is innovation capacity rather than science and technology capacity that has to be developed. It then presents six examples of different capacity development approaches. It concludes by suggesting that policy needs to take a multidimensional approach to capacity development in line with innovation systems perspective. But it also argues that policy needs to recognise the need to develop the capacity of diversity of innovation systems and that a key part of the capacity development task is to bring about the integration of these different systems at strategic points in time

  772. RAAIS: Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (Part II). Integrated analysis of parasitic weed problems in rice in Tanzania

    Parasitic weeds such as Striga spp and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa in smallholder rice production systems form an increasing problem for food and income security in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper we implement the Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (RAAIS) as a diagnostic tool to identify specific and generic entry points for innovations to address parasitic weeds in rain-fed rice production in Tanzania. Data were gathered across three study sites in Tanzania where parasitic weeds are eminent (Kyela, Songea Rural and Morogoro Rural districts).

  773. Participatory Innovation Development in water management in Tigray, Ethiopia

    This article describes one of the local innovations identified by the Northern Typical Highlands (NTH) platform of Prolinnova-Ethiopia: an intricate system of harvesting water from waterlogged land to allow cultivation in the long wet season, coupled with storage of this harvested water to use for supplementary irrigation in the following dry season. This had been developed by Mr Abadi Redehay, a 45-year-old man who lives with his wife and four children in Mai Berazio village of Tahtai Maichew District, near the historical town of Axum in the Central Zone of Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. This local innovation was already known to the local farmers and the development agents (DAs) learned about it from the local people.

  774. Stakeholder Participation in Innovation Platform and Implications for Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, there is increasing interest for the adaptation and use of the innovation systems approach to advance learning and development in the Agricultural Research and Development (ARD) sector. This crave is constrained by unavailability of a proven blue print that describe the paradigm shift from the linear approach and how such could function under different socio-economic, cultural and political climate. This paper uses three case studies from the Sub Saharan Africa Challenge Program (SSA CP) to accentuate approaches and strategies for the successful use of the innovation system approach in agricultural research and development. The paper shows that the establishment of Innovation Platforms under the premise of Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D) at the grass-root uses social networks and capital to mobilize for collective action necessary to meet market demand. It also shows that the ensued iterative structure is suitable for dealing with policy issues that constrain value chain at district level, while the apex structure is functional in dealing with policy issues at national and regional level. This paper proposes a coordinated ARD strategy that links innovation platforms at the continental, sub-regional, national and the grass root as the best practices for comprehensive use of innovation system approach.

  775. Pro-Poor Innovation Systems. Background Paper

    The purpose of this paper is to map some elements that can contribute to an IFAD strategy to stimulate and support pro-poor innovations. It is an initial or exploratory document that hopefully will add to an ongoing and necessary debate, and is not intended as a final position paper. The document is organized as follows. After the Introduction (Section 1), the Section 2 presents an outline of the innovation systems framework, adapted to the present discussion on rural development work such as that promoted by IFAD, in contrast to its more frequent use in the context of debates on science and technology. Section 3 discusses some important trends and changes in rural innovation systems, from the perspective of rural poverty reduction and rural development. Section 4 highlights some opportunities for pro-poor innovation, according to a framework that takes into consideration the heterogeneity of rural poverty. Section 5 concludes by asking a number of questions, with the expectation that they may contribute to a debate on what it is that IFAD can do to be more effective in promoting pro-poor rural innovation systems. 

  776. Shaping agricultural innovation systems responsive to food insecurity and climate change

    This paper draws lessons from selected country experiences of adaptation and innovation in pursuit of food security goals. It reviews three cases of systems of innovation operating in contrasting regional, socio-economic and agro-ecological contexts, in terms of four features of innovation systems more likely to build, sustain or enhance food security in situations of rapid change: (i) recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and opportunities to realize multiple benefits; (ii) access to diversity as the basis for flexibility and resilience; (iii) concern for enhancing capacity of decision makers at all levels; and (iv) continuity of effort aimed at securing the well-being of those who depend on agriculture. Finally, implications for policymakers and other stakeholders in agricultural innovation systems are presented.

  777. Unravelling the role of innovation platforms in supporting co-evolution of innovation: Contributions and tensions in a smallholder dairy development programme

    The agricultural innovation systems approach emphasizes the collective nature of innovation and stresses that innovation is a co-evolutionary process, resulting from alignment of technical, social, institutional and organizational dimensions. These insights are increasingly informing interventions that focus on setting up multi-stakeholder initiatives, such as innovation platforms and networks, as mechanisms for enhancing agricultural innovation, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. There has been much emphasis on how such platforms are organized, but only limited analysis unravelling how they shape co-evolution of innovation processes. This paper addresses this gap and conceptualizes platforms as intermediaries that connect the different actors in innovation systems in order to foster effective co-evolution.The authors present a case study of a smallholder dairy development programme in Kenya, led by a consortium of five organizations that provide a platform for building multi-actor partnerships to enhance smallholder dairy productivity and improve livelihoods. The findings indicate that co-evolution of innovation is a highly dynamic process with various interactional tensions and unexpected effects, and that the distributed nature of intermediation is important in resolving some of these tensions emerging at different actor interfaces. However, platforms are not always able to adapt adequately to emerging issues. This points to the need to look at platforms dynamically and pay more attention to mechanisms that strengthen feedback, learning and adaptive management in innovation processes.

  778. Towards Enhancing Innovation Systems Performance in Smallholder African Agriculture : Proceedings of the first CoS-SIS International

    These Proceedings report on the second International Conference of the Convergence of Sciences (CoS) programme in Elmina (2009). The first International Conference was four years earlier in the same location, where it was discussed how to follow up on the findings of the first CoS Programme phase (entitled CoS1 running from 2001 to 2006). The Conference was intended to introduce the focus on “innovation systems”, and how to enhance these systems for smallholder farmers’ development. During the Conference, the post-doctoral Research Associates presented the reports of their exploratory studies into opportunities for smallholder development. 

  779. Livestock innovation systems and networks: findings from smallholder dairy farmers in Ethiopia

    This paper uses household and key informant survey data from Ethiopia to: (1) understand the organizational structures that influence change in dairy production systems; (2) explore how local-level innovation system networks are functioning in the smallholder dairy production and (3) identify intervention points for strengthening innovation capacity. Results revealed that public sector actors are the major role players in the dairy production system despite their minor role in marketing linkages. We also found out that the private sector actors play peripheral roles in the network. Differences between innovator and non-innovator social networks were observed, with innovators exhibiting greater access to sources of production knowledge, inputs, credits and markets. Important institutions that could strengthen the stakeholders’ ability to identify, implement and adapt sustainable practices were not included in the processes. We recommend for policy guidance to reform the current agricultural extension system to address institutional and policy issues that constrain effective agricultural innovation system. 

  780. Innovation Capacity in Dairy Production Systems: A Study in the Northwest of Ethiopia

    Agriculture is central to Ethiopian economy but its sustainable development faces enormous challenges. Low innovation capacity, low productivity, dwindling natural resources and climate change, small-scale subsistence farming, and low levels of market integration and value addition have all made agricultural development more complex. In spite of the decades of research and development efforts, the rate of growth for both crop and livestock productivity has remained low. This study seeks to understand how the innovation system in the dairy sector is working to better support farmers with strong networks and therefore to contribute towards enhancing productivity, increasing food security and nutrition, diversifying rural livelihoods and reducing poverty. The study examines (1) the innovation systems and networks that influence (impair or support) change in dairy production systems; (2) the impact of social networks on smallholder dairy production technology adoption; and (3) the extent and determinants of smallholder household’s production efficiency in the context of local level agricultural innovation systems framework.

  781. Assessment of current capacities and needs for Institutional and individual Capacity Development in Agricultural Innovation Systems. Regional Synthesis Report for Africa

    TAP and its partners carried out regional surveys in Asia, Africa and Central America to assess priorities, capacities and needs in national agricultural innovation systems. This document provides a Regional synthesis report on capacity needs assessment for agricultural innovation in Africa.  FARA was selected as Recipient Organization by FAO to facilitate TAP implementation in Africa. This is mainly due to its position as the umbrella organization bringing together and forming coalitions of major regional stakeholders in agricultural research and development.  

  782. The Agribusiness Innovation Center of Mozambique

    In line with the government of Mozambique’s strategies, this document proposes an innovative model with high promise to develop value-adding market led post-harvest processing enterprises and to transform the post harvest-processing sector in Mozambique, while creating sustainable jobs and increasing incomes. The challenge is to ensure coordination across value chains to guarantee that the right conditions are in place for making the Agribusiness Innovation Center (AIC) a success.

  783. Farmers’ organizations and agricultural innovation: Case studies from Benin, Rwanda and Tanzania

    In-depth analysis of the role and capacity development needs of farmers organization in innovation processes, using the evidence from a number of case studies from contemporary SSA agriculture. Experiences indicate that Farmers’organizations (FOs) can play an important role in sharing knowledge-for-innovation by initiating multi-actor platforms for interactive learning and by implementing joint activity programmes (including use of the media) with extension services on a cost-sharing basis. A major challenge facing FOs is to develop sustainable funding mechanisms for these (farmer-led) initiatives.

  784. Natural Resource Management in West Africa Towards a knowledge management strategy

    Society’s learning capacity in the field of sustainable land resource management is at stake and more emphasis on knowledge management is needed to guarantee that the accumulated knowledge is shared in such a way that the right actors have appropriate knowledge at the right time to take the best decisions. Efficient policies governing structures for national and regional knowledge management need to be formulated and the working procedures of the various actors in the field need to be defined more sharply. The question is, how can this be achieved in the current situation in West Africa, with its multitude of actors working in rural development? This book aims to help find answers to this question. For that purpose four groups active in managing knowledge on land resources in West Africa have been asked to write up their personal experiences and reflect on how they see their ‘knowledge management’ activities (even if they did not call them that at the time). Based on these contributions we discuss the question of ‘how we can build a knowledge management strategy in the region’?

  785. Institutional Constraints to Agriculture Development in Uganda

    Since the early 1990s, Uganda has implemented a number of reforms in the agricultural sector. However, in the past 10 years, the performance of the sector has lagged behind other sectors particularly services and industry. There are concerns among researchers and policy analysts that institutional constraints in agriculture play a central role in the lacklustre agricultural performance registered during the 2000s. This study examines the institutional constraints affecting agricultural production in Uganda. We recommend reforming the land tenure system as well as the architecture of the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries as means of dealing with the major constraints.

  786. Thirty years learning to improve rainwater and land management in the Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia

    The Nile Basin Development Challenge (Nile BDC) is funded by the CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF) to improve the resilience of rural livelihoods in the Ethiopian highlands through a landscape approach to rainwater management. The first project of the Program reviewed past research and development experiences with sustainable land and water management in Ethiopia. This brief summarizes key points from the study, which approached the subject from a broadly historical perspective, tracing changes in policies and strategies from the 1970s to the present.

  787. Agricultural Innovation in a changing Ethiopian context: the case of dairy farming and business in the Addis Ababa milk shed, Ethiopia

    This Doctoral thesis analyzes the Ethiopian agricultural innovation, in particular the case of dairy farming and business in the Addis Ababa milk shed. The innovation capacity assessment model is used to develop the methodology of this study. Data collection, guided by the key components of the innovation system framework, include sector mapping, historical evolution of the sector, resource base analysis, interactions between actors, the policy environment, habits and practices, and resilient features and leverage points. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for data collection and analysis within this framework. Key-informant interviews, questionnaire surveys, document review and consultative workshops were the main methods used to generate data. For quantitative data analysis, SPSS software was used, while the qualitative data were analyzed using tools such as systems drawing, linkage matrix, typology of linkages, habits and practice analysis, and content analysis. The lessons learned from history were used to identify key leverage points and formulate recommendations for innovation. Analysis considered dairy resources such as land, feed, genetic resources and services. The current system was compared to the previous regime in relation to how dairy innovation was affected.

  788. Social innovations triggered by videos: Evidence from Mali

    Since 2012, hundreds of organisations across West Africa have shown a series of ten videos on Fighting striga and improving soil fertility to farmer groups and rural communities. This paper asks if a village would change its social structure just because they watched these videos? Field research in Mali revealed that the answer is yes, sometimes, especially if they watched the videos in groups and saw other farmers in the videos doing group activities.

  789. Plantwise: Putting innovation systems principles into practice

    CABI’s Plantwise programme runs local plant clinics in 24 countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America where trained ‘plant doctors’ provide on-the-spot diagnosis and advice for farmers who bring samples to the clinics. A database that records each consultation and shares knowledge across clinics and countries continually builds the ability of the programme to respond to farmers’ needs. The programme embodies key principles of an innovation systems approach. Systems diagnosis, building networks and linkages, balancing supply push with demand pull, strengthening the role of intermediaries, and experimenting and learning are among the features which ensure the programme continually evolves to meet emerging needs and challenges. As well as providing a valuable service to smallholder farmers, enriching their ability to address production constraints, the sharing of lessons among stakeholders is having a positive overall effect on national plant health systems.

  790. Mobilizing the potential of rural and agricultural extension

    This paper presents an overview of current opportunities and challenges facing efforts to increase the impact of rural and agricultural extension. The starting point for this analysis is in recognition that the days when agricultural extension was synonymous with the work of public sector agencies are over. The extension services described here may just as likely consist of an input vendor advising a farmer about what seed to plant, a television station broadcasting a weather forecast, a supermarket advising traders about what standards are required for the vegetables they purchase or a farmer organization lobbying for research that reflects the demands of its members for new technologies. Mobilizing the potential of extension is about enhancing this broad and complex flow of information and advice in the agrifood sector. This paper outlines the potential role of extension in achieving the aims of the L'Aquila Food Security Initiative, which has mobilized a massive international commitment to enhancing food security. 

  791. Field testing an econometric conceptual framework for innovation platform impact assessment: The Case of MilkIT Dairy Platforms in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    This article studies the impact of innovation platforms in Tanga Region, Tanzania, set up by the MilkIT dairy development project to intensify smallholder production through feed enhancement and value chain approaches. The conceptual framework used builds up from three socio-economic theories. The Structure-Conduct-Performance model of markets contributes its elegant assumption, linking the way markets are organized with how market actors behave, which has an influence on market performance. The framework is transposed to study innovation platforms, which can be envisaged as market-enhancing institutions, according to New Institutional Economics, the second theory also contributing notions of transaction costs to the framework. The final theoretical contribution comes from business relationship marketing with its field-tested constructs for supply chain performance. This new conceptual framework applied to innovation platforms posits that the structure of the platform (how it is organized) has an impact on its members’ conduct (how they communicate and share information), which in turn influences platform performance targeted by members (feed availability and accessibility).

  792. Innovation systems and institutional change

    Based on international literature, preliminary experiences in a three-country West African research programme, and on the disappointing impact of agricultural research on African farm innovation, the current paper argues that institutional change demands rethinking the pathways to innovation so as to acknowledge the role of rules, distribution of power and wealth, interaction and positions. The time is opportune: climate change, food insecurity, high food prices and concomitant riots are turning national food production into a political issue also for African leaders. The paper presents innovation systems as an approach to institutional change based on learning, new patterns of interaction and new configurations of key actors. Institutions are embedded in local history and contexts and must emerge from them. Rather than as a tool for promoting technology, extension can more usefully be deployed to facilitate innovation system dynamics that accompany investment in stakeholder interaction.

  793. Africa Capacity Indicators 2012: Capacity Development for Agricultural Transformation and Food Security

    The Africa Capacity Indicators 2012 Report (2012A CIR) seeks to address the issues of capacity development on the African continent, building on the dialogue stemming from the inaugural 2011 ACIR and linking this to a very pertinent issue facing Africa today – agricultural transformation and food security. The Report  does not only identify the underlying capacity challenges facing Africa. It also attempts to help Africa redefine its post-colonial agricultural landscape and more importantly prescribes policy-relevant solutions and recommendations informed by country-specific ground truths. The report triangulates field surveys from forty-two African nations with thematically driven commissioned studies whilst interrogating the broader extant literature to collaborate or contradict its findings.

  794. Performance Indicators for Agricultural Innovation Systems in the ACP Region

    This synthesis report presents the outputs of the workshop organised by CTA at its headquarters in Wageningen, The Netherlands, 15-17 July 2008.  The outputs are presented in two main parts, each corresponding to one of the workshop objectives, and ends with a section on the way forward as suggested by the workshop participants. It also includes a first attempt to come to a consolidated generic framework on AIS performance indicators, based on the outputs of the different working groups. This is improved on the basis of feedback from workshop participants and their partners in ACP-countries and Europe during subsequent meetings and support for case studies on monitoring and evaluating contributions to innovation performance. The workshop involved 22 experts from 11 ACP countries, France and The Netherlands. CTA plans to organise follow-up workshops and support case studies to develop the process. 

  795. Report: Creating Wealth with Seed Potatoes in Ethiopia

    This briefing note highlights the major findings of the project 'Wealth creation through integrated development of potato production’, which has brought a wide range of positive livelihood changes for potato farmers in the highlands of Ethiopia. The project began in 2008 and was aimed at addressing constraints faced by potato producers in Ethiopia and improving the wealth and livelihoods of potato producers. This briefing note summarizes the findings in relation to the OECD DAC principles for evaluating development assistance: relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability. Overall, the project was scored very highly on relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and impact, and moderately on sustainability, for which challenges remain. 


  796. Strenghtening Organizational Capacity to Enhance Community Food Security

    This study demonstrates the practical application of Catholic Relief Service (CRS)' partnership principles. CRS Niger and CADEV Niger (Caritas Niger), with the support of USAID's Food for Peace program, worked together to identify areas of CADEV Niger's organizational strengthening plan for CADEV Niger's human, material, and financial management, its institutional framework, and its access to and use of management tools. CADEV Niger, with CRS support, also worked to increase the capacity of field agents and volunteers, while simultaneously increasing the involvement of community members.

  797. Status of Agricultural Extension and Rural Advisory Services Worldwide Summary Report

    The Worldwide Extension Study provides empirical data on the human and financial resources of agricultural extension and advisory systems worldwide, as well as other important information on: the primary extension service providers in each country (e.g.: public, private and/or non-governmental); which types and groups of farmers are the primary target groups (e.g.: large, medium, and/or small-scale farmers, including rural women) for each extension organization; how each organization’s resources are allocated to key extension and advisory service functions; each organization’s information and communication technology resources and capacity; and what role, if any, different categories of farmers play in setting extension’s priorities and/or assessing performance.The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), working in collaboration with the University of Illinois (UIUC), FAO, and the Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services (GFRAS), developed the Worldwide Extension Study database as part of the assessment of the status of agricultural extension and advisory services worldwide between 2009-2013. 

  798. Enhanced learning from multi-stakeholder partnerships: Lessons from the Enabling Rural Innovation in Africa programme

    Despite increasing interest and support for multi-stakeholder partnerships, empirical applications of participatory evaluation approaches to enhance learning from partnerships are either uncommon or undocumented. This paper draws lessons on the use of participatory self-reflective approaches that facilitate structured learning on processes and outcomes of partnerships. Such practice is important to building partnerships, because it helps partners understand how they can develop more collaborative and responsive ways of managing partnerships. The paper is based on experience with the Enabling Rural Innovation (ERI) in Africa programme. Results highlight the dynamic process of partnership formation and the key elements that contribute to success. These include: (i) shared vision and complementarity, (ii) consistent support from senior leadership; (iii) evidence of institutional and individual benefits; (iv) investments in human and social capital; (v) joint resources mobilization. However, key challenges require coping with high staff turnover and over-commitment, conflicting personalities and institutional differences, high transaction costs, and sustaining partnerships with the private business sector. The paper suggests that institutionalizing multi-stakeholder partnerships requires participatory reflective practices that help structure and enhance learning, and incrementally help in building the capacity of research and development organisations to partner better and ultimately to innovate.

  799. Innovation through action - An action research journey with smallholder farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa: experiences of soil fertility management

    This chapter documents the learning process within the framework of innovation of soil fertility management practices that emerged from the implementation of Participatory Extension Approach (PEA) as part of service delivery reorientation within the Limpopo Department of Agriculture in South Africa.The chapter gives a narrative description of what transpired during the interaction between researchers, extension officers and farmers, the processes involved, the lessons and the conclusion.

  800. Agribusiness and Innovation Systems in Africa

    This book examines how agricultural innovation arises in four African countries – Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda – through the lens of agribusiness, public policies, and specific value chains for food staples, high value products, and livestock. Determinants of innovation are not viewed individually but within the context of a complex agricultural innovation system involving many actors and interactions. The volume is based on qualitative interviews with agribusiness representatives that were designed to shed light on their experiences on public policies that either enhances or impedes innovation in Africa’s agriculture sector .

  801. Strengthening Organizational Capacity to Enhance Community Food Security

    This study demonstrates the practical application of CRS' partnership principles. CRS Niger and CADEV Niger (Caritas Niger), with the support of USAID's Food for Peace program, worked together to identify areas of CADEV Niger's organizational strengthening plan for CADEV Niger's human, material, and financial management, its institutional framework, and its access to and use of management tools. CADEV Niger, with CRS support, also worked to increase the capacity of field agents and volunteers, while simultaneously increasing the involvement of community members.

  802. The Role of Agricultural R&D Within the Agricultural Innovation Systems Framework

    This paper traces the evolution of the innovation systems framework within the agricultural sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, and presents a conceptual framework for agricultural innovation systems. The difference between innovation ecology/ecosystems and intervention-based innovations systems is highlighted, given that these two concepts are used at different levels in promoting and sustaining agricultural innovations. The role of open innovation, innovation platforms, and innovation intermediaries in catalyzing, enhancing, and facilitating the innovation process are discussed, as is the role of R&D in the innovation process. The paper goes on to consider the interconnectedness of the innovation systems perspective and value chain analysis in agricultural R&D processes, before summarizing the current status of agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa, lessons from past experience,and implications and key challenges confronting development practitioners in institutionalizing the agricultural innovation systems concept within the agricultural R&D in the region. Finally, some key conclusions and areas for investment are presented.

  803. The functions of facilitation in multi-stakeholder learning: lessons learned from capacity development on value chains management in innovation platforms in Burkina Faso and Ghana

    Innovation platforms are groups of individuals or stakeholder representatives with different backgrounds and interests. They come together to diagnose problems, identify opportunities, and find ways to achieve their goals. When innovation platforms are set up by development projects, their processes are usually facilitated by the support organization. This short story presents how the author’s facilitation allowed the multiple stakeholders within local community innovation platforms supported by a project in Ghana and Burkina Faso to share experiences and knowledge so as to develop their respective capacities in value chains’ management and analysis. The main lesson from this story is that when facilitation by the support organization effectively supports learning processes by the stakeholders, it helps bring about recognition that commitment and communication are essential to help smallholders benefit from value chains and the subsequent engagement of all stakeholders in a continuous learning process. In time, the members of the innovation platform will take the responsibility to carry out further knowledge sharing activities without project support

  804. FairTrade’s theory of change: an evaluation based on the cooperative life cycle framework and mixed methods

    This study presents a quasi-experimental analysis of the impact of FairTrade certification on the commercial performance of coffee farmers in Tanzania. In doing so the study emphasises the importance of a well-contextualised theory of change as a basis for evaluation design. It also stresses the value of qualitative methods to control for selection bias. Based on a longitudinal (pseudo-panel) dataset comprising both certified and conventional farmers, it shows that FairTrade certification introduced a disincentive to farmers’ commercialisation. We explain this counterintuitive conclusion on the basis of the ‘cooperative life cycle’ theory developed by US agribusiness scholars.

  805. Agricultural Information Management

    This briefing paper aims to raise debate about agricultural information management (AIM) in the CORAF region. It draws attention to initiatives concerned with AIM and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from global to local levels. Using these examples, we pose questions as to what AIM is, highlight some key dilemmas, and some promising initiatives that may provide inspiration for debate about information in development. The paper is part of the SCARDA Inception Report Volume 3. Briefing Paper, FARA (Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa), Accra, Ghana (2008).

  806. The Difficult Art of Partnership and Institutional Commitment

    This paper looks at two aspects of institutional development in a university setting. It looks at how the design of South – North collaboration may have a bearing on the type of partnership that evolves. And it addresses the issue of how institutional commitment influences the depth and intensity of change processes. The paper will firstly examine the underlying assumptions that guide designs of South – North collaboration and how both deliberate and unintended consequences may influence the nature of the partnership between the involved institutions, especially while evolving and expanding such partnerships. The paper will also address the issue of institutional commitment as the impact of partnerships to a large degree depends on the breadth and depth of the institutional commitment. The aim is to identify the essential elements of institutional commitment in successful partnerships for institutional change. Finally, it will provide recommendations for best practise in establishing partnerships with institutional commitment within the university sector.

  807. SCARDA Change Management Approaches Used in the Project ‘Strengthening Capacity For Agricultural Research and Development In Africa’ and the Lessons Learned from their Application

    This article reviews the approaches proposed by SCARDA to address capacity strengthening for research management, how implementation took place and the lessons learned from the implementation activities. It begins with an overview of the intended project outputs and approach to capacity strengthening, followed by the implementation processes as undertaken in each sub-regional organisation and finishes with the lessons learned.

  808. Adapting to climate change through land and water management in Eastern Africa

    This publication presents the results and lessons learned from the FAO-Sida supported pilot project “Strengthening capacity for climate change adaptation in land and water management” in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. The project proposed an integrated package of approaches that addressed the drivers of vulnerability and targeted climate change impacts. It focused on technologies that improve soil health and facilitate water conservation, the diversification of the sources of livelihood and income, and the strengthening of local institutions. The publication describes a series of pilot activities that successfully contributed to enhanced resilience of farming communities and offer substantial opportunities for up scaling. This experience shows that a boost in investment is needed to ensure a more sustainable and resilient management of an already declining resource base, and that adapting to climate change in the region will require renewed efforts in improving land and water management through supportive policies, capacity development and targeted investments.

  809. Appropriate seed varieties for small-scale farmers: key practices for DRR implementers

    This brief is part of the series, A Field Guide for Disaster Risk Reduction in Southern Africa: Key Practices for DRR Implementers, coordinated by the FAO Subregional Office for Disaster Risk Reduction/Management for Southern Africa. The objective of this technical brief is to provide concise and clear descriptions of the key aspects for the promotion of quality seed of appropriate varieties for use by small-scale farmers, in the context of the disaster risk reduction/management (DRR/M) activities in the southern African region.

  810. The role of women producer organizations in agricultural value chains. Practical lessons from Africa to India

    This report is based on the outputs of a one week Exposure and Exchange Programme (EEP) in India hosted by the Self-employed Women’s Association (SEWA) with African women leaders of producer organizations from West and Central Africa. This report critically evaluates the SEWA model and draws conclusions relevant to African women producers organizations to better meet the challenges of raising Africa’s agricultural potential, improve incomes for small farmers, and ensure greater food security.

  811. Development of Business Capacity and Organisation of Commercial Business of Farmer Based Organisations in the West Maprusi Distict in the Northern Intervention Zone in Ghana

    This paper presents an analysis of stage 1 training service provided in the Northern Horticultural Zone to nine Farmer Based Organisations (FBO’s) in the West Mamprusi District of the Northern Region in Business Capacity Building from October, 2008 to December, 2010. Farmer Based Organisations (FBO’s) of 450 farmers consisting of 65.10% males and 34.90% females were trained by the authors under the Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) Agricultural Project. The FBO’s were trained on nine modules in Business Capacity Building and five modules on Organisation of Commercial Business over a period of six weeks. Nine Action Business Plans were developed for the nine FBO’s to access financial support from the MiDA participating financial institutions in the horticultural zone for the commercial development of the farmers’ organisations.

  812. The Forum for Sustainable Agriculture in Africa: Genesis, Operations, and Future Prospects

    The slow rate of agricultural development in Africa can largely be blamed on lack of functional relationships between technology/innovation generation centers, local farming communities, financial institutions and markets. The result has been low penetration of promising innovations/technologies thus, low adoption levels and/ or partial adoption; and limited or no access to markets and financial services by farmers. In general, most of the innovation/technologies developed have not been extensively out-scaled; some of which are not even packaged in user friendly formats. The Forum for Sustainable Agriculture in Africa (FOSAA) believes that scientific and/or technological innovations have a greater chance of going to scale and achieving global impact if they are developed from the onset with appropriate social and business innovations—an approach that we call integrated growth. Therefore, FOSAA intends to establish and manage innovation/technology incubation centers in collaboration with knowledge institutions (Universities/ colleges; research institutions; farmer organisations and the private sector) as a mechanism for enhancing agricultural intensification. To emphasise the requisite business innovation, FOSSA will liaise with other stakeholders to reduce agricultural production and price risks caused by climatic changes (weather index insurers) and market distortions (guarantee schemes), respectively. Further, these incubation centers will also act as agribusiness training/resource centers where a multi-structured programme that includes farm enterprise selection, resource mobilisation and utilisation, routine market assessment and business negotiation skills, record keeping and financial management, risk prediction and management, value addition, carbon foot- printing and team building will be managed.

  813. Prospects of Agricultural Development in Africa: Implications for Agricultural Education and Training

    How can education and training contribute to Africa’s agricultural growth potential? This paper examines the role of education to increased agricultural productivity and the key areas in which education and training policies, reforms, programmes and investments combine to set Africa firmly on the path to sustainable agricultural development.

  814. An Innovation Platform for Small Livestock in Botswana

    This paper illustrates the Small Stock Innovation Platform, an initiative which is one of the key tangible outcomes of the Strengthening Capacity in Agricultural Research for Development in Africa (SCARDA) program, focused on strengthening capacity in agricultural research systems in selected countries and institutions in all three sub-regions of Sub Saharan Africa.